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Languages of Indonesia (Papua)

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Indonesia (Papua). 2,220,934 (2000 census). Information mainly from M. Donohue 1998–1999; C. Roesler 1972; C. Voorhoeve 1975; SIL 1975–2003. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Papua) is 276. Of those, 274 are living languages and 2 are second languages without mother-tongue speakers.
Abinomn

[bsa] 300 (Clouse, Ma, and Donohue 2002). Sarmi Regency, Mamberamo Hulu subdistrict, Lakes Plain area, Baso River mouth east of Dabra at Idenburg River, to headwaters in Foya Mountains. Alternate names: Avinomen, “Baso” , Foja, Foya.  Dialects: Similar to Warembori [wsa].  Classification: Language isolate 
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Abun

[kgr] 3,000 (1995 SIL). Sorong Regency; Ayamaru, Sausapor, Moraid subdistricts; North coast and interior of central Bird’s Head, north and south of Tamberau ranges. About 20 villages. Alternate names: A Nden, Karon, Manif, Yimbun.  Dialects: Abun Tat (Karon Pantai), Abun Ji (Madik), Abun Je.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Aghu

[ahh] 3,000 (1987 SIL). Merauke Regency, Jair subdistrict, south coast area, Digul River west of Mandobo language. Alternate names: Djair, Dyair.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Airoran

[air] 1,000 (1998 SIL). Jayapura Regency, Mamberamo Hilir, Pantai Barat subdistricts, Subu, Motobiak, Isirania, other villages; north coast area on lower Apauwer River. Alternate names: Adora, Aeroran, Iriemkena.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, West Coast 
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Ambai

[amk] 10,100 (2000). Yapen Waropen Regency, Yapen Selatan and Yapen Timur subdistricts. On Ambai Island in Cenderawasih Bay, south of Serui Island, along the south coast of Serui Island. 10 villages. Alternate names: Ambai-Menawi.  Dialects: Randawaya, Ambai (Wadapi-Laut), Manawi. Closely related to Ansus [and], Woi [wbw], Pom [pmo], Wabo [wbb], Marau [mvr], Papuma [ppm], Munggui [mth], Kurudu [kjr]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Serui-Laut [seu], 71% with Wandamen [wad].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Anasi

[bpo] 2,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Jayapura Regency, Mamberamo Hilir subdistrict. North coast, lower west bank Mamberamo River. Alternate names: Bapu.  Classification: East Geelvink Bay 
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Ansus

[and] 4,600 (1987 SIL). Yapen Waropen Regency, Yapen Barat subdistrict, Ansus, Kairawi, Aibondeni and Yenusi villages; Miosnum Island and Serui Island south coast. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Marau Papuma [ppm], 77% with Wandamen [wao].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Anus

[auq] 320 (2005 SIL). Jayapura Regency, Bonggo subdistrict, Coastal area and island off north coast east of Biri River. Alternate names: Koroernoes, Koru.  Dialects: Similar to Podena [pdn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Arandai

[jbj] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Manokwari Regency, Bintuni subdistrict, South Bird’s Head, east and west of Wariaga River, Sebyar (Timoforo) River area. Alternate names: Dombano, Jaban, Sebyar, Sumuri, Yaban.  Dialects: Kemberano (Tomu), Dombano (Arandai). Related to Kais [kzm]. Lexical similarity: 71% between the Kemberano and Dombano dialects.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Eastern 
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Arguni

[agf] 150 (2000 S. Wurm). Northwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula on an island in the Maccluer Gulf. Alternate names: Argoeni.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai 
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As

[asz] 230 (2000 S. Wurm). West Bird’s Head, north coast, Asbakin (main center), Maklaumkarta, Mega villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with some dialects on Misool Island.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Asmat, Casuarina Coast

[asc] 9,000 (1991 SIL). 5,200 in Matia and 3,400 in Sapan. Mappi Regency, Pantai Kasuari and Edera subdistricts; Casuarina coast from Ewta River north to Kuti River south, and inland. Alternate names: Kaweinag.  Dialects: Matia, Sapan (Safan).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat 
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Asmat, Central

[cns] 7,000 (Roesler 1972). Asmat Regency; Sawa-Erma, Agats, Atsy, and Pantai Kasuari subdistricts. South coast from Owap River northwest to Farec River southwest, inland toward the foothills and inland. Also Mappi Regency coast, Nambai and Edera subdistricts, south of Yaqay [jaq] language. Alternate names: Jas, Manowee, Yas.  Dialects: Simai (Simay), Misman, Ajam (Ayam). North Asmat most distinct dialect. Related to Sempan [xse] north of the rivers. Similar to Kamoro [kgq] and Citak [txt].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat 
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Asmat, North

[nks] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Merauke Regency, Sawa-Erma subdistrict. Near Paterle Cocq River headwaters west to Unir River east to the foothills. Alternate names: Keenok.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat 
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Asmat, Yaosakor

[asy] 2,000 (1991 SIL). Asmat Regency, Agats and Atsy subdistricts. South coast along Sirac River. Alternate names: Yaosakor.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat 
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Atohwaim

[aqm] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Mappi Regency, Pantai Kasuari subdistrict. South coast on Cook and Kronkel rivers, between Sawi [saw] and Kayagar [kyt]. Alternate names: Kaugat.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar 
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Auye

[auu] 350 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 350 (2000 SIL). Paniai Regency, Napan subdistrict. Central Highlands, Siriwo River, mountains southeast of Cenderawasih Bay. Alternate names: Auwje.  Dialects: Related to Ekari [ekg].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes 
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Awbono

[awh] 100 (1999 SIL). 100% monolingual. Modera River, south of Kopkaka [opk] and northwest of Korowai [khe]. Alternate names: Kvolyab.  Dialects: Not related to Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna [mqf], or highland languages like Dani or Mek. Lexical similarity: 55% with Bayono [byl].  Classification: Bayono-Awbono 
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Awera

[awr] 70 (2000 S. Wurm). Yapen Waropen Regency, Waropen Bawah subdistrict. East side of Cenderawasih Bay, Wapoga River mouth. 1 village. Classification: Lakes Plain, Awera 
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Awyi

[auw] 350 (2000 S. Wurm). Jayapura Regency, Arso subdistrict, northeast near Papua New Guinea border, just south of Jayapura. Alternate names: Awje, Awji, Awye, Njao, Nyao.  Classification: Border, Taikat 
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Awyu, Asue

[psa] 6,500 (2002 SIL). South coast area, southwest of Wildeman River, east of Kampong River, inland from Pirimapun. Alternate names: Miaro, Miaro Awyu, Pisa.  Dialects: Similar to Edera Awyu [awy], South Awyu [aws]. Distinct from Central Awyu [awu], Jair Awyu [awv].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Awyu, Central

[awu] 7,500 (2002 M. Sohn). Mappi and Boven Digul Regencies; Obaa, Citak Mitak, Mandobo and Bimikia subdistricts. South coast east of Bipim, northwest of Yaqay [jaq], west of Tanamerah, southwest of Boma. Alternate names: Ajau, Auyu, Avio, Awju, Awya, Nohon.  Dialects: 4 dialects.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Awyu, Edera

[awy] 3,870 (2002 SIL). Southeast near coast, north of lower Digul River. Alternate names: Jenimu, Oser, Siagha, Sjiagha, Syiagha, Yenimu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Awyu, Jair

[awv] 2,300 (2002 SIL). South coast area, west of Mandobo Bawah [bwp], south of Aghu [ahh]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Awyu, North

[yir] 1,500 (1987 SIL). South coast west side of Digul River, south of Kombai [tyn], east of Central Awyu [awu]. Alternate names: Awyu, Djair, Dyair, Jair, Yair.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Awyu, South

[aws] 9,340 (2002 SIL). Southeast near coast, north of lower Digul River. Alternate names: Jenimu, Oser, Siagha, Sjiagha, Syiagha, Yenimu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu 
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Bagusa

[bqb] 300 (1987 SIL). Jayapura Regency, Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict. East of Mamberamo, Lake Rombebai, north of Kauwera [xau]. Alternate names: Kapeso, Suaseso.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Kwerba [kwe].  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear 
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Baham

[bdw] 1,100 (1987 SIL). Fakfak Regency; Kaimana, Fakfak and Kokas subdistricts. West Bomberai Peninsula east of the Iha [ihp] language. Alternate names: Patimuni.  Dialects: Similar to Iha.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper 
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Barapasi

[brp] 2,500 (1995 SIL). Yapen Waropen Regency, Waropen Atas subdistrict. East Cenderawasih Bay just east of the Waropen language [wrp], along Barapasi River and tributaries. Alternate names: Baropasi.  Dialects: Sipisi, Marikai. Lexical similarity: 67% with Kofei [kpi], 71% with Sauri [srt], 61% with Tefaro [tfo], 64% with Woria [wor].  Classification: East Geelvink Bay 
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Bauzi

[bvz] 1,500 (1991 SIL). 1,350 monolinguals. Jayapura and Yapen Waropen regencies. Lake Holmes area near mid-Mamberamo River; Danau Bira area, northeast, Kasonoweja north of Kustera; Mamberamo Tengah and Waropen Atas subdistricts, Vakiadi, Noiadi, Danau Bira, Solom, Kustera, Neao, Itaba villages. Alternate names: Baudi, Baudji, Baudzi, Bauri.  Dialects: Gesda Dae, Neao, Aumenefa.  Classification: East Geelvink Bay, Bauzi 
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Bayono

