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Languages of Indonesia (Maluku)

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Indonesia (Maluku). 2,549,454 (2000 census). Information mainly from R. Bolton 1989, 1990; J. Collins 1983; B. D. Grimes 1994; C. Grimes 1995, 2000; C. and B. D. Grimes 1983; K. Polman 1981; M. Taber 1993; P. Taylor 1991; E. Travis 1986; K. Whinnom 1956. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Maluku) is 132. Of those, 128 are living languages and 4 have no known speakers.
Alune

[alp] 17,200 (2000). Central Maluku, west Seram, Seram Barat District, 5 villages; Kairatu, Taniwel districts, 22 villages. Alternate names: Patasiwa Alfoeren, Sapalewa.  Dialects: Kairatu, Central West Alune (Niniari-Piru-Riring-Lumoli), South Alune (Rambatu-Manussa-Rumberu), North Coastal Alune (Nikulkan-Murnaten-Wakolo), Central East Alune (Buriah-Weth-Laturake). Rambatu dialect reportedly prestigious. Kawe [kgb] may be a dialect. Related to Naka’ela [nae] and Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs]. Lexical similarity: 77%–91% among dialects, 64% with Lisabata-Nuniali, 63% with Hulung [huk] and Naka’ela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai 
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Amahai

[amq] 50 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku, southwest Seram. 4 villages near Masohi. Alternate names: Amahei.  Dialects: Makariki, Rutah, Soahuku. Language subgroup with Iha [ihp] and Kaibobo [kzb]. Also related to Elpaputih [elp] and Nusa Laut [nul]. Lexical similarity: 87% between dialects Makariki and Rutah villages; probably 2 languages, 59%-69% with Saparua [spr], 59% with Kamarian [kzx], 58% with Kaibobo, 52% with Piru [ppr], Luhu [lcq], and Hulung [huk], 50% with Alune [alp], 49% with Naka’ela [nae], 47% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs] and South Wemale [tlw], 45% with North Wemale [weo] and Nuaulu, 44% with Boano [bzn] and Saleman [sau].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi  Nearly extinct.
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Ambelau

[amv] 5,700 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,700. Central Maluku, Ambelau Island off southeast coast of Buru Island; Buru coast, Wae Tawa village, opposite Ambelau. 8 villages. Alternate names: Amblau.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Buru [mhs].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Ambelau 
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Aputai

[apx] 150 (Hinton 1990). North central Wetar coast, southwest Maluku, Ilputih village; south central Wetar coast, Lurang village. Alternate names: Ilputih, Opotai, Tutunohan.  Dialects: Ilputih, Lurang, Welemur. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects, 79% with Perai [wet], 74% with Tugun [tzn], 69% with Ili’uun [ilu], 57% with Talur [ilw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, North, Wetar 
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Asilulu

[asl] 8,760 (1987 SIL). Northwest Ambon Island, Asilulu, Ureng, Negeri Lima villages; some in West Seram, Hoamoal Peninsula, south coast. Dialects: Asilulu, Ureng, Negeri Lima (Lima, Henalima). Lexical similarity: 88% between Asilulu and the Negeri Lima dialect, 78%–82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 72%–73% with the Wakal dialect of Hitu [htu], 67%–72% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo], 71%–73% with Luhu [lcq] on Seram.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu 
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Babar, North

[bcd] 1,000 (2007 SIL). South Maluku, northeast Babar Island, east of Timor, Ilwiara, Nakarhamto, Yatoke villages. Dialects: Reported dialect variation.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North 
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Babar, Southeast

[vbb] 4,460 (2007 SIL). South Maluku, southeast Babar Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar 
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Banda

[bnd] 3,000 (1987 SIL). South Maluku, Kei Islands, west and northeast side of Kei Besar Island, Banda-Eli and Banda-Elat villages, possibly another village. Dialects: Eli, Elat. Different from other languages of south Maluku.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser 
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Barakai

[baj] 4,300 (1995 SIL). South Maluku; Barakai Island, Longgar, Apara, Bemun, and Mesiang; southeast Aru Islands; Gomo-Gomo Island northeast of Barakai. Alternate names: Workai.  Dialects: Barakai, Mesiang. Similar to Karey [kyd]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Batuley [bay].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Bati

[bvt] 3,500 (Loski 1989). Coastal east Seram Island between Kian Darat and Keleser, and inland. Alternate names: Gah.  Dialects: Related to Geser-Gorom [ges], Watubela [wah].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom 
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Batuley

[bay] 3,840 (1995 SIL). South Maluku, off the east coast of Wokam Island. 7 villages in Aru on small islands. Alternate names: Gwataley, Watulai.  Dialects: Related to Kompane [kvp] to the north and Lola [lcd] to the south, slightly more distant from Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Barakai [baj] and Karey [kyd], 81% with Mariri [mqi].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Benggoi

[bgy] 350 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, Werinama and Bula districts, east Seram, north coast, Benggoi, Balakeo, Lesa villages. Alternate names: Bengoi, Isal, Kobi-Benggoi, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei-Kaclakin, Uhei-Kahlakim.  Dialects: Lesa, Benggoi, Balakeo. Lexical similarity: 70% among ‘dialects’; 54% to 66% with Liana-Seti [ste], 46%–50% with Salas Gunung dialect [sgu], 32%–46% with Manusela [wha].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti 
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Boano

[bzn] 3,240 (1982). Central Maluku, Boano Island west of Seram, mainly North Buano village. Alternate names: Buano.  Dialects: Related to Larike-Wakasihu [alo]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Luhu [lcq], 61% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal, East 
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Bobot

