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Languages of India

Republic of India, Bharat. 1,134,403,000. Indo-Aryan 777,361,000, 76%; Dravidian 216,635,000, 21.6%; Austro-Asiatic 12,250,000, 1.2%; Tibeto-Burman 10,350,000, 1%; Other 2,468,600, Below 1%. National or official languages: Hindi and English. 22 official ‘scheduled’ languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Marathi, Meitei, Nepali, Oriya, Eastern Panjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu. Literacy rate: 65%; males 75%, females 54% (2001 census). Immigrant languages: Armenian (500), Burushaski, Judeo-Iraqi Arabic, Northern Pashto (15,000), Uyghur, Walungge, Western Farsi (18,000). Also includes Arabic, Chinese. Information mainly from G. Marrison 1967; R. Hugoniot 1970; C. Masica 1991; K. S. Singh 1994, 1995; J. Matisoff, S. Baron, and J. Lowe 1996; R. Breton 1997; R. Burling 1998. Blind population: 9,000,000. Deaf population: 9,400,000 to 14,000,000 (2001). Deaf institutions: 850. The number of individual languages listed for India is 452. Of those, 438 are living languages and 14 have no known speakers.
Aariya

[aay]  Madhya Pradesh, Chhatarpur, Datia, Panna, Rewa, Satna, Shahdol, Sidhi, Tikamgarh districts. Classification: Unclassified 
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Adi

[adi] 238,000 in India (2000 USCWM). 1,200 Palibo. Population total all countries: 241,190. Arunachal Pradesh, East, West, and Upper Siang districts, Upper Subansiri and Dibang Valley districts; Assam, north hills of Assam Valley, between Bhutan and the Buruli River. Also in Bhutan, China. Alternate names: Abhor, Abor, Boga’er Luoba, Lhoba, Luoba.  Dialects: Ashing, Bokar (Boga’er Luoba), Bori, Gallong (Galong), Karko, Komkar, Milang, Minyong, Padam, Pailibo, Pangi, Pasi, Ramo, Shimong, Tangam. Sun (1993) lists Tani varieties as Apatani [apt], Milang, Damu, Mising [mrg], Bangni [dap], Tagin [dap], Sagli, south Aya, Leli, and perhaps the Padam, Bokar, Pailibo, Ramo, Bori, Minyong and Pasi dialects of Adi; Asing, Panggi, Simong, Karok, Hill, Miri [mrg], and some northern and western dialects of Nisi [dap]. Intelligible with Adi Galo [adl] but sociolinguistically distinct. A different language from Yidu Lhoba [clk]. Bokar, Milang, Pailibo, and Ramo are very divergent—possibly separate languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Adi, Galo

[adl] 30,000 (2007 M. Post). A few older adult monolinguals. 74,600 (Joshua Project 07); 150,000–250,000 (Gode Doke 2006). Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, West Siang, East Siang, Dibang Valley (south), Lohit (east), Changlang (northeast), some in Upper Subansiri (west) districts. Alternate names: Adi, Adi-Gallong, Adi-Galo, Galo, Gallong, Galong.  Dialects: Lare, Pugo, Karka, Ngongo. Reportedly intelligible with other Adi dialects but sociolinguistically distinct. Lare is the main dialect and is accepted by all the Galo.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Agariya

[agi] 72,000 (2007). Madhya Pradesh, Mandla, Rewa districts, Maikal hills; Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur District; Uttar Pradesh, Agra, Mathura, Mirzapur districts. Alternate names: Agaria, Agharia, Agoria.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari 
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Ahirani

[ahr] 779,000 (1997). Gujarat and Maharashtra states. In Maharashtra: Dhulia, Jalgaon, Nandurbar, Nasik, and Aurangabad districts. Alternate names: Ahiri.  Dialects: Preliminary findings show Ahirani to be distinct from Khandesi [khn].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi 
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Ahom

[aho] Extinct. Assam. Alternate names: Tai Ahom.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Aimol

[aim] 2,640 (2001 census). Manipur state, Chandel District, Unapal, Satu, Kumbirei, Chingunghut, Aimol Tampak, Khodamphai, Ngairong Aimol, Chandonpokpi, Soibong (Khudengthabi), Khomayai (Khunjai); Senapati District, Tuikhong; Churachandpur District, Luichungbum (Louchulbung); Bishnupur District, Kha-Aimol; Assam state. Dialects: Langrong. Langrong may be a separate language. Related to Chiru [cdf], Purum [pub]. Reportedly intelligible to Koireng [nkd].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Aiton