[byl] 100 (1999 SIL). South of Awbono [awh] on Steenboom River. Dialects: Not related to language families like Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna, or highlands language families like Dani or Mek. Lexical similarity: 55% with Awbono.  Classification: Bayono-Awbono 
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Bedoanas

[bed] 180 (2000 S. Wurm). Fakfak Regency, Kokas subdistrict, northwest coast, Bomberai Peninsula. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai 
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Beneraf

[bnv] 200 (2005 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict. North coast area east of Tor River mouth, Beneraf and part of Nenke villages. Alternate names: Boneraf, Bonerif.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Berik

[bkl] 1,200 (1994 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Tor Atas subdistrict; Bora Bora, Waf, Doronta, Beu, Togonfo, Dangken, Kondirjan, Somanente, Tenwer, Sewan, Safrontani and Taminambor villages. North coast area along mid and upper Tor River, inland from Sarmi. Alternate names: Berick, Berrik, Sewan Teteris, Upper Tor.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 45% with Keijar [kdy], 13% with Orya [ury].  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Betaf

[bfe] 600 (2005 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict. North coast area east of Sarmi. Alternate names: Tena.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Biak

[bhw] 30,000 (2000 S. Wurm). Biak and Numfor Islands north, numerous small islands east and west of Bird’s Head, including Mapia Island. Biak Numfor Kabupaten. Alternate names: Biak-Numfor, Mafoor, Mafoorsch, Mefoor, Myfoorsch, Noefoor, Noefoorsch, Nufoor.  Dialects: Ariom, Bo’o, Dwar, Fairi, Jenures, Korim, Mandusir, Mofu, Opif, Padoa, Penasifu, Samberi, Sampori (Mokmer), Sor, Sorendidori, Sundei, Wari, Wadibu, Sorido, Bosnik, Korido, Warsa, Wardo, Kamer, Mapia, Mios Num, Rumberpon, Monoarfu, Vogelkop. Some consider Biak and Numfor dialect 2 languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic 
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Biga

[bhc] 300 (Remijsen 2001). Misool Island, Biga village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Biritai

[bqq] 250 (1988 SIL). Lakes Plain just north of mid-Rouffaer River, Biri village. Alternate names: Aliki, Ati, Biri.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Obokuitai [afz], 61% with Eritai [ert], 60% with Kwerisa [kkb], 69% with Kaiy [tcq].  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Bonggo

[bpg] 790 (2006 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Bonggo subdistrict. Northeast coast, near Kaisau River, Taronta, Tarawasi, Armopa villages. Alternate names: Armopa, Bogu, Bongo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Burate

[bti] 100 (2000 S. Wurm). Yapen Waropen Regency, Waropen Bawah subdistrict, near Wapoga River mouth. 1 village. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Demisa [dei], 75% with Tunggare [trt].  Classification: East Geelvink Bay 
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Burmeso

[bzu] 250 (1998 M. Donohue). Sarmi Regency, Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict, mid-Mamberamo River between Trimuris and Sikari northeast of Danau Bira (Lake Holmes). 1 village and isolated temporary houses along nearby rivers. Alternate names: Boromeso, Borumesso, Burumeso, Manau, Monao, Monau, Taurap.  Dialects: Less than 5% lexical similarity with other languages.  Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Burmeso 
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Burumakok

[aip] 40 (1994 Kroneman). Jayawijaya Regency, Kurima subdistrict, village of Burumakok, south of Sumtanon, east of Siradala, lowlands area south of main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western  Nearly extinct.
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Buruwai

[asi] 1,000 (2000). Fakfak Regency, Kaimana subdistrict, south Bomberai Peninsula, Kamrau Bay southwest, Yarona, Kuna, Esania, Marobia, Guriasa, Tairi, Hia, and Gaka villages. Alternate names: Asianara, Asienara, Karufa, Madidwana, Sabakor, Sebakoor.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Kamberau [irx].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sabakor 
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Busami

[bsm] 700 (1993 R. Doriot). Yapen Waropen Regency, Yapen Barat and Yapen Selatan subdistricts, South and north coast, Serui Island, Kamanap, Masiaroti, Kaonda villages. Dialects: 3 dialects. Lexical similarity: 71% with Ansus [and], 63% with Serui-Laut [seu].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Citak

[txt] 8,000 (1985 M. Stringer). Mappi Regency, Citak-Mitak subdistrict, south coast area, west of upper Digul River, north of Awyu, east of Asmat, Senggo, and north. 19 villages. Alternate names: Asmat Darat, Cicak, Kaunak, Tjitak, Tjitjak.  Dialects: Senggo, Komasma, Bubis, Esaun, Pirabanak, Vakam, Tiau. Similar to Asmat.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat 
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Citak, Tamnim

[tml] 290 (1993 R. Doriot). Mappi and Asmat Regencies, near Senggo, Tamnim, Epem, Zinak, Wowi villages. Alternate names: Asmat Darat, Tamnim.  Dialects: May be linguistically more similar to Asmat, but speakers want to be called Citak, not Asmat.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat 
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Dabe

[dbe] 440 (2005 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, north coast east of Sarmi, Dabe village. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Damal

[uhn] 14,000 (2000 S. Wurm). Paniai Regency, Ilaga and Beoga subdistricts, central highlands west of Western Dani, east of Ekari, southeast of Kemandoga River source, throughout Puncak Jaya, north and south Carstens Mountains. Alternate names: Amung, Amung Kal, Amungme, Amuy, Enggipiloe, Hamung, Oehoendoeni, Uhunduni.  Dialects: Damal, Amung, Amongme, Enggipilu. Related to Ekari [ekg], Moni [mnz], Wolani [wod].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Damal 
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Dani, Lower Grand Valley

[dni] 20,000 (1996 SIL). Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley, and upper gorge. Dialects: Lower Grand Valley Hitigima (Dani-Kurima, Kurima), Upper Bele, Lower Bele, Lower Kimbin (Kibin), Upper Pyramid.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper 
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Dani, Mid Grand Valley

[dnt] 50,000 (1990 UBS). Baliem Valley. Alternate names: Baliem Valley Dani, Central Grand Valley Dani, Tulem.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper 
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Dani, Upper Grand Valley

[dna] 20,000 (1996). Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley, and upper gorge. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper 
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Dani, Western

[dnw] 180,000 (1993 census). Central highlands, west of Baliem Grand Valley, east from upper Kemandoga Valley. Alternate names: Dani Barat, Ilaga Western Dani, Laany, Lani, Oeringoep, Timorini.  Dialects: Western Dani of Pyramid, Western Dani of Bokondini. Other dialects not as distinct as those listed. Lexical similarity: 65% with Obokuitai [afz], 60% with Wano [wno].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper 
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Dao

[daz] 250 (1991 SIL). West central highlands, Paniai Regency, Napan subdistrict, east of Cenderawasih Bay along Dao River. Alternate names: Maniwo, “X-Ray”.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Auye [auu].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes 
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Dem

[dem] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Western highlands along upper Rouffaer River north of Damal, northeast of Western Dani. Alternate names: Lem, Ndem.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Dem 
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Demisa

[dei] 400 (2000 S. Wurm). Waropen Bawah subdistrict, Desawa and Muyere coastal villages, Botawa village inland along Wonoi River. Alternate names: Desawa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Burate [bti], 64% with Kofei [kpi], 60% with Sauri [srt], 65% with Tunggare [trt], 64% with Woria [wor].  Classification: East Geelvink Bay, Bauzi 
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Dera

[kbv] 1,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,690. Northeast Papua, south of Jayapura, near Waris. 13 villages. Also in Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Dra, Kamberataro, Mangguar.  Classification: Senagi 
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Diebroud

[tbp] 140 (2000 S. Wurm). Sarmi Regency, Mamberamo Hulu subdistrict, Lakes Plain area south of Idenburg River east of Taiyeve. Alternate names: Taworta, Taworta-Aero, Taria, Dabra, Bok.  Classification: Lakes Plain, East 
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Dineor

[mrx] 55 (2006 SIL). North coast near the Bonggo [bpg], Maremgi village. Alternate names: Maremgi, Marengge.  Dialects: Unintelligible to speakers in neighboring settlements including Bonggo.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Diuwe

[diy] 100 (1999 SIL). Southwest of Sumo, east of Catalina River. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Diuwe 
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Doutai

[tds] 70 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 335 (1993 R. Doriot). Lakes Plain area, Toli-Dou village, west and south of Taiyeve. Alternate names: Taori, Taori-So, Tolitai.  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Duriankere

[dbn] 30 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 60. In the strait between Salawati Island and the west end of Bird’s Head, on a small island in Raja Ampat Islands. Alternate names: Duriankari, Esaro, Sailen.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Inanwatan  Nearly extinct.
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Dusner

[dsn] 6 (1978 SIL). Wandamen Bay area, west coast of Cenderawasih Bay, Dusner town area. 1 village. Alternate names: Dusnir.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic  Nearly extinct.
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Duvle