[bty] 4,500 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, southeast Seram, Werinama District, from Atiahu village to Kota Baru, and Tunsai village in Liana area. Alternate names: Ahtiago, Atiahu, Hatumeten, Ntau, Werinama.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 44% with Sepa [spb] and Teluti [tlt], 42% with Yalahatan [jal].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Bobot 
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Buli

[bzq] 2,520 (2000). North Maluku, central Halmahera, east coast. 3 villages. Dialects: Buli, Wayamli (Wajamli, Jawanli).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast 
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Buru

[mhs] 33,000 in Indonesia (1989 SIL). 6,622 Wae Sama, 9,600 Masarete, 14,258 Rana, 500 Fogi, and 2,000 in Ambon. Central Maluku, Ambon, Jakarta, south, southeast, and central Buru Island. 70 villages. Also in Netherlands. Alternate names: Boeroe, Buruese.  Dialects: Masarete (South Buru), Wae Sama (Waesama), Central Buru (Rana, Wae Geren, Wae Kabo), Fogi (Li Emteban, Tomahu). Li Garan is a special taboo dialect spoken by the Rana people (3,000 to 5,000 users). Ethnic population Fogi dialect: 500, but no remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 90% between Masarete and Wae Sama dialects, 88% between Masarete and Rana, 80% between Wae Sama and Rana, 68% between Lisela [lcl] and Masarete, 48% between Leliali dialect of Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete, 45% between Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete, 44% between Ambelau [amv] and Masarete, 27%–33% between Buru dialects and Sula [szn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru 
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Dai

[dij] 820 (2007 SIL). Dai Island, Sinairusi, Lewa, Hertuti villages, Sinairusi Kecil hamlet. Dialects: No dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 72% with Dawera-Daweloor (most similar) [ddw], 71% with Nakarahamto, 49% with Masela-South Babar, 48% with Tepa (Luang).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North 
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Damar, East

[dmr] 2,800 (1990 SIL). South Maluku, north of eastern tip of Timor Island, east side of Damar Island, 6 villages, and east of Roma Island. Alternate names: South Damar.  Dialects: Not intelligible with West Damar [drn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, East, East Damar 
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Damar, West

[drn] 800 (1987 SIL). South Maluku, north of the eastern tip of Timor Island, north side of Damar Island, 2 villages. Alternate names: North Damar.  Dialects: Not intelligible with East Damar [dmr].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, West Damar 
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Dawera-Daweloor

[ddw] 1,270 (2007 SIL). South Maluku, Dawelor Island, Wiratan, Watuwei and Nurnyaman; Dawera Island, Welora, Letmasa and Ilmarang northeast of Babar Island. Alternate names: Davelor.  Dialects: Minor dialect differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North 
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Dobel

[kvo] 8,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 6,500 plus 1,000 outside the area; 2,700 in Northern Dobel, 1,800 in Straits Dobel, 1,400 in Southeast Dobel. Southeast Maluku, Aru Islands, entire east coast of Kobror Island, 1 village in southeast Wokam Island, 4 villages eastern half of Barakai Strait (Kobror and Koba Islands), 2 villages in central Kobror Island. 18 villages. Also Dobo and Ambon. Alternate names: Doibel, Kobro’or, Kobroor, Sersifar Tannin.  Dialects: Northern Dobel, Straits Dobel, Southeast Dobel. At least 3 dialects. Related to Lola [lcd], Lorang [lrn]. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% with Koba [kpd].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Elpaputih

[elp] 420 (2000). Central Maluku, West Seram. Alternate names: Elpaputi.  Dialects: Most similar to Nusa Laut [nul], Amahai [amq].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi 
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Emplawas

[emw] 250 (2007 SIL). South Maluku, southwest Babar Island, Emplawas village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar  Nearly extinct.
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Fordata

[frd] 50,000 (Marshall 2000). 25,000 in the language area and 25,000 elsewhere (Marshall 2000). Southeast Maluku, north Tanimbar Islands of the Fordata, Larat, the Molu-Maru group, a few villages on the northwest part of Yamdena, and on Seira off the west coast of Yamdena. 30 villages. Also Saumlaki, Ambon, Tual, Sorong, Hayapura, Jakarta. Alternate names: Larat, Vai Fordata, Vai Tnebar, Vaidida.  Dialects: Fordata-Larat I, Fordata-Larat II, Molo (Molo-Maru), Sera (Seira). Sera is most divergent dialect. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kei [kei].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata 
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Galela

[gbi] 79,000 (1990 SIL). 41,000 Kadai, 10,000 Kadina, 24,000 Morotai, and 4,000 Sopi. North Maluku, Galela Bay, north of Tobelo to northern tip of Halmahera; Morotai Island except southeast quadrant; Gunage and Moari islands near Kayoa, Bacan, Obi, scattered along the southwest coast of Halmahera. Dialects: Kadai, Kadina, Morotai, Sopi. Laba [lau] may be a dialect. 65% intelligibility with Loloda [loa], Loloda 85% with Galela.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda 
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Gamkonora

[gak] 1,500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). North Maluku, north Halmahera, a few coastal villages south of the Ibu area. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Waioli [wli].  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu 
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Gane

[gzn] 2,900 (1982 D. Teljeur). North Maluku, Halmahera Island, south southern peninsula. Alternate names: Gani, Giman.  Dialects: Similar to East Makian [mky], Kayoa, a dialect of East Makian [mky].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane 
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Gebe

[gei] 2,650 (2000). North Maluku, Gebe, Yoi’umiyal, and Gag islands between southern Halmahera and Waigeo Island (Papua). 4 villages. Alternate names: Gebi.  Dialects: Umera. Lexical similarity: 44% with Patani [ptn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Geser-Gorom