[aio] 1,500 (Morey 2006). Assam, Jorhat, Karbi Anglong districts, Doboroni, Banlung, Ahomoni, Balipathar, Kaliyani, Chakihula, Tengani, Barhula villages. Alternate names: Aitonia.  Dialects: Similar to Phake [phk]. Related to Shan [shn] of Myanmar.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Aka-Bea

[abj] Extinct. Andaman Islands, South Andaman Island except northeast coast, and north and east interiors; Rutland Island except south coast; small islands southeast of Rutland; Labyrinth Islands. Alternate names: Aka-Beada, Bea, Beada, Biada, Bogijiab, Bojigniji, Bojigyab.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central 
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Aka-Bo

[akm] Extinct. Andaman Islands, east central coast of North Andaman Island, North Reef Island. Alternate names: Ba, Bo.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern 
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Aka-Cari

[aci] Extinct. Andaman Islands, north coast of North Andaman Island, Landfall Island, other nearby small islands. Alternate names: Cari, Chariar.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern 
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Aka-Jeru

[akj] Extinct. Andaman Islands, interior and south North Andaman Island, Sound Island. Alternate names: Jeru, Yerawa.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern 
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Aka-Kede

[akx] Extinct. Andaman Islands, central and north central Middle Andaman Island. Alternate names: Kede.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central 
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Aka-Kol

[aky] Extinct. Andaman Islands, southeast Middle Andaman Island. Alternate names: Kol.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central 
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Aka-Kora

[ack] Extinct. Andaman Islands, northeast and north central coasts of North Andaman Island, Smith Island. Alternate names: Kora.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern 
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Akar-Bale

[acl] Extinct. Andaman Islands, Ritchie’s Archipelago, Havelock Island, Neill Island. Alternate names: Bale, Balwa.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central 
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Allar

[all] 350 (Shashi 1994). Kerala, Malappuram District, Perinthalmanna tahsil, Manjeri tahsil, Mannarmala, Aminikadu, and Tazhecode; Palakkad District, Mannarkkad and Ottappalam tahsils. Alternate names: Aalan, Alan, Alanmar, Alar, Allan, Chatans.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Malayalam [mal], 59% with Tamil [tam].  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Amri Karbi

[ajz] 125,000 (2003). Assam, Kamrup District, south of Brahmaputra River in Chandubi, Loharghat, Rani block, Jalukbari, Pandu, Basbistha, Panikhaith, Jorabat, Sonapur, Khetri, Kahi Kusi; Meghalaya; Ri-Bhoi District, Nongpoh area, Barni Hat and Umling. Alternate names: Amri.  Dialects: Lower Amri, Upper Amri. Reportedly unintelligible with Karbi [mjw]; intelligibility testing was inconclusive regarding whether Guriaghuli area dialect is well understood in Meghalaya. Lexical similarity: 57%–68% with Karbi; 70% to 86% between dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Mikir 
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Anal

[anm] 13,900 in India (2001 census). Southeast Manipur, Chandel District, Chandel, Chakpikarong, Tengnoupal subdivisions, on banks of Chakpi River. Possibly in Bangladesh. Also in Myanmar. Alternate names: Namfau.  Dialects: Laizo, Mulsom. Most similar to Lamgang [lmk] (Kuki Naga).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Andaman Creole Hindi

[hca] 20,500 (Singh 1994). Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair, 40 villages south of Port Blair. Alternate names: Andaman Hindi.  Dialects: A creolization of Hindustani, Bengali [ben], Malayalam [mal].  Classification: Creole, Hindi based 
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Andh

[anr] 100,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 420,000 (2007 Joshua Project). Maharashtra, Akola, Aurangabad, Buldana, Nanded, Parbhani, Yevatmal districts; Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad, Hyderabad; Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: Andha, Andhi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Angika

[anp] 725,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 740,900. Northern Bihar. Also in Nepal. Alternate names: Anga, Angikar, Chhika-Chhiki.  Dialects: 79% inherent intelligibility with Brahmin Maithili. Lexical similarity: 81% (Brahmin) to 87% (non-Brahmin) with Darbhanga Maithili.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Apatani

[apt] 24,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 35,000. Arunachal Pradesh, Subansiri District, 7 villages in Ziro Valley: Hong, Hari, Billa, Dutta, Hija, Mudang-Tage, and Michi Bamin; Assam; Nagaland. Alternate names: Apa.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Nisi [dap].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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A-Pucikwar