[duv] 930 (2000). Lakes Plain area south of Van Daalen River and north of Mulia, Paniai. Eastern dialect along Dagai River, western along Fedide and Wedi rivers. Alternate names: Duvde, Duve, Duvele, Duvre, Wiri.  Dialects: Eastern Duvle, Western Duvle. Few dialect differences.  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Duvle 
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Edopi

[dbf] 1,000 (1995 SIL). Tariku (Rouffaer) and Kliki (Fou) rivers juncture area. Alternate names: Dosobou, Dou, Doufou, Elopi, Foi, Iau, Turu, Urundi, Ururi, Yau.  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central 
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Eipomek

[eip] 3,000 (1987 SIL). Eastern highlands area, Eipo River, east of Nalca [nlc]. Alternate names: Eipo, T-Valley.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Una [mtg].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern 
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Ekari

[ekg] 100,000 (1985 Doble). West central highlands, Paniai. Alternate names: Ekagi, Kapauku, Me Mana, Mee Mana, Tapiro.  Dialects: Simori, Yabi (Jabi), Mapiya-Kegata, Mee. Most similar to Wolani [wol]. Slight dialect difference with Mapiya-Kegata.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes 
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Elseng

[mrf] 300 (1991 SIL). Jayapura and Keerom Regencies, Arso, Abepura, Kemtuk Gresi, Senggi subdistricts, south of Jayapura, northeast of Kaure [khp]. Alternate names: Djanggu, Janggu, “Morwap” , Sawa, Tabu.  Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Emem

[enr] 2,000 (2005 SIL). Border area south of Jayapura. Alternate names: Emumu, Imimkal, Kiamerop.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 25% with Yafi [wfg].  Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern 
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Eritai

[ert] 530 (2000). Sarmi Regency, Mamberamo Tengah and Mamberamo Hulu subdistricts. West of Mamberamo River, Lakes Plain area in low mountains just south of Danau Bira (Lake Holmes), around Kustera airstrip: Erai (east), Kustera, and Haya (south) villages. Alternate names: Aliki, Babiruwa, Babrua, Babruwa, Baburiwa, Barua, Editode Edai, Erai, Eri, Haya.  Dialects: The dialect in Obogwi village is similar but not the same. Also related to Kaiy [tcq], Doutai [tds], Biritai [bqq]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Obokuitai [afz], 50% with Sikaritai [tty].  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Erokwanas

[erw] 200 (2000 S. Wurm). Northwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula, north of Baham [bdw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai 
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Fayu

[fau] 350 (2000 S. Wurm). West of juncture of Tariku (Rouffaer) and Kliki (Fou) rivers, west of Kirikiri [kiy]. Alternate names: Sehudate.  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West 
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Fedan

[pdn] 280 (2005 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Bonggo subdistrict, coastal area and island off north coast of Biri River area. Alternate names: Podena, Fandanus.  Dialects: Similar to Anus [auq].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Foau

[flh] 230 (1975 SIL). East Lakes Plain area just north of lower Idenburg River, Foa and Mudiay villages. Alternate names: Doa.  Dialects: Similar to Diebroud [tbp].  Classification: Lakes Plain, East 
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Gresi

[grs] 2,500 (1987 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, southeast of Genyem, Hawa, Bring, Tabangkwari, Yansu, Ibub, Sunna, Klaysu villages. Alternate names: Geresi, Glesi, Gresik, Klesi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Kemtuik [kmt].  Classification: Nimboran 
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Hatam

[had] 16,000 (1993 TEAM). Manokwari Regency; Warmare, Ransiki and Oransbari subdistricts. East Bird’s Head, northeast of Manikion, south and southwest of Manokwari. Alternate names: Adihup, Atam, Borai, Hattam, Mansim, Miriei, Moi, Tinam, Uran.  Dialects: Moi (Moire), Tinam, Miriei, Adihup, Uran.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Hupla

[hap] 3,000 (1982 WT). Central highlands area east of Baliem gorge. Alternate names: Soba.  Dialects: Similar to Lower Grand Valley Dani [dni].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper 
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Iau

[tmu] 600 (2000 SIL), increasing. 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600 or more. Puncak Jaya Regency, Faui, Lakes Plain area between Rouffaer and upper Van Daalen rivers, Barere, Fawi, Taiyai villages. Poi dialect on Rouffaer River; Turu dialect on Van Daalen River. Alternate names: Foi, Iaw, Turu, Urundi, Ururi, Yau.  Dialects: Foi, Turu, Iau. Similar to Edopi [dbf]. Distinct from Yawa [yva]. The varieties listed as dialects above may be separate languages.  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central 
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Iha

[ihp] 5,500 (1987 SIL).  Alternate names: Kapaur.  Dialects: Similar to Baham.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper 
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Iha Based Pidgin

[ihb]  Bomberai Peninsula, far west end around Fak Fak and north. Classification: Pidgin, Iha based 
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Irarutu

[irh] 4,000 (1987 SIL). East Bomberai Peninsula southwest from Arguni Bay north to Bintuni Bay. 44 villages. Alternate names: Arguni Bay, Irahutu, Irutu, Kaitero, Kasira.  Dialects: 6 or 7 dialects. Lexical similarity: 90% with Kuri [nbn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera 
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Iresim

[ire] 70 (2000 S. Wurm). South Cenderawasih Bay, west of Nabire and around Yamur Lake. Alternate names: Beduba, Yerisiam.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Iresim 
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Isirawa

[srl] 1,800 (2000 S. Wurm). Jayapura, north coast, Sarmi area and west, Mararena, Kamenawari, Amsira, Siaratesa, Perkami, Martewar, Arsania, Nisero, Arabais, Webro, Wari, Nuerawar, Waim villages. Alternate names: Okwasar, Saberi, Saweri.  Dialects: Western Isirawa, Eastern Isirawa. Similar to Kwerba [kwe]. Dialects very similar.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Isirawa 
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Itik

[itx] 80 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 200. North coast east of Tor River, along upper Biri River. Alternate names: Betef, Borto, Ittik, Ittik-Tor.  Dialects: Ittik, Ittik-Tor.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Iwur

[iwo] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Iwur River valley border area, Ok Iwur, east to Ok Denom. Alternate names: Iwoer.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland 
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Jofotek-Bromnya

[jbr] 200 (2007), increasing. Papua Province, Sarmi Regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Biridua village; Sarmi Regency, Bonggo subdistrict, Srum village. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Kaburi

[uka] 600 (1986 SIL). Manokwari Regency, Merdei and Inanwatan subdistricts, south Bird’s Head, north of Kokoda and Fakfak, east of Kemberano [bzp] and Arandai [jbj]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western 
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Kais

[kzm] 700 (1993 R. Doriot). South Bird’s Head area inland along Kais River. 8 villages. Alternate names: Aiso, Atori, Kampung Baru, Mintamani.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western 
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Kaiy

[tcq] 220 (2000 S. Wurm). Lakes Plain area around Kaiy airstrip on lower Rouffaer River, Kaiy and Kokou villages. Alternate names: Kai, Taori-Kaiy, Taori-Kei, Todi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Biritai [bqq].  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Kalabra

[kzz] 3,290 (2000). West Bird’s Head, south of Madik [kgr] language, east of Moi [msf]. Alternate names: Beraur.  Dialects: Most similar to Tehit [kps]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Tehit.  Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head 
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Kamberau

[irx] 1,570 (1993 R. Doriot). Southeast Bomberai Peninsula, Kamrau Bay area, Ubia-Seramuku, Bahomia, Waho, Wamoma, Inari, Tanggaromi, Koi, Wamesa, Coa villages. Alternate names: Iria, Kamkbrau, Kamrau.  Dialects: Similar to Buruwai [asi]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Buruwai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sabakor 
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Kamoro

[kgq] 8,000 (1987 SIL). South coast, Etna Bay to Mukamuga River. Alternate names: Kamora, Kaokonau, Lakahia, Mimika, Mukamuga, Nafarpi, Nagramadu, Nefarpi, Neferipi, Umar, Umari.  Dialects: Tarya, Yamur, Nanesa. 4 other dialects.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Kamoro 
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Kanum, Bädi

[khd] 10 (1996 M. Donohue). South coast border area, east of Merauke, southeast of Marind [mrz], north and west of Smärky Kanum [kxq], Tomer and Onggaya villages. Alternate names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne.  Dialects: Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Similar to Yei [jei]. Has also been classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda  Nearly extinct.
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Kanum, Ngkâlmpw

[kcd] 150 (1996 M. Donohue). South coast border area, east of Merauke, southeast of Marind [mrz], north and west of Smärky Kanum [kxq], Yanggandur, Tomer, Onggaya villages. Alternate names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne.  Dialects: Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Similar to Yei [jei]. Has also been classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda 
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Kanum, Smärky

[kxq] 80 (1996 M. Donohue). South coast border area, east of Merauke, southeast of Marind [mrz] and the other Kanum language areas. Yanggandur, Tomer, Tomerau, Rawa Biru, and Kondo villages, bordering Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne.  Dialects: Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Similar to Yei [jei]. Has also been classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda 
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Kanum, Sota

[krz] 100 (1996 M. Donohue). South coast border area, east of Merauke, southeast of Marind [mrz], south of Yei [jei], Sota village. Alternate names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne.  Dialects: Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Similar to Yei [jei]. Has also been classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda 
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Kapauri