[ges] 36,500 (1989 SIL). East end of Seram, Gorom Islands. Alternate names: Gesa, Geser, Goram, Goran, Gorom, Gorong, Seram, Seran, Seran Laut.  Dialects: Goram Laut, Mina Mina Gorong, Kelimuri. Lexical similarity: 73%–93% among dialects, 51%–61% with Watubela [wah].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom 
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Gorap

[goq] 1,000 (1992 SIL). North Maluku, Morotai Island, Pilowo and Waringin villages; Central Halmahera, Bobane and Igo villages. Dialects: Reportedly a mixed language, with Ternate [tft] and Malay [max] words and different word order from other languages of north Halmahera or Austronesian languages. Lexical similarity: 85% with Indonesian [ind], but comprehension is limited.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified 
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Haruku

[hrk] 18,200 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, Lease Islands, Haruku Island. Dialects: Hulaliu, Pelauw, Kailolo, Rohomoni. Each village uses a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: 81%–92% among dialects, 74%–76% with Tulehu [tlu], 67%–71% with Saparua [spr].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay 
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Hitu

[htu] 16,000 (1987 SIL). Ambon Island, Hitu Peninsula, Wakal, Hitu, Mamala, Morela, Hila. Dialects: Wakal, Morela, Mamala, Hitu, Hila. Lexical similarity: 67%–82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 74%–82% with Tulehu [tlu].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon 
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Horuru

[hrr] 4,240 (2000). Central Maluku, Seram. Dialects: Hulung [huk] may be related. Horuru may be alternate name for another language.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram 
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Hoti

[hti] 10 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku, east Seram. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, East Seram  Nearly extinct.
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Huaulu

[hud] 300 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku, east Seram, northwest of Manusela. 10 villages. Alternate names: Alakamat, Bahasa Asli.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64%–72% with Manusela [wha] dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti 
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Hukumina

[huw] Extinct. Northwest Buru Island, Hukumina, Palumata, and Tomahu districts. Alternate names: Bambaa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Hukumina 
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Hulung

[huk] 10 (1991 SIL). Central Maluku, west Seram, Hulung village, Sauweli hamlet. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 66% with Naka’ela [nae] and South Wemale [tlw], 63% with Alune [alp], 59% with North Wemale [weo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Hulung  Nearly extinct.
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Ibu

[ibu] 35 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). Ethnic population: 50 to 200 (1984). North Maluku, north Halmahera Island, Ibu River mouth, Gamlamo and Gamici villages. Dialects: May be inherently intelligible with Sahu [saj].  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu  Nearly extinct.
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Ili’uun

[ilu] 1,400 (1990 SIL). Southwest Maluku, Wetar Island coast, Telemar, Karbubu, Klishatu, Ilmaumau, Erai (Eray), Nabar, Esulit villages on the west end of Wetar, and Istutun village on Lirang Island, southwest tip of Wetar. Alternate names: Erai, Hahutan, Hahutau, Iliun, Ilmaumau, Limera.  Dialects: Telemar, Karbubu, Ustutun, Klishatu, Ilmaumau, Eray, Nabar, Esulit. All also use the Ili’uun dialect. Lexical similarity: 93%–97% among dialects. Lexical similarity 73% with Tugun [tzn], 69% with Aputai [apx], 67% with Perai [wet], 51% with Talur [ilw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, North, Wetar 
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Imroing

[imr] 560 (2007 SIL). South Maluku, southwest Babar Island, Imroing village. Alternate names: Imroin.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar 
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Kadai

[kzd] 350 (2000). North Maluku, Sula Islands, Taliabu Island, interior mountains. Possibly Mangole Island mountains. Dialects: May be intelligible with Taliabu [tlv].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo 
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Kaibobo

[kzb] 500 (Collins 1983). Central Maluku, west Seram, Piru Bay, Kairatu District, Kaibobo, Hatusua, Waisamu, Kamarian, Seruawan, Tihulale villages. Alternate names: Kaibubu.  Dialects: Kaibobo, Hatusua. Related to Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs]. Lexical similarity: 82%–88% between Kaibobo and Hatusua dialect, 75% with Kamarian [kzx], 62%–65% with Saparua [spr], 62% with Piru [ppr], 58%–62% with Luhu [lcq], 61% with Naka’ela [nae].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East 
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Kamarian

[kzx] 10 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 6,000 in the village (1987 SIL). Central Maluku, west Seram, east end of Piru Bay, Kamarian village on south coast. Alternate names: Kamariang, Seruawan.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Kaibobo [kzb], 67% with Saparua [spr], 60% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 59% with Amahai [amq], Piru, Naka’ela [nae], and Hulung [huk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Kamarian  Nearly extinct.
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Kao

[kax] 400 (2000). North Maluku, interior North Halmahera, Kao town area, Kao River mouth area. Alternate names: Ka’u, Kau.  Dialects: Could be a marginal dialect of Pagu [pgu], but relates uniquely to other languages in Kao River subbranch.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu 
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Karey

[kyd] 950 (1995 SIL). South Maluku, south Aru Islands, Karey Valley, east coast of Tarangan Island. Alternate names: Kerei, Krei.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Batuley [bay].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Kayeli

[kzl] 3 (1995). Not used for 3 decades (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 (1995). Central Maluku, north Buru Island, south Namlea Bay. Alternate names: Caeli, Cajeli, Gaeli, Kajeli.  Dialects: Kayeli, Leliali (Liliali), Lumaete (Lumaiti, Mumaite, Lumara).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Kayeli  Nearly extinct.
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Kei