[apq] 10 or less (Abbi 2006). 8–10 of total population of 53 individuals on Strait Island. Andaman Islands, Strait Island. Alternate names: Puchikwar, Pucikwar.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central  Nearly extinct.
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Aranadan

[aaf] 200 (2001 census). Kerala, Kozhihkode District, Ernad taluk; Palakkad District, Malappuram District, Nilambur tahsil; Tamil Nadu, Karnataka. Alternate names: Aranatan, Eranadans.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 63%–69% with Malayalam [mal], 53%–55% with Tamil [tam].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Assamese

[asm] 16,700,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 16,818,750. Assam; West Bengal; Meghalaya; Arunachal Pradesh. Also in Bangladesh, Bhutan, United States. Alternate names: Asambe, Asami, Asamiya.  Dialects: Jharwa (Pidgin), Mayang, Standard Assamese, Western Assamese (Kamrupi).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Asuri

[asr] 16,600 (2001). Jharkhand, southern Palamau, northern Ranchi, Gumla and Lohardaga districts of Chotanagpur Plateau; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh District, Jashpur area; Maharashtra; Orissa, Sambalpur District; West Bengal. Alternate names: Ashree, Assur, Asura, Maleta.  Dialects: Brijia (Birjia, Koranti), Manjhi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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A’tong

[aot] 4,600 in India. Population total all countries: 10,000. Meghalaya state, Garo Hills; Assam, south Kamrup District. Also in Bangladesh. Dialects: Related to Koch [kdq], Rabha [rah].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch 
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Awadhi

[awa] 37,700,000 in India (2001 USCWM). Population total all countries: 38,261,000. Uttar Pradesh, Kheri, Sitapur, Lucknow, Unnao, Rae-Bareli, Bahraich, Bara-Banki, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur, Gonda, Faizabad, Allahabad districts; Bihar; Madhya Pradesh; Delhi. Also in Nepal. Alternate names: Abadi, Abohi, Ambodhi, Avadhi, Baiswari, Kojali, Kosali.  Dialects: Gangapari, Mirzapuri, Pardesi, Uttari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone 
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Badaga

[bfq] 245,000 (2001 census). Tamil Nadu, Madras-Nilgiri, Kunda hills. 200 villages. Alternate names: Badag, Badagu, Baduga, Badugu, Vadagu.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada 
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Bagheli

[bfy] 7,760,000 in India (2004). Northeast Madhya Pradesh, Rewa, Satna, Sidhi, Shahdol, Umaria, Anuppur, Jabalpur, Mandla, Chhindwara, Dindori, Panna districts; Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad, Mirzapur, Banda, Hamirpur districts; Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur and Koriya districts. Also in Nepal. Alternate names: Bagelkhandi, Bhugelkhud, Gangai, Godwani Kawathi, Kenat, Kevat Boli, Kevati, Kewani, Kewat, Kewati, Kewot, Kumhari, Mandal, Mannadi, Riwai.  Dialects: Ojhi (Ojaboli, Ojha, Ojhe, Oza, Ozha), Powari, Banapari, Gahore, Tirhari, Godwani (Mandlaha), Sonpari. Godwani (refers to Bagheli-speaking Gonds), Kumhari (refers to Bagheli-speaking Kumhar). Though geographic and caste variation is found in Bagheli, no dialect is prevalent. Rewa area variety is considered standard. Lexical similarity: 79%–99% between all Bagheli varieties; 72%–91% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone 
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Bagri

[bgq] 1,900,000 in India (2000). 25% monolingual. Population total all countries: 2,100,000. Punjab, Firozepur District; Rajasthan, Hanumangarh, Sriganganagar districts; Haryana, Sirsa, Fatehabad districts. Also in Pakistan. Alternate names: Bagari, Bagria, Bagris, Bahgri, Baorias.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81%–95% between all varietes of Bagri, 58%–63% with Eastern Panjabi [pan], 56%–69% with Hindi, 56%–70% with Haryanvi [bgc], 51%–66% with Marwari [rwr], 58%–69% with Merwari [mtr], 69%–76% with Shekhawati [swv], 47%–63% with Godwari [gdx], 63%–65% with Dhundari [dhd], 60%–66% with Mewati [wtm], 74% with Jandavra [jnd].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Balochi, Eastern

[bgp] 800 in India (2007). May be L2 speakers only. Ethnic population: 95,000. Uttar Pradesh; Gujarat. Alternate names: Balochi, Baloci, Baluci.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi 
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Balti