[khp] 200 (2006 SIL). Upper Idenburg River, north bank, Pagai village, Kamikaru and Magri hamlets. Alternate names: Kapori.  Classification: Kaure, Kapore 
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Kaptiau

[kbi] 230 (2006 SIL). Papua Province, Sarmi Regency, Bonggo subdistrict, Kaptiau village. Alternate names: Kaptiauw, Kapitiauw.  Dialects: Most similar to Tarpia [tpf].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Karas

[kgv] 240 (1983 SIL). Karas Island, off southwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula, southeast from Fak Fak, Antalisa and Mas. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, Karas 
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Karon Dori

[kgw] 5,000 (1987 SIL). Central Bird’s Head north of Brat, Pef, Asses, Sunopi, Siakwa villages. Alternate names: Maiyach, Mari, Meon.  Dialects: Similar to Mai Brat [ayz].  Classification: Maybrat 
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Kaure

[bpp] 450 (1995 SIL). Southwest of Lake Sentani, Nawa River, Lereh, Harna, Wes, Masta, Aurina villages. Alternate names: Kaureh.  Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper 
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Kauwera

[xau] 400 (1987 SIL). East of mid-Mamberamo, north and south of Kasonaweja. Alternate names: Kabera, Kaowerawedj, Kauwerawec, Kauwerawetj, Kawera, Koassa, Tekutameso.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear 
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Kawe

[kgb] 600 (Remijsen 2001). Waigeo Island, west end off west coast of Bird’s Head, Raja Ampat Islands, Salio, Selepele, Bianci, Menyefun villages. Dialects: Related to Maya [slz], Maden [xmx], Matbat [xmt].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Kayagar

[kyt] 10,000 (1993 WT), decreasing. South coast east of Atohwaim [aqm], south of Awyu Asue [psa] languages. Alternate names: Kajagar, Kaygi, Kaygir, Wiyagar.  Dialects: Most similar to Tamagario [tcg]; related to Atohwaim.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar 
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Kayupulau

[kzu] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 573 (1978 SIL). Jayapura harbor, Kayubatu and Kayupulau villages. Alternate names: Kajupulau.  Dialects: Not a dialect of Tobati (Yotafa) [tti].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay  Nearly extinct.
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Kehu

[khh] 25 (2002 SIL). Wapoga River between Auye [auu] and Dao [nfa] in the foothills. Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Keijar

[kdy] 370 (2005 SIL). North coast east of Tor River mouth. Alternate names: Keder.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 45% with Berik [bkl].  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Kemberano

[bzp] 1,500 (1987 SIL). South Bird’s Head coast, east of Komundan River, south of Arandai [jbj]; northwest Bomberai Peninsula, south from Kalitami across Bintuni Bay, several villages. Alternate names: Arandai, Barau, Kalitami, Wariagar.  Dialects: Barau, Weriagar. Lexical similarity: 85% with Arandai [jbj], 60% with Kokoda [xod].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Eastern 
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Kembra

[xkw] 20 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 50. Jayawijaya Regency, Okbibab subdistrict, east of Sogber River. Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Kemtuik

[kmt] 2,500 (1987 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, Mamdayawang, Meikari, Merem, Yanim, Braso, Aib, Sabransamon, Mamda, Sabeyap, Sabeyap Kecil, Sekorup, Aimbe, Sabron Yaru villages. East of Gresi [grs]. Alternate names: Kamtuk, Kemtuk.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Gresi.  Classification: Nimboran 
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Ketengban

[xte] 9,970 (2000). Near Papua New Guinea border, east highland slopes scattered, east of Eipomek [eip] and west of Ngalum [szb]. Alternate names: Kupel, Oktengban.  Dialects: Okbap, Omban, Bime, Onya. Lexical similarity: 69% with Una [mtg].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western 
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Ketum

[ktt] 900 (2003 SIL). 99% monolinguals. Northeast of Wambon [wms]. Alternate names: Kitum, Wambon-Ketum.  Dialects: Related to Wambon, Mandobo. Lexical similarity: 49% with Wambon.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Kimaghima

[kig] 3,000 (1987 SIL). West of southeast Papua, Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) Island, east of Marauke, Ngolar II. Alternate names: Kimaghama, Kaladdarsch, Teri-Kalwasch, Kimaama.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom 
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Kimki

[sbt] 500 (2004 SIL). Pegunungan Bintang Regency, Batom subdistrict, border area where Sepik River enters Papua. Alternate names: Aipki, Kimgi, Sukubatom, Sukubatong.  Classification: Sepik, Biksi 
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Kirikiri

[kiy] 250 (1982 SIL). Most monolingual. Tariku (Rouffaer) and Kliki (Fou) rivers juncture west, Dofu Wahuka, Paniai villages. Alternate names: Kirira.  Dialects: Kirikiri, Faia.  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West 
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Kofei

[kpi] 100 (2000 S. Wurm). East side of Geelvink Bay, recently moved to Sauri-Sirami village. Possibly seminomads in the interior. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Barapasi [brp], 64% with Demisa [dei], 76% with Sauri [srt], 63% with Woria [wor].  Classification: East Geelvink Bay 
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Kokoda

[xod] 3,700 (1991 SIL). Bird’s Head, south coast on Maccluer Gulf, east of Inanwatan. Alternate names: Kasuweri, Komudago, Nebes, Oderago, Samalek, Tarof.  Dialects: Kasuweri (Komudago), Negri Besar (Negeri Besar), Tarof. Wurm and Hattori (1981) list Kasuweri and Tarof as separate languages. Komudago and Tarof dialects are most similar. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemberano [bzp]; Kasuweri dialect 86% with Tarof dialect; Negri Besar 82% with Tarof.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Central 
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Kombai

[tyn] 4,000 (1991 SIL). South coast area east of Senggo, Boma area. Alternate names: Komboy.  Dialects: Central Kombai, Tayan. Most similar to Wanggom [wng].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Komyandaret

[kzv] 300 (2000 SIL). East of Korowai [khe], north of Tsaukambo [kvz] and Wanggom [wng]. Dialects: Similar to Tsaukambo.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum 
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Konda

[knd] 500 (1988 SIL). Southwest Bird’s Head, Teminabuan subdistrict, lower Waromge River south of Teminabuan, Konda village. Alternate names: Ogit, Yabin, Yabin-Konda.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Yahadian [ner].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Konda-Yahadian 
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Koneraw

[kdw] 1,200 (2001 SIL). Frederik Hendrik Island south coast. Alternate names: Konorau.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mombum 
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Kopkaka

[opk] 400 (2002 SIL). Jayawijaya Regency, Kurima subdistrict, Siradala, Burungmakok villages. Lowlands area south of the main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela. Alternate names: Kopka.  Dialects: Marub, Tokuni. Similar to Kwer [kwr].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western 
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Korowai

[khe] 3,500 (2007 P. de Vries). 3,000 monolinguals. South coast area, north of Boma, northeast of Senggo, southeast of Siradela, southwest of Awimbon. Alternate names: Kolufaup.  Dialects: North Korowai, South Korowai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Korowai 
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Korupun-Sela

[kpq] 8,000 (1996 E. Young). Jayawijaya Regency, Kurima subdistrict, Siradala, Burungmakok villages. East highlands on upper reaches of Erok River, southwest of Nalca, east of Yali of Ninia. Alternate names: Kimyal of Korupun, Korapun.  Dialects: Korupun (Duram), Dagi, Sisibna (Gobugdua), Deibula, Sela. Related to Nalca [nlc]. Lexical similarity 60% with Nipsan [nps].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern 
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Kosare

[kiq] 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Hulu Atas, west of Nawa and Idenburg rivers juncture. Alternate names: Kosadle.  Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper 
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Kowiai

[kwh] 600 (2000 SIL). Bomberai Peninsula; southwest coast, Kaimana; Kamrau Bay on several islands, Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota, Waikala, Kayumerah villages. Alternate names: Adi, Aiduma, Kaiwai, Kajumerah, Kayumerah, Koiwai, Kuiwai, Namatota, Namatote.  Dialects: Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota, Waikala. Central Malayo-Polynesian (1991 R. Blust).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, South Bomberai 
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Kuri

[nbn] 500 (1982 SIL). Southwest Bomberai Peninsula, Nabi (Kuri) River area west from Wandamen Bay. 16 villages. Alternate names: Modan, Nabi.  Dialects: Similar to Irarutu [irh]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Irarutu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Unclassified 
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Kurudu

[kjr] 2,180 (1993 R. Doriot). Kurudu Island between east tip of Serui Island and mainland of Papua east, Kaipuri, Poiwai villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Wabo [wbb], 46% with Western Serui. Kaipuri dialect has highest lexical similarity with Yapen group.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East 
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Kwer

[kwr] 100 (1998 M. Donohue). Jayawijaya Regency, Kurima subdistrict, Kwer village. Lowlands area south of the main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela. Dialects: Similar to Kopkaka [opk].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western 
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Kwerba

[kwe] 2,500 (1996 SIL). Upper Tor River area, northeast, headwaters of Apauwer River inland from Sarmi east to Berik language, Aurime, Munukania, Wamariri, Tatsewalem around Apiaweti villages. Alternate names: Airmati, Armati, Koassa, Mataweja, Naibedj, Segar Tor, Serikenam, Tekutameso.  Dialects: Serikenam, Sasawa, Nogukwabai. Lexical similarity: 64% with Bagusa [bqb].  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear 
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Kwerba Mamberamo

