Ethnologue.com home
Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Asia > Indonesia > Indonesia (Java and Bali)

Languages of Indonesia (Java and Bali)

See language map.
Indonesia (Java and Bali). 120,000,000 in Java (2003), 3,573,000 in Bali (2000 census). Immigrant languages: Dutch, Western Cham. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Java and Bali) is 21. Of those, 20 are living languages and 1 has no known speakers.
Badui

[bac] 20,000 (2000 census). West Java, Mount Kendeng, Kabupaten Rangkasbitung, Pandeglang, Sukabumi. Dialects: Sometimes considered a dialect of Sunda [sun].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, Sundanese 
More information.

Bali

[ban] 3,330,000 (2000 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Island of Bali, north Nusa Penida, west Lombok Islands, and east Java, South Sulawesi. Alternate names: Balinese.  Dialects: Lowland Bali (Klungkung, Karangasem, Buleleng, Gianyar, Tabanan, Jembrana, Badung), Highland Bali (“Bali Aga” ), Nusa Penida. Reportedly two distinct dialects. High Bali is used in religion, but those who can use it are diminishing. There are speech strata in several lowland varieties (1989 A. Clynes).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa 
More information.

Benkala Sign Language

[bqy] 41 (2007 SIL). Bali Island, Kabupaten District, Bengkala village. Classification: Deaf sign language  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Betawi

[bew] 2,700,000 (Johnstone 1993). Jakarta, Java. Alternate names: Batavi, Batawi, Betawi Malay, Jakarta Malay, Melayu Jakarte.  Dialects: A Malay-based creole quite distinct from both standard Indonesian [ind] and from other Malay-based pidgins and creoles. It evolved by the mid-19th century. Unique phonological, morphological, and lexical traits. Also influences from Peranakan Indonesian [pea] and Bali [bcp]. Often not intelligible to Indonesian speakers not familiar with it (Allen 1989).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade 
More information.

Chinese, Hakka

[hak] 640,000 in Indonesia (1982).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese, Mandarin

[cmn] 460,000 in Indonesia (1982). Scattered throughout Indonesia. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese, Min Dong

[cdo] 20,000 in Indonesia (1982).  Alternate names: Min Dong.  Dialects: Xinghua (Hsinghua).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese, Min Nan

[nan] 700,000 in Indonesia (1982). Pontianak (West Borneo) and elsewhere. Alternate names: Min Nan, Minnan.  Dialects: Fujian (Hokkien), Chaochow (Tiu Chiu).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese, Yue

[yue] 180,000 in Indonesia (1982).  Alternate names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Indonesian

[ind] 22,800,000 in Indonesia (2000). Population total all countries: 23,187,680. Widespread in Indonesia. Also in Netherlands, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, United States. Alternate names: Bahasa Indonesia.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
More information.

Indonesian Sign Language

[inl] Ethnic population: 2,000,000 deaf people (1993).  Classification: Deaf sign language 
More information.

Indonesian, Peranakan

[pea] 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East and central Java. Alternate names: Baba Indonesian, Chinese Indonesian, Peranakan.  Dialects: Based on Indonesian [ind] and Javanese [jav], with Mandarin elements in contrast to Baba Malay [mbf], which has Hokkien (Chinese, Min Nan [nan]) elements.  Classification: Creole, Malay based 
More information.

Javanese

[jav] 84,300,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 25,000 in south Sulawesi, and 69,000,000 on Java, 500,000 of them being in Banten region and 2,500,000 in Cirebon region of Java. Population total all countries: 84,608,470. Central Java, east third of west Java, southwest half of east Java. Resettlements in Papua, Sulawesi, Maluku, Kalimantan, and Sumatra. Also in Malaysia (Sabah), Netherlands, Singapore, United States. Alternate names: Djawa, Jawa.  Dialects: Jawa Halus, Cirebon (Tjirebon, Cheribon), Tegal, Indramayu, Solo, Tembung, Pasisir, Surabaya, Malang-Pasuruan, Banten, Manuk, Banten, Cirebon, Tegal, Solo, Surabaya, Malang-Pasuruan. High Javanese (Jawa Halus) is the language of religion, but the number of people that can use that variety is mostly limited to Central Javanese speakers and diminishing. The Javanese varieties in Suriname and in New Caledonia have changed sufficiently to be only partially intelligible with difficulty. Javanese in New Caledonia are reported to not be able to use High Javanese (Koentjaraninggrat 1971). Several dialects in Sabah.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese 
More information.

Javindo

[jvd] Extinct. Central Java. Alternate names: “Krontjong”.  Dialects: Derived from Dutch lexicon and Javanese grammar.  Classification: Creole, Dutch based 
More information.

Kangean

[kkv] 110,000 (2000 census). East Madura area. Dialects: Barely intelligible with East Madura. A separate language (Stevens 1968). Lexical similarity: 75% with Madura [mad].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, Madurese 
More information.

Madura

[mad] 13,600,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 86,000 Bawean. Population total all countries: 13,600,900. North coastal area of east Java, Sapudi Islands, Madura Island. Also in Singapore. Alternate names: Basa Mathura, Madhura, Madurese.  Dialects: Bawean (Boyanese), Bangkalan (Bangkalon), Pamekesan (Pamekasan), Sampang, Sapudi, Sumenep. Dialect continuum. Reports differ about inherent intelligibility among dialects: some Sumenep and Sampang report they cannot understand Pamekasan or Sumenep. Difficult intelligibility with Kangean [kkv]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kangean.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, Madurese 
More information.

Malay, Balinese

[mhp] 25,000 (2000 census). Bali. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade 
More information.

Osing

[osi] 300,000 (2000 census). East Java, east and northeast coast. Alternate names: Banyuwangi.  Dialects: Related to East Javanese.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese 
More information.

Petjo

[pey]  Java, Djakarta (Batavia). Alternate names: Pecok, Petjoh.  Dialects: Influences from Dutch [nld], Javanese [jav], Betawi [bew].  Classification: Creole, Dutch based 
More information.

Sunda

[sun] 34,000,000 (2000 census). Java, western third of the island. Alternate names: Priangan, Sundanese.  Dialects: Bogor (Krawang), Pringan, Cirebon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, Sundanese 
More information.

Tengger

[tes] 80,000 (2000 census). East Java, Tengger-Semeru massif and slopes of Mt. Bromo. Alternate names: Tenggerese.  Dialects: May be marginally intelligible with Javanese [jav].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese 
More information.