[bft] 38,800 in India (2001 census). Jammu and Kashmir. Alternate names: Baltistani, Bhoti of Baltistan, Sbalt.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western 
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Bareli, Palya

[bpx] 10,000 (2000 NLCI). Madhya Pradesh, Barwani District: Rajpur, Barwani tahsils; Khargone District: Jhirniya tahsil; Maharashtra, Jalgaon District: Yawal, Raver tahsils; Dhule District: Shirpur tahsil. Alternate names: Pali, Palodi, Palya Bareli.  Dialects: Dialect center is Madhya Pradesh, Barwani District, Choutharya village of Rajpur tahsil. Lexical similarity 62%–66% with Pauri Bareli [bfb], 67%–73% with Rathwi Bareli [bgd].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bareli, Pauri

[bfb] 175,000 (2000 NLCI). Maharashtra; Nandurbar District, Dhadgaon, Shahada, Taloda tahsils; Dhule District; Shirpur tahsil; Madhya Pradesh; Barwani District; Pansemal tahsil; Nivali and Pati blocks. Alternate names: Bareli, Barewali, Barli.  Dialects: Pauri Bareli not intelligible with Rathwi Bareli [bgd] or Palya Bareli [bpx]. Dialect center in Maharashtra, Nandurbar District, Dhadgaon tahsil. Lexical similarity: 81%–88% among varieties of Pauri Bareli; 68%–79% with Rathwi Bareli; 62%–66% with Palya Bareli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bareli, Rathwi

[bgd] 63,700 (2000). Madhya Pradesh; Barwani District; Barwani, Sendhwa, Rajpur tahsils; Khargone District; Bhagawanpura, Jhirniya, Bhikangaon tahsils; Dewas District; Bagli tahsil; Khandwa District; Burhanpur tahsil; Dhar District; Dahi block; Rathia Bhilala in South Jhabua District; Maharashtra northern Dhule District; Shirpur tahsil; Jalgaon District; Chopda, Raver, Yawal tahsils. Alternate names: Barel, Pauri, Pawari, Pawri, Rathi, Rathia, Rathwi Pauri.  Dialects: Pauri Bareli [bfb] and the Rathwi Pauri dialect not intelligible with Vasavi [vas] or Bhilori [noi]. Dialect center is Madhya Pradesh, Barwani District, Chiklia. Not intelligible with Palya Bareli [bpx] or Pauri Bareli. Understood by Rathia Bhilala of Nimad, Bhilala of Sondhwa block of Jhabua District and Bhils of south Dhar District. Lexical similarity: 81%–93% among Rathwi Bareli dialects; 67%–73% with Palya Bareli; 68%–79% with Pauri Bareli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bateri

[btv] 800 in India. 200 families. Jammu and Kashmir, near Srinagar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani 
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Bauria

[bge] 248,000 (1999). Punjab; Himachal Pradesh; Delhi; Haryana; Chandigarh; Rajasthan; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: Babri, Badak, Baori, Basria, Bawari, Bawaria, Bhoria, Vaghri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bazigar

[bfr] 58,200 (1981 census). Ethnic population: 800,000. Haryana; Chandigarh; Delhi; Gujarat; Himachal Pradesh; Punjab; Jammu and Kashmir; Madhya Pradesh; Karnataka. Dialects: Related to Tulu [tcy], Koraga [kfd].  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Bellari

[brw] 1,350 (1981 census). Karnataka; Kerala; Tamil Nadu. Dialects: Related to Tulu [tcy], Koraga [kfd].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu 
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Bengali

[ben] 70,600,000 in India (1997). West Bengal; Jharkhand, Dhanbad, Manbhum, Singhbhum, Santal Parganas; Bihar; Assam, Goalpara District; Meghalaya, Garo Hills; Mizoram; Nagaland. Alternate names: Bangala, Bangla, Bangla-Bhasa.  Dialects: Barik, Bhatiari, Chirmar, Kachari-Bengali, Lohari-Malpaharia, Musselmani, Rajshahi, Samaria, Saraki, Siripuria (Kishanganjia).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Bhadrawahi

[bhd] 53,000 (2002). Jammu; Kashmir, Doda District, Bhadarwah town and surrounding villages. Alternate names: Baderwali, Badrohi, Bahi, Bhadarwahi, Bhaderbhai Jamu, Bhaderwali Pahari, Bhadrava, Bhadri.  Dialects: Bhalesi, Padari (Padar). Lexical similarity: 45% with Pangwali [pgg].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Bhalay