[xwr] 300 (1993 R. Doriot). East of Mamberamo River, south of Kasonaweja, in mountains above Kwerba, Edifalen, Marinafalen, villages. Alternate names: Napok, Nobuk, Nogukwabai, Nopuk, Nopukw, Tatsewalem.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear 
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Kwerisa

[kkb] 32 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 130. Lower Rouffaer River, Kaiy village. Alternate names: Taogwe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Biritai [bqq].  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East  Nearly extinct.
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Kwesten

[kwt] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Lower Tor River, north coast area east of Sarmi, Holmhaven, Mafenter, Arare, Omte villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 40% with Berik [bkl].  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Kwinsu

[kuc] 500 (2007). Papua Province, Sarmi Regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Ansudu village. Alternate names: Ansudu.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Legenyem

[lcc] 250 (2000 S. Wurm). Raja Ampat Islands, Waigeo Island in northwest end of main bay and on south coast, Beo, Lempintol, Wawiai villages. Alternate names: Laganyan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Lepki

[lpe] 530 (1991 SIL). Jayawijaya Regency, Okbibab subdistrict, on Sogber River, east and north of the Ketengban. Dialects: Possible genetic similarities with Murkim [rmh].  Classification: Unclassified 
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Liki

[lio] 11 (2005 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 320. Sarmi Regency, Sarmi subdistrict, Islands off north coast of Sarmi. Alternate names: Moar.  Dialects: Similar to Sobei [sob].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi  Nearly extinct.
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Maden

[xmx] 600 (Remijsen 2001). Raja Ampat Islands, west Salawati Island. Alternate names: Palamul, Saparan, Sapran.  Dialects: Kawait.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Mai Brat

[ayz] 20,000 (1987 SIL). Central Bird’s Head around Ayamaru Lakes. About 40 villages. Alternate names: Ajamaru, Atinjo, Ayamaru, Brat, Maibrat, Maite, Majbrat, Maybrat, Mey Brat.  Dialects: Maisawiet, Maiyah, Maimaka, Maite, Maisefa. Lexical similarity: 10% with Tehit [kps], Mpur [akc], Abun [kgr], its most similar neighbors.  Classification: Maybrat 
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Mairasi

[zrs] 3,300 (1996 SIL). Bomberai Peninsula, southwest coast of neck, east and northeast from Kaimana, Wasior, Triton Bay. Alternate names: Faranyao, Kaniran.  Dialects: Northeastern Mairasi. Similar to Semimi [etz]. Northeastern Mairasi may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 69% with Semimi, 61% with Mer [mnu].  Classification: Mairasi 
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Maklew

[mgf] 120. South coast area, east side of Marianne strait, west of Marind [mrz] and east of Yelmek [jel] languages. Alternate names: Makleu.  Dialects: Similar to Yelmek.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Yelmek-Maklew 
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Malay, Papuan

[pmy] 500,000, increasing. Papua. Dialects: Similar to both Ambonese Malay [abs] and Manado Malay [xmm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade, East Indonesian 
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Mander

[mqr] 20 (1991 SIL). Upper Tor River tributary of upper Bu River, north coast area. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor  Nearly extinct.
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Mandobo Atas

[aax] 1,000 (2002 SIL). Fly River border area east of Digul River between Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah. Alternate names: Dumut, “Kaeti” , Kambon, Kwem, Mandobbo, Nub, Wambon.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Mandobo Bawah

[bwp] 2,000 (2002 SIL). Fly River border area east of Digul River between Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah, Getentiri, Anggai, Butiptiri, Subur, Aiwat, Kaisah villages. Alternate names: Dumut, “Kaeti” , Kambon, Mandobbo, Nub.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Manem

[jet] 400 in Indonesia (1978 SIL). South of Jayapura, northeast border area, Wembi, Yeti, Kiba villages. Alternate names: Jeti, Skofro, Wembi, Yeti.  Classification: Border, Waris 
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Manikion

[mnx] 12,000 (1987 SIL). East Bird’s Head, east of Meyah, south of Manokwari. About 50 villages. Alternate names: Mantion, Sogh, Sougb.  Dialects: 4 dialects.  Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Mantion 
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Mapia

[mpy] 1. Mapia Islands, about 290 kms. north of Manokwari. Alternate names: Mapian.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic  Nearly extinct.
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Marau

[mvr] 1,700 (1987 SIL). Serui Island south coast. 5 villages. Dialects: Warabori (Natabui, Warembori). Lexical similarity: 82% with Pom [pmo], Munggui [mth], Papuma [ppm], Ansus [and].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Marind

[mrz] 7,000 (1987 SIL). Merauke south coast area, and north and west. Alternate names: Gawir, Holifoersch, Southeast Marind, Tugeri.  Dialects: Gawir, Southeast Marind, Tugeri, Halifoersch. Significant differences between inland and coastal dialects, but speakers report intelligibility.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Nuclear Marind 
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Marind, Bian

[bpv] 2,900 (2002 M. Sohn). Merauke Regency, Muting subdistrict, Upper Bian River area, Maro River, Sanayu village. Alternate names: Bian, Boven-Mbian, Northwest Marind.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Marind [mrz].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Nuclear Marind 
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Masimasi

[ism] 10 (2005 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Island off north coast east of Tor River mouth. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi  Nearly extinct.
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Massep

[mvs] 25 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 85. North coast east of Mamberamo River mouth and west of Sarmi, near Apauwer River. Alternate names: Masep, Potafa, Wotaf.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Matbat

[xmt] 1,250 (Remijsen 2001). Raja Ampat Islands, Misool Island, Segaf Islands. Alternate names: Me.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Mawes

[mgk] 850 (2006 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Bonggo subdistrict, northeast coast east of Sarmi, Mawes Wres, Mawes Dai, Mawes Mukti villages. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Mawes 
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Ma’ya

[slz] 4,000 (Remijsen 2001). Raja Ampat Islands, central Waigeo Island and central Salawati Island. Alternate names: Sailolof, Salawati, Samate.  Dialects: Ma’ya, Banlol, Batanta Island.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Mekwei

[msf] 1,200 (1987 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, Maribu, Waibrong, Kendate, Sabron Dosay villages. Alternate names: Demenggong-Waibron-Bano, Menggei, Menggwei, Moi, Mooi, Munggai, Mungge, Munkei, Waipu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemtuik [kmt].  Classification: Nimboran 
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Meoswar

[mvx] 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Meoswar Island, west Cenderawasih Bay. Alternate names: War.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic 
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Mer

[mnu] 85 (2000). Central Bird’s Head, Wosimi and Uremo river headwaters. Alternate names: Miere, Muri.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 63% with Semimi [etz], 61% with Mairasi [zrs].  Classification: Mairasi 
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Meyah

[mej] 14,800 (2000). East Bird’s Head, north coast, west of Manokwari, north of Hattam [had]; scattered. Alternate names: Arfak, Mansibaber, Meah, Meax, Mejach, Mejah, Meyach.  Dialects: Most similar to Manikion [mnx].  Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Meax 
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Mlap

[kja] 300 (2000 S. Wurm). West of Lake Sentani, just north of Gresi [grs]. Alternate names: Kuangsu-Bonggrang, Kwangsu-Bonggrang, Kwansu, Kwansu-Bonggrang.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemtuik [kmt].  Classification: Nimboran 
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Mo

[wkd] 550 (2005 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, coastal area and Wakde Island off the north coast just east of Tor River. Alternate names: Wakde.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Moi

[mxn] 4,600 (1993 R. Doriot). Salawati Island, west Bird’s Head around Sorong. 9 villages. Alternate names: Mekwei, Mooi, Mosana.  Dialects: Mosemah.  Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head 
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Molof

[msl] 200 (1978 SIL). South of Jayapura, west of Senggi, Molof and Waley villages. Alternate names: Ampas, Poule.  Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Mombum

[mso] 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Island next to southeast coast of Fredrik Hendrik Island. Alternate names: Kemelom, Kemelomsch, Komolom.  Dialects: Most similar to Koneraw [kdw].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mombum 
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Momina

[mmb] 200 (1998 M. Donohue). Lowlands just south of main ranges southeast of Una [mtg], Samboka village. Classification: Somahai 
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Momuna

[mqf] 2,000 (2000 S. Wurm). 2,000 monolinguals. Lowlands just south of main ranges, from south of Silimo east to south of Korupun-Sela [kpq]. Alternate names: Somage, Somahai, Sumohai.  Classification: Somahai 
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Moni

[mnz] 20,000 (1991 SIL). Central highlands, northeast Lake Paniai area. Alternate names: Djonggunu, Jonggunu, Migani.  Dialects: Awembak (Awembiak).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes 
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Mor

[mhz] 700 (1987 SIL). Mor Islands, east Cenderawasih Bay near Nabire. Alternate names: Austronesian Mor.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Mor 
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Mor

[moq] 25 (2000 S. Wurm). Northwest Bomberai Peninsula, Bintuni Bay coast. Alternate names: Mor2.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mor  Nearly extinct.
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Moraid