[kei] 85,000 (2000 SIL). 4,500 monolinguals. Southeast Maluku, Kei Kecil, Kei Besar, surrounding islands, except Banda Eli and Banda Elat villages on Kei Besar; Kur Islands, where Kei is a lingua franca. About 207 villages on about 10 islands. Alternate names: Kai, Saumlaki, Veveu Evav.  Dialects: Kei Kecil, Kei Besar, Tayando, Tanimbar Kei (Atnebar), Ta’am. Kei Kecil is the prestigious urban dialect. Kei Besar speakers usually also know Kei Kecil, but not vice versa. Kei Besar is more similar to Fordata [frd] than other Kei dialects. Tanimbar Kei is spoken in only one village. Lexical similarity: 60% with Fordata.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata 
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Kisar

[kje] 20,000 (1995 SIL). South Maluku, Kisar Island northeast of Timor Island, 19 villages; Roma Island, Hila and Likagraha (Solath) villages; Wetar Island, Amau, Naumatan, Hi’ai; Ambon City, Dili, and Kupang. Alternate names: Meher, Yotowawa.  Dialects: Not related to Oirata [oia], which has sometimes been called a dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, East, Luang-Kisar, Kisar 
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Koba

[kpd] 600 (Hughes 2000). Southeast Maluku, Aru Islands, Baun and Fukarel islands bordering Dobel, 3 villages; southeast of Kobror Island, mouth of Barakai Strait. Dialects: Southeast Koba. Low comprehension of Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% with Dobel.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Kola

[kvv] 7,700 (1995 SIL). South Maluku, north Aru Islands, widespread on Kola Island coast, adjacent islands. 22 villages. Alternate names: Kulaha, Marlasi, Warilau.  Dialects: Intelligibility test showed Marlasi dialect intelligible to Kompane [kvp]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Kompane, 70% with Ujir [udj].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Kompane

[kvp] 330 (1995 SIL). South Maluku, east coast of Kongan Island, northeast Aru, Kompane village, south of Kola and north of Wokam islands. Alternate names: Komfana, Kongampani.  Dialects: Similar to Kola [kvv], linguistically between Kola and Batuley [bay]. Good intelligibility of Kola.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Kur

[kuv] 3,180 (2000). South Maluku, west Kei Kecil District, Kur Island and nearby islands. Dialects: Different from Kei [kei]. Boundaries of intelligibility with dialects to the north and the central dialect, and with Teor [tev] need further investigation. Lexical similarity: 47%–50% with Kei, 71%–83% with Teor, 41% with Watubela [wah], 38% with Geser [ges].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur 
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Laba

[lau] 2,000 (1991 SIL). North Maluku, interior south end of Loloda District. 4 villages. Alternate names: Kedi, South Loloda.  Dialects: Phonology like Galela [gbi], 70% intelligibility, 75% with Loloda [loa]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Galela, 78% with Loloda.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda 
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Laha

[lhh] 3,890 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku, south central coast of Ambon Island, Laha village, nearby smaller villages. Alternate names: Central Ambon.  Dialects: Related to Seram languages, but distinct from Manusela [wha]. Lexical similarity: 64%–66% with Asilulu [asl] and Seit-Kaitetu [hik] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon 
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Larike-Wakasihu

[alo] 12,600 (1987 SIL). Ambon Island, southwest Hitu Peninsula, Larike, Wakasihu, Tapi, Allang, Lai villages. Dialects: Allang, Wakasihu, Larike. The western end of the Ambon dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 81% among Allang, and Larike, and Wakasihu dialects; 92% between Larike and Wakasihu; 68%–71% with Asilulu [asl], 67% to 72% with Negeri Lima dialect of Asilulu [asl].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal, East 
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Latu

[ltu] 2,130 (1982 SIL). Central Maluku, southwest Seram Island, Elpaputih Bay, Latu village. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82%–84% with Saparua [spr] dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua 
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Leti

[lti] 7,500 (1995 SIL). Leti Island. Dialects: Marginal intelligibility and difficulty with written Luang [lex]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Luang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, East, Luang-Kisar, Luang 
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Liana-Seti

[ste] 3,000 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, districts of Seram, Bula, Werinama, and Tehoru, east Teluti Bay to the north coast. 8 villages. Alternate names: Liambata-Kobi, Liana, Lianan, Teula, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei Kaclakin, Uhei Kahlakim.  Dialects: “Seti” , Wahakaim, Kobi. Lexical similarity: 66%–74% between Seti (westernmost and interior) and Wahakaim (near coast) dialects, 69%–78% between Kobi and Seti, 70% between Kobi and Wahakaim, 42%–61% between Kobi and Manusela [wha], 54%–66% between Kobi and Benggoi [bgy], 48%–58% between Kobi and Salas [sgu].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti 
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Lisabata-Nuniali

[lcs] 1,830 (1982). Central Maluku, West and North Seram, spread across the north coast. 5 villages. Alternate names: Lisabata, Noniali, Nuniali.  Dialects: Lisabata-Timur, Nuniali, Sukaraja, Kawa. Lexical similarity: between Kawa (far western) and Lisabata Timur (far eastern) dialects is 85%, 72% with Naka’ela [nae], 67% with Hulung [huk], 63% with Alune [alp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram 
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Lisela

[lcl] 11,900 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, Buru Island, north, northeast, north central coastal strips, and northwest, lower Wae Geren and Vae Apo valleys. Some in Ambon. Alternate names: Buru, Li Enyorot, Liet Enjorot, North Buru, Wayapo.  Dialects: Lisela (Licela, Licella), Tagalisa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru 
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Lola

[lcd] 830 (1995 SIL). Southeast Maluku, 3 islands east of Kobroor and Baun islands, Aru Islands, Lola, Warabal, and Jambuair villages. Dialects: Lola, Warabal. Linguistically between Batuley [bay] and Dobel [kvo]; similar to Koba [kpd].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Loloda

