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Languages of United Kingdom

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 60,425,000. National or official languages: English, Welsh, French (regional). Literacy rate: 97%–99%. Immigrant languages: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (5,000), Bengali (400,000), Eastern Panjabi (471,000), Estonian (14,000), Greek (200,000), Gujarati (140,000), Hakka Chinese (10,000), Hebrew (8,000), Hindi (240), Italian (200,000), Japanese (12,000), Judeo-Iraqi Arabic, Kashmiri (115,000), Kirmanjki, Latvian (12,000), Leeward Caribbean Creole English, Lithuanian, Malayalam (21,000), Maltese (40,900), Mandarin Chinese (12,000), Mirpur Panjabi (25,000), Morisyen (1,000), Moroccan Spoken Arabic (5,800), Northern Kurdish (23,800), Northern Pashto, Parsi (75,000), Portuguese (17,000), Seraiki, Shelta (30,000), Sindhi (25,000), Somali (1,600), Southern Pashto (87,000), Southwestern Caribbean Creole English (170,000), Sylheti (300,000), Tagalog (74,000), Ta’izzi-Adeni Spoken Arabic (29,000), Tamil, Turkish (60,000), Urdu (400,000), Vietnamese (22,000), Western Farsi (12,000), Western Panjabi (103,000), Yoruba (12,000), Yue Chinese (300,000). Also includes languages of Ghana, Nigeria, Guyana, West Indies. Information mainly from B. Comrie 1987; I. Hancock 1974, 1984, 1986; R. McCrum, W. Cran and R. MacNeil 1986; M. Stephens 1976. Blind population: 116,414. Deaf population: Estimates range from 909,000 to 3,524,725 (1998). Deaf institutions: 468 in England, 2 in Northern Ireland, 14 in Scotland, 34 in Wales. The number of individual languages listed for United Kingdom is 16. Of those, 12 are living languages, 2 are second languages without mother-tongue speakers, and 2 have no known speakers.
Angloromani

[rme] 90,000 in United Kingdom (1990 I. Hancock). Population total all countries: 202,900. England, Scotland, Wales. Also in Australia, South Africa, United States. Alternate names: English Romani, Pogadi Chib, Posh ‘N’ Posh, Romani English, Romanichal.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Welsh Romani [rmw], Traveller Swedish [rmu], Traveller Norwegian [rmg], or Traveller Danish [rmd]. Grammar English with heavy Romani lexical borrowing. Many dialects.  Classification: Mixed language, English-Romani 
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British Sign Language

[bfi] 40,000 L1 users (1984 M. Deuchar), out of 909,000 deaf; majority probably have some degree of sign language competence (Deuchar 1977). England, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Alternate names: BSL.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible to users of American Sign Language [ase]. Deaf community cohesive, so communication good despite regional differences. Signing varies along a continuum from something usually called “Signed English” (which draws on BSL vocabulary but uses grammatical structure like spoken English) to natural BSL. Different styles of signing used in different situations, and signers vary in terms of how much of the range of signing styles they control.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Cornish

[cor] Some under 20 years are L1 speakers. 500 use Cornish; about 100 others who speak fluently (2003). Ethnic population: 468,425 (1991 census). Southwest, Duchy of Cornwall. Alternate names: Curnoack, Kernewek, Kernowek.  Dialects: Related to Breton [bre], Welsh [cym], Gaulish (extinct), Irish Gaelic [gle], Manx Gaelic [glv] (extinct), Scottish Gaelic [gla].  Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic 
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English

[eng] 58,100,000 in United Kingdom (2005 Crystal). Population total all countries: 328,008,138. Also in American Samoa, Andorra, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Australia, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Finland, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guyana, Honduras, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia (Peninsular), Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Montserrat, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Zealand, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Pitcairn, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United States, U.S. Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Dialects: Cockney, Scouse, Geordie, West Country, East Anglia, Birmingham (Brummy, Brummie), South Wales, Edinburgh, Belfast, Cornwall, Cumberland, Central Cumberland, Devonshire, East Devonshire, Dorset, Durham, Bolton Lancashire, North Lancashire, Radcliffe Lancashire, Northumberland, Norfolk, Newcastle Northumberland, Tyneside Northumberland, Lowland Scottish, Somerset, Sussex, Westmorland, North Wiltshire, Craven Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, Sheffield Yorkshire, West Yorkshire. Many local English varieties around the world. Lexical similarity: 60% with German, 27% with French, 24% with Russian.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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French

[fra] 14,000 in United Kingdom (1976 Stephens). Channel Islands. Dialects: Jerriais, Dgernesiais.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Gaelic, Hiberno-Scottish

[ghc] Extinct. Ireland and Scotland. Alternate names: Gaoidhealg, Hiberno-Scottish Classical Common Gaelic.  Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic 
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Gaelic, Irish

[gle] 95,000 in United Kingdom (2004). Northern Ireland, Fermanagh and Armagh counties, Belfast. Alternate names: Erse, Gaeilge, Irish.  Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic 
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Gaelic, Scottish

[gla] 58,700 in United Kingdom (2003 census). Population total all countries: 66,780. North and central counties of Ross, islands of Hebrides and Skye, Glasgow. Also in Australia, Canada, United States. Alternate names: “Erse” , Gaelic, Scots Gaelic.  Dialects: The Gaelic of the Bible is based on Perthshire dialect of 1801, somewhat distant from today’s spoken dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic 
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Manx

[glv] Ethnic population: On the Isle of Man: 77,000 residents (1998 United Nations). Isle of Man. Alternate names: Gaelg, Gailck, Manx Gaelic.  Dialects: Similar to Scottish Gaelic [gla]. Part of British Isles, a Crown Dependency, with its own Parliament, laws, currency, and taxation The United Kingdom represents the Isle of Man at the United Nations.  Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic 
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Old Kentish Sign Language

[okl] Extinct. Kent. Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Polari

[pld]   Alternate names: Palari, Palarie, Parlare, Parlary, Parlyaree.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Romani, Vlax

[rmy] 4,100 in United Kingdom (2004).  Alternate names: Rom, Romenes, Tsigane.  Dialects: Kalderash, Lovari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax 
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Romani, Welsh

[rmw]  England and Wales. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Angloromani [rme].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern 
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Scots

[sco] 100,000 in United Kingdom (1999 B. Kay). 60,000 in Lallans, 30,000 in Doric, 10,000 in Ulster. Population total all countries: 200,000. Scotland except highlands; lowlands: Aberdeen to Ayrshire; Northern Ireland. Doric in northeast Scotland; Lallans in South Scotland lowlands; Ulster in Northern Ireland. Also in Ireland. Dialects: Doric, Lallans, Ulster. Difficult intelligibility among dialects. Northern Scots on the Scottish Islands is considered by some a different language (Shetlandic or Orcadian). Lallans is main literary dialect. Ulster Scots has a development group. Scots is most similar to English and Frisian.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Traveller Scottish

[trl] 4,000 in United Kingdom. Also in Australia, United States. Alternate names: Scottish Cant, Scottish Traveller Cant.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Welsh

[cym] 508,000 in United Kingdom (1991 census). 575,102 in 1971; 32,700 monolinguals, 542,402 bilinguals (1971 census). Population total all countries: 537,870. North, west, south Wales. Also in Argentina, Canada, United States. Alternate names: Cymraeg.  Dialects: Northern Welsh, Southern Welsh, Patagonian Welsh.  Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic 
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