[msg] 1,000 (1988 SIL). South coast border area 20 kms. east of Merauke, east of Marind, west of Kanum. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head 
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Morori

[mok] 50 (1998 M. Donohue). Ethnic population: 250 (1998 M. Donohue). South coast border area 20 km east of Merauke, east of Marind, west of Kanum. Alternate names: Marori, Moaraeri, Moraori, Morari.  Dialects: Menge dialect remembered as the language of ceremony, though the last Menge speaker died in 1997.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Moraori  Nearly extinct.
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Moskona

[mtj] 8,000 (1996 SIL). Southeast Bird’s Head, south of Meyah, west of Manikion. Alternate names: Meninggo, Meningo, Meyah, Sabena.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Meyah [mej]. Also related to Manikion [mnx].  Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Meax 
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Mpur

[akc] 7,000 (1993 R. Doriot). North coast of Bird’s Head, west of Manokwari, and Kebar Valley. Alternate names: Amberbaken, Dekwambre, Ekware, Kebar.  Dialects: Sirir, Ajiw.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Munggui

[mth] 800 (1982 SIL). North coast of Serui Island, Munggui, Windesi, Murui, Asei Puramati villages. Alternate names: Natabui.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Marau [mvr] and Papuma [ppm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Murkim

[rmh] 290 (2004 SIL). Pegunungan Bintang Regency, Batom subdistrict, southeast of Yetfa [yet], Mot and Milki villages. Dialects: Possible genetic relationship to Lepki [lpe].  Classification: Unclassified 
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Muyu, North

[kti] 8,000 (2002 SIL). South coast border area, north of South Muyu [kts] and east of Wambon [wms]. Alternate names: Kataut, Kati-Ninanti, Moejoe, Niinati, Ninatie, North, North Kati, Yonggom, Yongkom, Yongom.  Dialects: Kanggewot, Toemoetoe (Are).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland 
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Muyu, South

[kts] 4,000 (2002 SIL). South coast, just north of Fly River border between Papua, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Digoel, Digul, Kati Metomka, Metomka, Moejoe, Ok Bari, South, South Kati, Yonggom, Yongkom, Yongom.  Dialects: Metomka.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland 
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Nafri

[nxx] 1,630 (1975 SIL). Jayapura area, southeast end of Yotafa Bay, Nafri village. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper 
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Nakai

[nkj] 700 (1999 M. Donohue). East of upper Digul River, Awimbom village in the center of 5 other villages extending toward Ok Sibil northeast, and southwest toward Iwur. Alternate names: Na’ai, Na’i, Nagai.  Dialects: Probably 3 dialects, two of these may constitute a separate language called Nagi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain 
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Nalca

[nlc] 11,100 (2000). Northeast of Korupun and southeast of Nipsan, north slopes, east highlands area. Alternate names: Hmanggona, Hmonono, Kimjal, Kimyal, Naltje, Naltya.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 59% with Kosarek Yale [kkl].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern 
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Namla

[naa] 30 (2005 SIL). Senggi Subistrict, Keerom Regency, Namla village. Dialects: Possible genetic relationship to Tofanma [tlg].  Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Narau

[nxu] 85 (2000 S. Wurm). Jayapura area, Kecamatan Kaureh. Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper 
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Ndom

[nqm] 1,200 (2002 SIL). Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) Island. Dialects: Most similar to Kimaghima [kig], Riantana [ran].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom 
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Nduga

[ndx] 10,000 (1985 M. Owen). Jayawijaya, Tiom, central highlands, south of high ranges, south of Western Dani, north of Asmat. Scattered. Alternate names: Dauwa, Dawa, Ndauwa, Ndugwa, Pesecham, Pesechem, Pesegem.  Dialects: Sinak Nduga, Hitadipa Nduga.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik 
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Ngalum

[szb] 10,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). Population total all countries: 18,000. Northeast of Nakai, valleys of Ok Sibil, Ok Tsop, perhaps Ok Bon, main range border area north of Muyu [kts] (Yongkom) and Iwur [iwo]. Also in Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Sibil.  Dialects: Ngalum, Apmisibil, Sibil.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum 
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Nggem

[nbq] 4,400 (2005). North of Wamena, middle Haflifoeri River. Dialects: Similar to Walak [wlw]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Yali (Pass Valley) [yac], 62% with Walak, and 50% with Western Dani [dnw].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper 
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Nimboran

[nir] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,500 (1987 SIL). North Papua, due west of Lake Sentani. About 26 villages. Alternate names: Nambrong.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 40% with Kemtuik [kmt].  Classification: Nimboran 
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Ninggerum

[nxr] 1,000 in Indonesia. Border area and in Papua New Guinea between Ok Birim and Ok Tedi rivers. Alternate names: Kasiwa, Kativa, Muyu, Ninggeroem, Ninggirum, Ninggrum, Orgwo.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland 
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Nipsan

[nps] 2,500 (1993 R. Doriot). Jayawijaya, Kurima, just west of Hmanggona. Alternate names: Southern Jale, Yale-Nipsan.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 78% with Kosarek Yale [kkl], 59% with Nalca [nlc].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern 
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Nisa

[njs] 500 (1987 SIL). East side of Geelvink Bay inland, Danau Nisa area. Alternate names: Bonefa, Kerema.  Classification: East Geelvink Bay 
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Obokuitai

[afz] 120 (2000 S. Wurm). Lakes Plain just north of mid-Rouffaer River, Obogwi village. Alternate names: Aliki, Ati, Obogwitai.  Dialects: Related to Doutai [tds], Biritai [bqq], Sikaritai [tty]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Eritai [ert], 69% with Biritai.  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Onin

[oni] 500 (2000 S. Wurm). North and northwest Bomberai Peninsula. Alternate names: Onim, Sepa.  Dialects: Nikuda, Ogar, Patipi, Sepa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai 
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Onin Based Pidgin

[onx]  Onin Peninsula. Classification: Pidgin, Onin based 
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Ormu

[orz] 500 (2000 S. Wurm). North coast area just west of Jayapura, north of Cyclops Mountains, Ormu Besar, Ormu Kecil villages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay 
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Orya

[ury] 1,600 (1985 SIL). No monolinguals. 900 in Unurum-Guay, 100 in Bonggo subdistrict, 600 in Lereh subdistrict. Unurum-Guay, Bonggo subdistrict, Lereh subdistrict, Taja, Witi, and Wamho (formerly of Orya) villages. Alternate names: Oria, Uria, Warpok, Warpu.  Dialects: Barat (West Orya), Timur (East Orya), Yapsi-Taja. Slight dialect differences.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Orya 
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Papasena

[pas] 400 (1982 SIL). Lakes Plain area, lower Idenburg River just east of Rouffaer River juncture. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 23% with Sikaritai [tty].  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Papuma

[ppm] 600 (1982 SIL). Serui Island south coast, Papuma village. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Munggui [mth], Marau [mvr], Ansus [and].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Pom

[pmo] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Miosnum Island, west Serui Island, Pom, Serewen, Mias Endi villages. Dialects: Jobi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Puragi

[pru] 700 (1991 SIL). Southwest Bird’s Head along Maccluer Gulf, inland Matamani River area. Alternate names: Mogao.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western 
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Rasawa

[rac] 200 (1987 SIL). Waropen Bawah subdistrict, south coast. 2 villages. Classification: Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi 
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Riantana

[ran] 1,100 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Frederik Hendrik Island. Alternate names: Kimaam.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom 
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Roon

[rnn] 1,100 (1993 R. Doriot). Roon Island west of Cenderawasih Bay, north of Wandamen Peninsula. Alternate names: Ron.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Samarokena

[tmj] 400 (1982 SIL). North coast inland just east of Apawar River, west of Sarmi, Karfasia, Samarkena, Maseb, Tamaya villages. Alternate names: Karfasia, Samarkena, Tamaja, Tamaya.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, West Coast 
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Saponi

[spi] 4 (2000 S. Wurm). Interior Waropen Bawah subdistrict, Botawa village. Classification: Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi  Nearly extinct.
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Sauri

[srt] 100 (1987 SIL). East side of Cenderawasih Bay near Waropen [wrp], Sauri-Sirami village, near Sirami River. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Barapasi [brp], 60% with Demisa [dei], 76% with Kofei [kpi], 63% with Tefaro [tfo].  Classification: East Geelvink Bay 
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Sause

[sao] 250 (2000 S. Wurm). Southwest of Sentani, northwest of Lereh, Ures, Mubararon, Sause-Bokoko, Witti-Yadow, Lidya, Puaral villages. Alternate names: Seuce.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Sause 
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Saweru

[swr] 300 (1991 SIL). Serui Waropen Regency, Yapen Selatan subdistrict, central Serui Island, an island south of Yapen Island near Serui. Alternate names: Sarwar Use.  Classification: West Papuan, Yapen 
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Sawi

[saw] 3,500 (1993 R. Doriot). Asmat Regency, Pantai Kasuari and Fayit subdistricts, near south coastal lowland, between Kronkel and Ayip rivers and upper Fayit River area, Kamur, Esebor, Wiagas, Minahai, Comoro villages. Alternate names: Aejauroh, Sawuy.  Dialects: Most similar to Awyu languages.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Sawi 
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Seget

