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Languages of Micronesia

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Federated States of Micronesia. Formerly part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 110,000. National or official languages: Chuukese, Kosraean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, English. Includes states of Yap, Chuuk (Truk), Pohnpei (Ponape), and Kosrae (Kusaie). 607 islands. Literacy rate: 85%. Immigrant languages: Japanese. Also includes Chinese. Information mainly from B. Bender 1996; J. Ellis 1996; K. Rehg 1996. The number of individual languages listed for Micronesia is 18. Of those, all are living languages.
Chuukese

[chk] 45,900 in Micronesia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 48,170. Chuuk Lagoon, Caroline Islands, some on Ponape. Also in Guam, United States. Alternate names: Chuuk, Lagoon Chuukese, Ruk, Truk, Trukese.  Dialects: East Lagoon, Fayichuck.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic 
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English

[eng] 5,340 in Micronesia (2000).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Kapingamarangi

[kpg] 3,000 (1995 SIL). 1,500 on Kapingamarangi and 1,500 in Porakiet village on Ponape. Kapingamarangi and Ponape islands, Caroline Islands. Alternate names: Kirinit.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 55% with Nukuoro [nkr], 54% with Rarotongan [rar], 53% with Samoan [smo], 51% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 50% with Tahitian [tah].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean 
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Kosraean

[kos] 8,000 in Micronesia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 8,570. Kusaie Island, Caroline Islands. Also in Nauru, United States. Alternate names: Kosrae, Kusaie.  Dialects: Lelu-Tafunsak, Malen-Utwe. Lexical similarity: 26% with Pohnapeian [pon].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Kusaiean 
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Mokilese

[mkj] 1,050 in Micronesia (1979 B. Bender). Fewer than 500 on Mokil Atoll. Population total all countries: 1,230. Mokil (Mwoakiloa) Atoll, east of Carolines, and Pohnpei Island. Also in United States. Alternate names: Mokil, Mwoakilese, Mwoakiloa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 79% with Pingelapese [pif], 75% with Pohnapeian [pon].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Ponapeic 
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Mortlockese

[mrl] 5,900 (1989 census). 1,692 Upper Mortlock, 1,757 Mid Mortlock, 2,455 Lower Mortlock, about 1,000 elsewhere. Mortlock Islands, southeast of Truk, Caroline Islands. Lower Mortlock on Ponape Island. Alternate names: Mortlock, Nomoi.  Dialects: Upper Mortlock, Mid Mortlock, Lower Mortlock. 75% intelligibility with Puluwatese [puw], 18% with Satawalese [stw], 8% with Woleaian [woe]. Lexical similarity: 80%–85% with Chuukese [chk], 83% with Puluwatese, 82% with Satawalese, 81% with Carolinian [cal], 78% with Woleaian, 72% with Ulithian [uli].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic 
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Namonuito

[nmt] 940 (1989 census). Magur, Ono, Onari, Piserarh, Ulul islands, Carolines. Alternate names: Namon Weite.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic 
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Ngatik Men’s Creole

[ngm] 700. 500 on atoll (1983 Poyer), 200 on Ponape. Ngatik (Sapuahfik) Atoll, east of Caroline Islands. Alternate names: Ngatikese, Ngatikese Men’s Language.  Dialects: A creolized language from the Sapuahfik dialect of Pohnapeian [pon] and English whose genesis is the direct result of a massacre in 1837 of adult males on Ngatik by British traders.  Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific 
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Nguluwan

[nuw] 50 (Sakiyama 2000). Ngulu atoll, between Yap and Belau Islands. Dialects: Phonology from Ulithian [uli] and grammar and lexicon from Yapese [yap].  Classification: Mixed language, Yapese-Ulithi  Nearly extinct.
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Nukuoro

[nkr] 860 in Micronesia (Johnstone 1993). 125 on Ponape. Population total all countries: 900. Nukuoro Island, Caroline Islands. Also in United States. Alternate names: Nuguor, Nukoro.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 55% with Kapingamarangi [kpg].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean 
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Pááfang

[pfa] 1,320 (1989 census). Hall Islands (Nomwin, Fananu, Marilo, Ruo), Carolines. Dialects: Indications of convergence with Chuukese [chk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic 
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Pingelapese

[pif] 2,500 in Micronesia. 500 on Pingelap, about 2,000 on Ponape. Population total all countries: 3,000. Pingelap and Ponape. Also in Guam, United States. Alternate names: Pingelap, Pingilapese.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Pohnpeian [pon], 79% with Mokilese [mkj].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Ponapeic 
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Pohnpeian

[pon] 29,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). 24,000 on Pohnpei, 3,425 on outer islands, 275 elsewhere. Pohnpei Island, Caroline Islands. Alternate names: Ponapean.  Dialects: Kiti, Ponapean, Sapwuahfik. Lexical similarity: 81% with Pingelapese [pif], 75% with Mokilese [mkj], 36% with Chuukese [chk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Ponapeic 
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Puluwatese

[puw] 1,360 (1989 census). Polowat, Pollap, Houk (Pulusuk), and Tamtam islands, Carolines. Alternate names: Puluwat.  Dialects: Puluwatese, Pulapese, Pulusukese. 64% intelligibility with Satawalese [stw], 40% with Woleaian [woe], 21% with Ulithian [uli]. Lexical similarity: 88% with Satawalese and Carolinian [cal], 83% with Mortlockese [mrl], 82% with Woleaian, 81% with Chuukese [chk], 72% with Ulithian.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic 
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Satawalese

[stw] 460 (1987 Yap census). Satawal Island, Carolines. Dialects: 60% intelligibility with Ulithian [uli] and Woleaian [woe]. Lexical similarity: 95% with Carolinian [cal], 88% with Woleaian and Puluwatese [puw], 82% with Mortlockese [mrl], 79% with Chuukese [chk], 77% with Ulithian.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic 
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Ulithian

[uli] 3,000 in Micronesia (1987 UBS). Population total all countries: 3,075. Ulithi, Ngulu, Sorol, Fais islands, eastern Caroline Islands. Also in United States. Dialects: 85% intelligibility with Woleaian [woe], 57% with Satawalese [stw], very low intelligibility of Puluwatese [puw] and Chuukese [chk]. Lexical similarity: 74%–80% with Woleaian, 77% with Satawalese, 74% with Carolinian [cal], 72% with Puluwatese and Mortlockese [mrl], 68% with Chuukese.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic 
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Woleaian

[woe] 1,630 (1987 Yap census). Woleai (Wottegai), Falalus, Seliap (Sulywap), Falalop (Falalap), Tegailap (Tagalap), Paliau, Mariang, Eauripik, Faraulep, Elato, Lamotrek, Ifaluk islands, eastern Caroline Islands. The first 5 listed are inhabited. 22 islands total, Yap state. Dialects: Woleaian, Lamotrek. 84% intelligibility of Satawalese [stw], 81% of Ulithian [uli], 50% of Sonsorol [sov], very low of Puluwatese [puw] and Chuukese [chk]. Lexical similarity: 88% with Satawalese and Carolinian [cal], 82% with Puluwatese, 80% with Ulithian, 78% with Mortlockese [mrl], 75% with Chuukese.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic 
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Yapese

[yap] 6,590 in Micronesia (1987 Yap census). Population total all countries: 7,170. Caroline Islands, Yap Island, 10 islands. Also in United States. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Yapese 
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