[loa] 15,000 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Bakun. North Maluku, northwest coast of Halmahera. Alternate names: Loda, North Loloda.  Dialects: Bakun. Intelligibility with Laba [lau] very limited. 85% intelligibility with Galela [gbi], Galela [gbi] has 65% intelligibility of Loloda.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda 
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Lorang

[lrn] 320 (1995 SIL). Southeast Maluku, Koba Island, Aru center, Lorang village. Dialects: Similar to Koba [kpd] and, to a lesser extent, Dobel [kvl]. Some similarities with Manombai [woo], but intelligibility is lower than might be expected.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Loun

[lox] 20. Central Maluku, north-central Seram. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Loun  Nearly extinct.
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Luang

[lex] 18,000 (1995 SIL). 200 monolinguals. South Maluku, east of Timor, Moa, Lakor, Luang, Sermata, Wetan, northwest Babar Islands. Alternate names: Letri Lgona, Lgona, Literi Lagona.  Dialects: Luang, Wetan (Wetang), Moa, Lakor. Low comprehension of Leti [lti]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Leti.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, East, Luang-Kisar, Luang 
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Luhu

[lcq] 6,500 (1983 J. Collins). West Seram Island, Hoamoal Peninsula, Luhu village; Boano and Kelang islands, off of west Seram. Dialects: Luhu, Batu Merah, Kelang. Related to Manipa [mqp]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Piru [ppr], 71%–73% with Asilulu [asl].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal, West 
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Maba

[mqa] 6,620 (2000). North Maluku, Halmahera, north coast of southeast peninsula; Wasilei area. Alternate names: Bicoli, Bitjoli, Ingli.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast 
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Makian, East

[mky] 20,000. 18,000 or more in East Makian, 2,000 or more in Kayoa (1983 SIL). North Maluku, east Makian Island, south Mori Island, Kayoa islands, west coast of south Halmahera, Bacan and Obi islands. Transmigration project near Kao. Alternate names: Makian Dalam, Makian Timur.  Dialects: East Makian, Kayoa (Kajoa). Similar to Gane [gzn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane 
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Makian, West

[mqs] 12,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 7,000 on Makian Island, 5,000 on Kayoa Islands. North Maluku, west Makian Island, some Kayoa Islands, west coast of south Halmahera areas. Alternate names: Makian Barat, Makian Luar.  Dialects: Language isolate within north Halmahera. Formerly classified as Austronesian.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, West Makian 
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Malay, Ambonese

[abs] 200,000 in Indonesia (1987 J. Collins). Population total all countries: 245,020. Central Maluku, Ambon, Haruku, Nusa Laut, Saparua Islands, along the coastal areas of Seram, and south Maluku. Also in Netherlands, United States. Alternate names: Ambonese, Ambong, Malayu Ambon.  Dialects: Dobo Malay. Marginal intelligibility with Indonesian [ind]. Difficult intelligibility with Ternate Malay [max]; speakers switch to Indonesian. Lexical similarity: 81% with Standard Malay [zsm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade, East Indonesian 
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Malay, Bacanese

[btj] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Over 1,000 in Labuha (1987 J. Collins). North Maluku, Bacan Island west of southern Halmahera; former Labuha palace area, 1 village; Mandioli Island, and half of Waya and Lele villages. Alternate names: Bacan, Batjan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Malay, Banda

[bpq] 3,690 (2000). Banda Islands. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade, East Indonesian 
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Malay, North Moluccan

[max] 700,000 (2001 SIL). 100,000 monolinguals. North Maluku, Halmahera, Sula, and Obi islands. Labuha neighborhood (Christian), and some other families with parents of different ethnic origins. Alternate names: Ternate Malay.  Dialects: Different meaning of particles from Manado Malay [xmm]. More similar to Manado Malay than to Ambonese Malay [abs].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade, East Indonesian 
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Mangole

[mqc] 7,280 (2000). North Maluku, south coast of Mangole Island; Sula Islands, north tip of Sulabesi. Alternate names: Mangoli, Sula Mangoli.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula 
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Manipa

[mqp] 1,500 (Collins and Voorhoeve 1983). Central Maluku, Manipa Island west of Seram. 4 villages. Alternate names: Soow Huhelia.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with Luhu [lcq], 64% with Piru [ppr], 60%–62% with Hitu [htu], 60%–61% with Tulehu [tlu] and Asilulu [asl], 58%–61% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 55%–60% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo], 56% with Boano [bzn] and Kaibobo [kzb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East 
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Manombai

[woo] 7,480 (1995 J. Hughes). Southeast Maluku, Aru Islands, Manombai Strait (Sungai) area as far as Wakua, west coast of Wokam Island, from Wokam village south, 21 villages; Kobror Island, Benjina; west end of Barakai Strait, Maikor Island, Gardakau; east coast of Wokam Island, Kobamar village. May no longer be spoken on Wamar Island. Alternate names: Manobai, Wamar, Wokam.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Lorang [lrn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Manusela

[wha] 7,000 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, north Seram, Mansuela mountains, 30 villages; south Seram along Teluti Bay. Alternate names: Wahai, Wahinama.  Dialects: Kanikeh, Hatuolu, Maneo, South Manusela. Lexical similarity: 66%–74% between the Kanikeh dialect and other varieties, 67%–75% with Hatuolo, 64%–86% with Maneo, 66%–86% with Maneoratu, 67%–80% with South Manusela; 64%–72% with Huaulu [hud], 42%–61% with Liana Seti [ste], 45% with Saleman [sau].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti 
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Mariri

[mqi] 390 (1995 SIL). South Maluku, Mariri Island, east Aru east of Kobroor Island. 1 village. Alternate names: Mairiri.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Batuley [bay].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Masela, Central