[sbg] 1,200 (1988 SIL). West Bird’s Head southwest of Sorong, west and southwest of Moi [mxn], Walian, Sailolof, Segum, Seget villages. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head 
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Sekar

[skz] 450 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Northwest Bomberai Peninsula coast and one small island. Alternate names: Seka.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: highest with Arguni [agf].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai 
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Semimi

[etz] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Bomberai Peninsula near Kaniran, south part of neck extending west to Triton Bay. Alternate names: Etna Bay, Muri, Wesrau.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Mairasi [zrs], 63% with Mer [mnu].  Classification: Mairasi 
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Sempan

[xse] 1,000 (1987 SIL). Middle south coast, between Kokonao and Agats, east of Kamoro [kgq], west of Asmat languages. Alternate names: Nararapi.  Dialects: Similar to Kamoro [kgq].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sempan 
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Sentani

[set] 30,000 (1996 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Lake Sentani area, about 30 villages. Scattered in Papua and other parts of Indonesia. Alternate names: Buyaka.  Dialects: East Sentani, West Sentani, Central Sentani. Lexical similarity: 30% with Tabla [tnm].  Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper 
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Serui-Laut

[seu] 1,200 (1987 SIL). South central Serui Island, Nau Island south of Serui. 5 villages. Alternate names: Arui.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Ansus [and], 77% with Ambai [amk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Sikaritai

[tty] 800 (1993 R. Doriot). Lakes Plain area, Idenburg and Rouffaer River junctions north, Mamberamo River, Sikari, Haya, Iri villages. Alternate names: Aikwakai, Araikurioko, Ati, Sikari, Tori, Tori Aikwakai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 86% with Eritai [ert].  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Silimo

[wul] 5,000 (1987 SIL). 50% monolinguals. Central highlands south of the range immediately west of Baliem River, Amo, Kiniage valleys. Alternate names: Paiyage, South Ngalik, Usak, Wulik.  Dialects: Lower Samenage.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik 
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Skou

[skv] 700 (1999 M. Donohue). East of Jayapura, north coast border area, Tami River mouth, Sko-Yambe, Sko-Mabu, Sko-Sai villages. Alternate names: Sekol, Sekou, Sko, Skouw, Skow, Sukou, Te Mawo, Tumawo.  Dialects: Related to Vanimo [vam], Wutung [wut], Margu [mhg].  Classification: Sko, Vanimo 
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Sobei

[sob] 1,000 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 1,850 (2000 D. Tryon). Sarmi Regency, Sarmi subdistrict, north coast area east of Sarmi. Alternate names: Biga, Imasi, Liki.  Dialects: Comprehension of, Liki [lio], Papuan Malay [pmy].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Sowanda

[sow] 210 in Indonesia (2002 SIL). South of Jayapur, northeast border area. Alternate names: Waina, Waina-Sowanda, Wanja, Wanya, Wina.  Classification: Border, Waris 
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Sowari

[dmy] 1,300 (2000), decreasing. North coast west of Tanamerah Bay, Muris Besar, Muris Kecil, Ambora, Yougafsa villages. Alternate names: Demta, Muris.  Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Demta 
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Suabo

[szp] 1,100 (1987 SIL). South Bird’s Head along Maccluer Gulf. 15 villages. Alternate names: Iagu, Inanwatan, Mirabo, Suabau.  Dialects: Most similar to Duriankere [dbn].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Inanwatan 
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Sunum

[ymn] 560 (2005 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, coastal area and an island off north coast, east of Tor River. Alternate names: Yamna.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Tabla

[tnm] 3,750 (1990 UBS). Jayapura, Demta, Depapre, 13 villages on north coast east and west of Tanahmerah Bay. Alternate names: Jakari, Tabi, Tanah Merah, Tanahmerah 2, Tepera.  Dialects: Yokari, Tepera, Yewena-Yongsu. Yokari dialect understood by other dialects at 80% to 95%, others have 95%–100% mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 30% with Sentani [set].  Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper 
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Taikat

[aos] 500 (2000 S. Wurm). Straight south of Jayapura, northeast border area. Alternate names: Arso, Tajkat.  Dialects: Most similar to Awyi [auw].  Classification: Border, Taikat 
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Tamagario

[tcg] 3,500 (1987 SIL). South coast area, south and east of Kayagar [kyt] and west of Yaqay [jaq]. Alternate names: Buru, Tamaraw, Wagow, Wiyagar.  Dialects: Most similar to Kayagar [kyt], also related to Atohwaim [aqm].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar 
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Tanahmerah

[tcm] 500 (1978 SIL). North Bomberai Peninsula, Gondu and Bapai rivers. Alternate names: Sumeri, Sumerine.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tanah Merah 
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Tandia

[tni] 2 (1991 SIL). Bird’s Head neck area just south of Wandamen Peninsula, Wohsimi River. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Tandia  Nearly extinct.
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Tangko

[tkx] 100 (2000 SIL). West of Nakai [nkj], Kawemaot village. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Tangko 
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Tarpia

[tpf] 630 (2006 SIL). Province of Papua, Jayapura Regency, Demta subdistrict, Tarpia village. Alternate names: Tarfia, Sufrai.  Dialects: Most similar to Kaptiau [kbi] and Bonggo [bgp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Tause

[tad] 300 (2000 S. Wurm). West Lakes Plain (Paniai), southwest of Danau Bira, Deraposi area, northeast of Fayu [fau], northwest of Edopi [dbf]. Alternate names: Darha, Doa.  Dialects: Tause, Weirate, Deirate. Related to Fayu, Kirikiri [kiy].  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West 
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Tebi

[dmu] 220 (2005 SIL). Border area south of Jayapura, south of Yafi [wfg], east of Emem [enr], north of Towei [ttn], Dubu, Jembatan Web, Affi villages. Alternate names: Dubu.  Classification: Pauwasi, Western 
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Tefaro

[tfo] 100 (1987 SIL). East side of Cenderawasih Bay, Tefaro and Demba villages. Alternate names: Demba.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Barapasi [brp], 63% with Sauri [srt], 70% with Tunggare [trt].  Classification: East Geelvink Bay 
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Tehit

[kps] 10,000 (2000 R. Hesse). 500 monolinguals. Southwest Bird’s Head, Regency Sorong, most of Teminabuan subdistrict, half of Sawiat subdistrict. About 31 villages. Alternate names: Kaibus, Tahit, Tehid, Teminabuan.  Dialects: Tehit Jit, Mbol Fle, Saifi, Imyan, Sfa Riere, Fkar, Sawiat Salmeit. Most similar to Kalabra [kzz]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kalabra.  Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head 
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Tobati

[tti] 350 (1998 M. Donohue). Jayapura Bay, near Jayapura, Tobati, Enggros, Entrop, Kota Raja, Tanah Hitam villages. Alternate names: Enggros, Humboldt Jotafa, Jayapura, Jotafa, Tobwadic, Yautefa, Yotafa.  Dialects: Formerly classified as Papuan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay 
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Tofanma

[tlg] 250 (2005 SIL). South Jayapuraborder area, Keerom Regency, Senggi subdistrict, Tofanma Satu, Tofanma Dua, and most of Namla villages. Alternate names: Tofamna.  Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Towei

[ttn] 120 (1975 SIL). Border area south of Jayapura, Towe Hitam village, south of Dubu [dmu], west of Emem [enr]. Alternate names: Towe.  Classification: Pauwasi, Western 
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Trimuris

[tip] 300 (1999 SIL). Jayapura Regency, Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict, Mamberamo River east bank, between Kauwera [xau] and Bagusa [bqb]. Dialects: Low intelligibility of Kwerba [kwe]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kauwera and 60% with Kwerba.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear 
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Tsaukambo

[kvz] 780 (2000 SIL). West side of upper Digul River, north of Wanggom, south of Komyandaret. Alternate names: Kotogüt, Tsokwambo, Tsakwambo.  Dialects: Most similar to Komyandaret [kzv]. Also related to Korowai [khe], Wanggom [wng], Kombai [tyn].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum 
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Tunggare

[trt] 500 (1993 R. Doriot). North central, west of Mamberamo River, east Geelvink Bay near Nabire, inland from Waropen [wrp]. Alternate names: Tarunggare, Turunggare.  Dialects: Most closely related to Bauzi [bvz]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Bauzi, 75% with Burate [bti], 65% with Demisa [dei], 70% with Tefaro [tfo], 69% with Woria [wor].  Classification: East Geelvink Bay 
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Una

[mtg] 4,000 (1991 SIL). East highlands on south slopes of main ranges east of Sela Valley, west of Ngalum, Bidabuh, east Weip Valley, Yay Valley, around Langda, Bomela, Sumtamon. Alternate names: Goliath, Langda, Mt. Goliath, Oranje-Gebergte.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Eipomek [eip], 69% with Ketengban [xte].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern 
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Uruangnirin

[urn] 400 (1983 SIL). Karas Island and 2 small islands between Karas Island and mainland of southwest Bomberai Peninsula. Alternate names: Faur, Tubiruasa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai 
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Usku

[ulf] 110 (2004 SIL). South of Jayapura, Usku village; west of Namla [naa], south of Molof [msl] areas. Alternate names: Afra.  Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Viid

[snu] 250 (2005 SIL). Border area south of Jayapura, Senggi village. Alternate names: Senggi.  Classification: Border, Waris 
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Vitou