[mxz] 511 (1980 N. de Jonge). South Maluku, Marsela Island. 3 villages. Alternate names: Central Marsela, Marsela-South Babar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar 
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Masela, East

[vme] 520 (1980 N. de Jonge). South Maluku, Marsela Island. 3 villages. Alternate names: East Marsela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar 
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Masela, West

[mss] 850 (2007 SIL). South Maluku, Marsela Island. 5 villages. Alternate names: West Marsela.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar 
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Masiwang

[bnf] 1,000 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, Bula District, Seram Island, Waru Bay area. Alternate names: Bonfia.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobot [bty], 43% with Salas [sgu], 39% with Sepa [spb] and Teluti [tlt], 36% with Liana Seti [ste] and Atamanu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Masiwang 
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Modole

[mqo] 2,000 (1983 SIL). North Maluku, interior north Halmahera Island, Kao River headwaters. Alternate names: Madole.  Dialects: North Modole, South Modole. Minimal differences between north and south Modole.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda 
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Moksela

[vms] Extinct. Central Maluku, possibly east Buru Island, near Kayeli. Alternate names: Maksela, Opselan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru 
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Naka’ela

[nae] 5 (1985 SIL). Central Maluku, northwest Seram, Kairatu village. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 66% with Hulung [huk], 63% with Alune [alp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai  Nearly extinct.
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Nila

[nil] 1,800 (1989 SIL), decreasing. Central Maluku, south central Seram Island transmigration area. 6 villages. (Originally Nila Island in south central Maluku). Dialects: Similar to Serua [srw]. Not intelligible with Teun [tve].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, East, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua 
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Nuaulu, North

[nni] 500 (1990 SIL). Central Maluku, central Seram Island north coast. 2 villages. Alternate names: Fatakai, Nuaulu, Patakai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with South Nuaulu, 64% with Saleman.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu 
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Nuaulu, South

[nxl] 1,500 (1995 SIL). Central Maluku, Seram Island, Amahai District, south coast and interior. 6 villages. Alternate names: Fatakai, Nuaulu, Patakai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with North Nuaulu [nni], 50% with South Wemale, Hulung [huk], and Naka’ela [nae], 48% with Saleman [sau].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu 
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Nusa Laut

[nul] 10. Ethnic population: 2,226 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, Lease Islands, Nusa Laut Island, Titawai village. Alternate names: Nusalaut.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Saparua [spr], 65% with Amahai [amq].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi  Nearly extinct.
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Oirata

[oia] 1,220 (1987 SIL). South Maluku, southeast Kisar Island, east and west Oirata. 2 villages; Ambon City. Alternate names: Maaro.  Dialects: Not related to other languages on Oirata or to central Maluku languages. Not closely related to languages in East Timor.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, East Timor, Fataluku-Oirata 
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Pagu

[pgu] 3,310 (2000). North Maluku, interior North Halmahera south of Modole [mqo] to the mouth of Kao River. Alternate names: Pago, Pagoe.  Dialects: Isam, Pagu, Toliwiku (Toliliko).  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda 
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Palumata

[pmc] Extinct. Central Maluku, northwest Buru Island. Alternate names: Balamata, Palamata.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru 
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Patani

[ptn] 10,600 (2000). North Maluku, Halmahera, narrow tip of southeast peninsula and west along the coast. 9 villages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast 
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Paulohi

[plh] 50 (1982). Central Maluku, West Seram, south central Seram Island, Elpaputih Bay west shore. 2 villages, Kecamatan Amahai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Solehua  Nearly extinct.
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Perai

[wet] 280 (Hinton 2000). Southwest Maluku, Wetar Island northeast coast, north of Timor, Uhak and Moning villages. Alternate names: Tutunohan.  Dialects: Moning, Uhak. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects, 79% with Aputai [apx], 76% with Tugun [tzn], 67% with Ili’uun [ilu], 51% with Talur [ilw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, North, Wetar 
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Piru

[ppr] 10 (1985 SIL). Central Maluku, west Seram Island. 1 village. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with Luhu [lcq].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram  Nearly extinct.
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Roma

[rmm] 1,700 (1991 SIL). South Maluku, Roma Island north of Timor Island, Jerusu village. Alternate names: Romang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, East, Luang-Kisar, Kisar 
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Sahu

[saj] 7,500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). 3,500 in Tala’i, 4,000 in Pa’disua. North Maluku, southwestern north Halmahera Island. Alternate names: Sa’u, Sahu’u, Sau.  Dialects: Pa’disua (Palisua), Tala’i. Similar to Waioli [wli], Gamkonora [gak].  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu 
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Salas

[sgu] 50 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, Seram Island, Waru Bay, Salas Gunung village. Alternate names: Lenkaitahe, Liambata, Salas Gunung.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 48%–58% with Liana-Seti [ste], 46%–50% with Benggoi [bgy], 35%–46% with Manusela [wha].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti  Nearly extinct.
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Saleman

[sau] 4,800 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, north central Seram. 5 villages (Saleman, Pasanea, Sawai, Besi, Wahai). Alternate names: Hatue, Sawai, Seleman, Wahai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni], 48% with South Nuaulu [nxl].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu 
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Saparua

[spr] 10,200 (1989 SIL). 4,519 in Iha. Central Maluku, Lease Islands, Saparua Island, Kulur, Iha, Siri-Sori villages; Seram Island, Iha, Kulur, Latu, Hualoy, Tomalehu villages; also Kairatu village. Dialects: Kulur, Iha-Saparua, Iha-Seram, Siri-Sori. Each village is a dialect. Lexical similarity: 86%–89% among dialects; 82%–84% with Latu [ltu], 69% with Amahai [amq], 67% with Kamarian [kzk], 68%–71% with Haruku [hrk], 65% with Kaibobo [kzb], 62%–66% with Tulehu [tlu], 54%–62% with Luhu [lcq], 49% with Piru [ppr], 54% with Naka’ela [nae].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua 
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Sawai

[szw] 12,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. North Maluku, Gane Timur and Weda districts, Halmahera, south and southeast peninsula coasts. 13 villages. Alternate names: Weda, Weda-Sawai, Were.  Dialects: Weda, Sawai, Kobe, Faya-Mafa, Messa-Dote. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast 
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Seit-Kaitetu

[hik] 10,200 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku, Ambon Island north coast, Seit (Seith) and Kaitetu villages. Alternate names: Hila-Kaitetu.  Dialects: Seit (Seith), Kaitetu. Lexical similarity: 85% between Kaitetu and Seit dialects. Lexical similarity: 78%–82% with Asilulu [asl], 67%–74% with Tulehu [tlu].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu 
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Selaru

[slu] 8,000 (2001 SIL). South Muluku, Tanimbar, Selaru Island, 6 of 7 villages, Yamdena Island, half Latdalam village, Nus-Wotar Island off Yamdena west coast, Lingada village; Saumlake and Ambon. Alternate names: Salaru.  Dialects: Kandar. Slight dialect differences. Not closely related to other nearby languages. Lexical similarity: 56% with Seluwasan [sws].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern 
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Seluwasan

[sws] 2,840 (1980 Government report), decreasing. 739 in Makatian, 2,100 in Seluwasan. South Maluku, Yamdena Island, southwest coast, Wermatang, Batu Putih, and Marantutul. Alternate names: Selvasa, Selwasa.  Dialects: Seluwasan, Makatian. Makatian dialect quite different from others.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern 
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Sepa

[spb] 2,600 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, Seram Island, Sepa village. Alternate names: Tamilouw.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69%–78% with Teluti [tlt], 50% with Yalahatan [jal].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East 
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Serili

[sve] 330 (1980 N. de Jonge). South Maluku, northeast Marsela Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar 
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Serua

[srw] 2,000 (1990 SIL), decreasing. Central Maluku, south central Seram Island, transmigration area. 4 villages. Dialects: Similar to Nila [nil]. Not intelligible with Teun [tve].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, East, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua 
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Sula

[szn] 20,000 (1983 SIL). North Maluku, Sula Islands, Sulabesi Island; scattered on east and west ends and north coast of Mangole Island, and northeast coast of Buru Island. Alternate names: Sanana.  Dialects: Fagudu, Falahu, Facei (Facé). Similar to Mangole [mqc].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula 
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Tabaru

[tby] 15,000 (1991 SIL). North Maluku, Ibu, Jailolo, and Oba districts. Alternate names: Tobaru.  Dialects: Adu, Nyeku. Northern dialect is the main one. Dialects mutually inherently intelligible.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda 
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Taliabu

[tlv] 4,520 (2000). 500 to 1,500 in Mangei. North Maluku, Taliabu Island, northwest Mangole, Sula Islands. Alternate names: Taliabo.  Dialects: Padang (Samada), Mananga, Mangei (Mange’e, Mange, Mang, Soboyo, Sobojo). Dialects 90% or more lexically similar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo 
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Talur

[ilw] 680 (1990 SIL). Southwest Maluku, south central Wetar Island north of East Timor, Hiay, Ilputih, Ilwaki villages. Alternate names: Galoleng, Iliwaki, Ilmedu, Ilwaki, Lir Talo.  Dialects: Ilputih, Ilwaki (Iliwaki), Hiay. Lexical similarity: 94%-98% between dialects, 86% with Galoli [gal] in East Timor, 57% with Aputai [apx], 52% with Tugun [tzn], 51% with Perai [wet] and Ili’uun [ilu].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, North, Wetar 
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Tarangan, East

[tre] 3,780 (1987 Maluku Dalam Angka). South Maluku, south Aru Islands, Tarangan Island east coast, and villages in Maikor Strait (Sungai Maikor). 13 villages. Alternate names: East Trangan, Tarangan Timur.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with West Tarangan [txn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Tarangan, West

[txn] 6,480 (Maluku Dalam Angka). South Maluku, south Aru Islands, Tarangan Island west coast. Alternate names: Tarangan Barat, West Trangan.  Dialects: Southwestern Tarangan, North Central Tarangan. 2 sharply distinct dialect groups, with minor variation within them. Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Manombai [woo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Tela-Masbuar

[tvm] 1,050 (2007 SIL). South Maluku, southwest Babar Island, Tela, Masbuar villages. Alternate names: Masbuar-Tela, Tela’a.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar 
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Teluti

[tlt] 17,000 (1989 SIL). Central Maluku, south Seram Island, Teluti Bay. Alternate names: Silen, Taluti, Tehoru, Tihoru, Wolu.  Dialects: West Teluti (Haya, Wolu, Tehoru, Tehua), Laha Serani. Lexical similarity: 74%–89% among dialects, 69%–78% with Sepa [spb], 50% with Atamanu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East 
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Teor

[tev] 1,100 (1986 SIL). South Maluku, Teor and Ut islands. Alternate names: Tio’or.  Dialects: Gaur Kristen, Ut. Self-report to understand Kur [kuv]. Lexical similarity: 79% between Gaur Kristen and Ut, 71%–83% with Kur, 41% with Watubela [wah], 38% with Geser [ges].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur 
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Ternate

[tft] 42,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). North Maluku, Ternate, Kayoa, Bacan, Obi Islands, coastal communities on western north Halmahera. Dialects: Similar to Tidore [tvo].  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Ternate-Tidore 
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Ternateño