[vto] 630 (2007). Papua Province, Sarmi Regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Takar village. Alternate names: Takar.  Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Wabo

[wbb] 1,500 (1987 SIL). Serui Island, north and south coast of east end. 6 villages. Alternate names: Nusari, Woriasi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Kurudu [kjr], 46% with Western Serui.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East 
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Waigeo

[wgo] 300 (1978 SIL). North central Waigeo Island off western Bird’s Head, Sorong Regency, Waigeo Selatan subdistrict, Warsanbin, Selegop, Waifoi, Go, Kabilol, Kabare, and Nyandesawai villages. Alternate names: Ambel, Amber, Amberi, Waigiu.  Dialects: Metnyo, Metsam.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Walak

[wlw] 1,500 (1993 R. Doriot). Ilugwa, Wodo, Bugi, Mogonik, Wurigelebut villages. Alternate names: Lower Pyramid, Wodo.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper 
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Wambon

[wms] 3,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area north of Mandobo [aax], [bwp] area. Dialects: Kenon, Kenyam.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Wandamen

[wad] 5,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Wasior, Manokwari, west Cenderawasih Bay along Wandamen Bay extending west to east end of Bintuni Bay. Alternate names: Bentoeni, Bentuni, Bintuni, Wamesa, Wandamen-Windesi, Windesi, Windessi.  Dialects: Windesi, Bintuni, Wamesa, Wasior, Ambumi, Dasener, Aibondeni, Steenkool, Waruritinao.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Wanggom

[wng] 1,180 (2002 SIL). Upper Digul River area. East of Kombai [tyn], west of Wambon [wms] areas. Alternate names: Wanggo, Wangom.  Dialects: Most similar to Kombai [tyn].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut 
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Wano

[wno] 7,000 (2001 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,000. Central highlands area, upper Rouffaer River basin north of Damal, northwest of Dem, south of Kirikiri, Iau and Duvele, east of Moni, west of Western Dani. Alternate names: Waano.  Dialects: East, Central, West. Similar to Western Dani [dnw], Nggem [nbq], Walak [wlw]. Lexical similarity: 65% with Western Dani.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Wano 
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Warembori

[wsa] 600 (1998 SIL). North coast, Mamberamo River mouth and west to Poiwai, Warembori, Tamakuri, Bonoi villages. Alternate names: Waremboivoro, Warenbori.  Dialects: Bonoi Buroro. Similar to Yoke [yki]. Lexical similarity: 33% with Yoke and 30% with Austronesian.  Classification: Lower Mamberamo 
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Wares

[wai] 200 (1993 R. Doriot). North coast area inland from Kwesten language on upper Biri River, south side, Maweswares village. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor 
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Waris

[wrs] 1,500 in Indonesia. Northeast Papua, Keerom Regency, Waris subdistrict, south of Jayapura. Alternate names: Walsa.  Classification: Border, Waris 
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Waritai

[wbe] 150 (2000 S. Wurm). Lakes Plain area around Taiyeve. Alternate names: Wari, Weretai.  Dialects: Related to Doutai [tds].  Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East 
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Warkay-Bipim

[bgv] 300 (1993 R. Doriot). South coast area bordering Asmat to east and Sawi to west, lower Eilanden River. 3 villages. Alternate names: Bipim, Bipim As-So.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Yaqay 
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Waropen

[wrp] 6,000 (1987 SIL). South coast of Serui Island, East Cenderawasih Bay. Alternate names: Aropen, Wonti, Worpen.  Dialects: Waropen Kai, Napan, Mo’or.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Waropen 
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Wauyai

[wuy] 300 (Remijsen 2001). Southwest Waigeo Island, Wauyai village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat 
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Woi

[wbw] 1,300 (1987 SIL). Miosnum and west Serui Islands, Wooi and Wainap villages. Alternate names: Wo’oi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 77% with Pom [pmo], Marau [mvr], Ansus [and].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western 
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Wolani

[wod] 5,000 (1992 UBS). West central highlands, Kemandoga and Mbiyandogo rivers, north of Ekari [ekg] northeast of Lake Paniai, north of Wissel Lakes and northwest of Moni [mnz]. Alternate names: Woda, Woda-Mo, Wodani.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes 
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Woria

[wor] 6 (2000 S. Wurm). Interior Waropen Bawah, Botawa village. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Barapasi [brp], 64% with Demisa [dei], 63% with Kofei [kpi], 69% with Tunggare [trt].  Classification: East Geelvink Bay  Nearly extinct.
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Yahadian

[ner] 500 (1991 SIL). South Bird’s Head, along Maccluer Gulf between lower Mintamani and Sekak rivers. Alternate names: Jahadian, Nerigo, Yabin Yahadian.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Konda [knd].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Konda-Yahadian 
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Yale, Kosarek

[kkl] 2,300 (1993 R. Doriot). Nearly 100% are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,300. Eastern highlands, just east of Yali of Ninia, northwest of Nipsan, east of Dani, north of Yali [yli] of Angguruk. Alternate names: In-lom, Kosarek, Wanam, Yale-Kosarek.  Dialects: Kosarek, Gilika (Kilika), Tiple. Similar to Nipsan [nps], Nalca [nlc], and the Gilika dialect. Lexical similarity: 78% with Nipsan, 59% with Nalca.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern 
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Yali, Angguruk

[yli] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Central highlands area northwest of Nalca, east of Grand Valley Dani. Alternate names: Angguruk, Northern Yali, Yalimo.  Dialects: Related to Yali of Ninia [nlk], Yali of Pass Valley [yac].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik 
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Yali, Ninia

[nlk] 10,500 (1999 J. Wilson). Central highlands area south of Angguruk, east of Soba, west of Korupun, Ninia, Holuwon, and Lolat villages; Elelim, transmigrated by government in 1989 following earthquake. More than 50 villages. Alternate names: Jalè, Jaly, Ninia, North Ngalik, Southern Yali, Yali Selatan.  Dialects: Different from Yali of Pass Valley [yac], Yali of Angguruk [yli], Hupla [hap].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik 
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Yali, Pass Valley

[yac] 5,000 (1988 SIL). Central highlands, east of Angguruk and northwest of Naltya, Jayawijaya, Kurulu, and Kurima. Alternate names: Abendago, North Ngalik, Pass Valley, Western Yali, Yaly.  Dialects: Pass Valley, Landikma, Apahapsili. Related to Yali of Ninia [nlk], Yali of Angguruk [yli].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik 
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Yaqay

[jaq] 10,000 (1987 SIL). South coast Obaa River area, southeast of Kayagar [kyt] and southwest of Central Awyu [awu]. Alternate names: Jakai, Jaqai, Mapi, Sohur, Yaqai.  Dialects: Oba-Miwamon, Nambiomon-Mabur, Bapai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Yaqay 
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Yarsun

[yrs] 200 (1991 SIL). Sarmi Regency, Bonggo subdistrict, Island off north coast east of Biri River. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi 
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Yaur

[jau] 350 (1978 SIL). Lower end of Cenderawasih Bay, west of Iresim. Alternate names: Jaur.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yaur 
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Yawa

[yva] 6,000 (1987 SIL). Central Serui Island, Serui Waropen, Serui Selatan, Timur Barat, 8 north coast villages, 2 interior villages, 18 south coast villages. Alternate names: Iau, Mantembu, Mora, Turu, Yapanani, Yava.  Dialects: Central Yawa (Mora), West Yawa, South Yawa, North Yawa, East Yawa.  Classification: West Papuan, Yapen 
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Yei

[jei] 2,390 (2001 SIL). South coast border area, east of Marind along Maro River. 6 villages. Alternate names: Je, Jei, Yei-Nan, Yey.  Dialects: Upper Yei, Lower Yei. Dialects are mutually inherently intelligible only with difficulty.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Yey 
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Yelmek

[jel] 400 (1978 SIL). South coast area, east side of Marianne Strait between Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) Island and mainland. Alternate names: Jab, Jabsch, Jelmek, Jelmik.  Dialects: Most similar to Maklew [mgf].  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Yelmek-Maklew 
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Yeretuar

[gop] 350 (2000). Lower Cenderawasih Bay, south of Wandamen [wad]. Alternate names: Goni, Umar, Umari.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yeretuar 
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Yetfa

[yet] 1,000 in Indonesia (1996). Population total all countries: 1,200. Pegunungan Bintang Regency, Okbibab subdistrict, border area east and north of Sobger River, south of Ji Mountain. Also in Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Biaksi, Biksi, Inisine.  Dialects: Yetfa and Biksi are 2 ethnic groups, speaking the same language.  Classification: Sepik, Biksi 
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Yoke

[yki] 200 (1998 M. Donohue). Sarmi Regency, east of Warembori east of Mamberamo River, Mantarbori village. Recently moved to coast from interior. Alternate names: Bitovondo, Jauke, Pauwi, Yauke, Yoki.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 33% with Warembori [wsa].  Classification: Lower Mamberamo 
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Zorop

[wfg] 230 (2005 SIL). Northeast Papua, border area south of Jayapura, Warlef village, Yabanda Satu. Alternate names: Yafi, Jafi, Yaffi, Wagarindem, Wargarindem, Jafi Wagarindem, Warlef.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 25% with Emem [enr].  Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern 
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