[tmg] Extinct. North Maluku, Ternate Island, west of Halmahera Island. Alternate names: Ternatenyo.  Dialects: Spanish relexification. Historical relationship with Chavacano and dialects, still spoken in the Philippines.  Classification: Creole, Portuguese based 
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Te’un

[tve] 1,200 (1990 SIL), decreasing. Central Maluku, south central Seram Island transmigration area. 4 villages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic 
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Tidore

[tvo] 26,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). North Maluku, Tidore, Maitara, Mare, north half of Moti Islands; Halmahera west coast areas. Dialects: Similar to Ternate [tft].  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Ternate-Tidore 
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Tobelo

[tlb] 27,700 (2000). North Maluku, north Halmahera Island, Tobelo, Kao, and Jailolo districts; Halmahera Tengah, Maba and Wasile districts; Papua, Sorong, north half of Morotai, coastal areas of Kao Bay and inland, Patani, Weda, Gane, Bacan, Obi, Ambon, Raja Ampat islands. Dialects: Dodinga, Boëng, Tobelo (Heleworuru).  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda 
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Tugun

[tzn] 1,200 (1990 SIL). 1% monolinguals. Southwest Maluku, north of Timor, southeast end of Wetar Island, Mahuan, Masapun, Tomliapat, Ilpokil, Kahailin, Ilway, Arwala villages. Alternate names: Mahuan, Tutunohan.  Dialects: Mahuan, Masapua, Tomliapat, Ilpokil, Kahailin Ilway, Arwala. Lexical similarity: 92%–97% among dialects, 76% with Perai [wet], 74% with Aputai [apx], 73% with Ili’uun [ilu], 52% with Talur [ilw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Extra-Ramelaic, North, Wetar 
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Tugutil

[tuj] 2,590 (2000). North Maluku, north Halmahera Island, inland around Kusuri, inland in Kecamatan Tobelo, Taboulamo area in Kecamatan Kao, the pass between Lolobata and Buli in Kecamatan Wasilei, Dodaga and Tutuling rivers, Akelamo and Mabulan rivers in Kecamatan Maba, Tanjung Lili, villages of Miaf, Bebseli, and Marasibno. A few on Lili, Waisango, and Afu rivers. Dialects: Teluk Lili, Kusuri. Possibly several dialects separated by large distances. Inadequate intelligibility with Tobelo variety.  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda 
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Tulehu

[tlu] 18,800 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku, Ambon Island, northeast coast. 4 villages. Alternate names: Northeast Ambon.  Dialects: Tulehu, Liang, Tengah-Tengah, Tial. Each dialect is in a separate village. Eastern end of Ambon dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 84%–90% among dialects, 74% to 82% with Hitu [htu], 72%–76% with Haruku [hrk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon 
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Ujir

[udj] 980 (1995 J. Hughes). South Maluku, northwest Aru Islands, Ujir on Ujir Island, Samang on Wokam Island west peninsula tip. Alternate names: Udjir.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Kola [kvv] in north Aru, and slightly less with Kola on the west coast of Kola Island.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Aru 
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Waioli

[wli] 3,000 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). North Maluku, north Halmahera, between Sahu [saj] and Ibu [ibu] languages. Alternate names: Wajoli, Wayoli.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Gamkonora [gak].  Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu 
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Watubela

[wah] 4,000 (1990 SIL). East central Maluku, Watubela Islands, north of Kur Island. Alternate names: Esiriun, Kasiui, Kasui, Kesui, Matabello, Snabi Watubela, Wesi.  Dialects: Tamher Timur, Sulmelang. Lexical similarity: 77% between dialects, 51%–61% with Geser-Gorom [ges], 41% with Teor [tev] and Kur [kuv], 37% with Bobot [bty], 34% with Masiwang [bnf].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom 
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Wemale, North

[weo] 4,930 (1982). Taniwel District along north coast, east of Taniwel, and westernmost East Seram District. 24 villages. Alternate names: Oemale.  Dialects: Horale, Kasieh, Uwenpantai. Kawe [kgb] may be a dialect. Lexical similarity: between east and central dialects is 80%, 72% with South Wemale [tlw], 59% with Hulung [huk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Wemale 
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Wemale, South

[tlw] 3,730 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku, west Seram, Kairatu, mainly interior, and Amahai District westernmost coast. 15 villages. Alternate names: Honitetu, Tala.  Dialects: Dialect chain between Horale [weo], Kasieh [weo], Uwenpantai [weo], and Honitetu dialect. Kawe [kgb] may be a dialect. Lexical similarity: 80% between the Horale and Kasieh dialects of Wemale, North [weo], and between Uwenpantai dialect of Wemale, North and the Honitetu dialect, 72% with North Wemale, 66% with Hulung [huk], 47% with Yalahatan [jal].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Wemale 
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Yalahatan

[jal] 1,700 (2004 SIL). approximately 850 in each village. Central Maluku, west Seram, Yalahatan, Haruru villages. Alternate names: Atamanu, Awaiya, Jahalatan, Jahalatane.  Dialects: Slight dialect differences reported between the 2 villages. Lexical similarity: 50%–52% with Sepa [spb], 49%–50% with Teluti [tlt].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers 
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Yamdena

[jmd] 25,000 (1991 SIL). Ethnic population: 35,000 to 40,000 (1991 SIL). Southeast Maluku, east coast of Yamdena, north tip of Selaru, Adaut village; southwest Yamdena, Latdalam village. 35 villages. Alternate names: Jamden, Jamdena.  Dialects: North Yamdena (Batjas, Watmuri), South Yamdena (Saumlaki, Amdassa). Dialect chain from north to south with 90% lexical similarity between extremes, but with considerable morphological and phonological differences. The southern dialect is more prestigious. Lexical similarity: 90% between the north and south dialects, 47% with Fordata [frd].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Yamdena 
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