[bhx] 8,670 (1981 census). Maharashtra, Amravati District. Dialects: Lexical similarity 90% with Gowlan [goj].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified 
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Bharia

[bha] 197,000 (1981 census). Madhya Pradesh, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Datia, Jabalpur, Mandla, Panna, Rewa, Sidhi, Tikamgarh districts; Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur, Durg, Surguja districts; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal. Alternate names: Bhar, Bharat, Bhumia, Bhumiya, Paliha.  Dialects: Reportedly also speak a variety of Hindi (Singh 1993).  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Bhatola

[btl] 5,050 (2000). Madhya Pradesh. Classification: Unclassified 
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Bhatri

[bgw] 600,000 (2002). Chhattisgarh, Bastar District, Jagdalpur tahsil; Maharashtra; Orissa, Koraput District, Kotpad tahsil. Alternate names: Basturia, Bhatra, Bhattra, Bhattri, Bhottada, Bhottara.  Dialects: Dialects understand each other at 88% or more. Similar to Halbi [hlb]. Lexical similarity: 70%–90% between dialects, 58% with Adivasi Oriya [ort].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Bhattiyali

[bht] 102,000 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Bhattiyat tahsil, Sihunta Sub-tahsil. Alternate names: Bhateali, Bhatiali Pahari, Bhatiyali.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61%–79% between Parya Bhilali [bhi] dialect and other Bhilali [bhb] varieties.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Bhilali

[bhi] 1,150,000 (2000). 25,000 to 50,000 Parya Bhilali. Madhya Pradesh, Khargone (Segaon), Barwani (Rajpur), southern Jhabua and southern Dhar districts; Maharashtra, Dhule District; some in Gujarat; Karnataka; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Bhilala.  Dialects: Parya Bhilali. Lexical similarity: 61%–79% between the Parya Bhilali dialect and other Bhilali [bhb] varieties.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bhili

[bhb] 1,300,000 (1998). 1,000,000 Bhil plus 300,000 Patelia in Madhya Pradesh. 12,688 Kotvali (1994), 5,624,000 in languages in the Bhil family. Madhya Pradesh, Jhabua, Dhar, Ratlam, Indore, Khargone districts; Gujarat, Sabarkantha, Panchmahals, and Dahod districts. Alternate names: Bhagoria, Bhil, Bhilbari, Bhilboli, Bhilla, Bhilodi, Lengotia, Vil.  Dialects: Ahiri, Anarya (Pahadi), Bhilodi, Bhim, Charani, Habura, Konkani, Kotali (Kotvali, Kotwalia), Magra Ki Boli, Nahari (Baglani), Naikdi, Panchali, Patelia, Ranawat, Rani Bhil, Siyalgir, Valvi. Bhili of Ratlam District in Madhya Pradesh is inherently intelligible with Wagdi [wbr] and a connecting link between Gujarati [guj] and Rajasthani (Marwari) [mve].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Bhojpuri

[bho] 36,500,000 in India (2007). Population total all countries: 38,546,000. Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur, Basti, Deoria, Azamgarh, Ghazipur, Varanasi, Mirzapur, Ballia districts; Bihar, Champaran, Saran, Shahabad districts; Jharkhand, Palamau, Ranchi districts; Assam; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; West Bengal. Also in Mauritius, Nepal. Alternate names: Bajpuri, Bhojapuri, Bhozpuri, Bihari, Deswali, Khotla, Piscimas.  Dialects: Northern Standard Bhojpuri (Gorakhpuri, Sarawaria, Basti), Western Standard Bhojpuri (Purbi, Benarsi), Southern Standard Bhojpuri (Kharwari), Bhojpuri Tharu, Madhesi, Domra, Musahari. May be more than 1 language. Extent of dialect variation in India and Nepal not yet determined. The cover term ‘Bihari’ (alternate name for Bhojpuri )(Behari) is also used for Bhojpuri, Maithili [mai], and Magahi [mag]. Bhojpuri Tharu dialect is spoken by Tharu caste in Nepal. Distinct from Chitwan and other Tharu [awa].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Bhunjia

[bhu] 6,790 (2000 USCWM). Madhya Pradesh, Hoshangabad District; Chhattisgarh, Raipur District; Orissa, Kalahandi, Koraput, Dhenkanal, Balasore (Baleshwar), Keonjhar Sambalpur districts, Sunabera Plateau area; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Bhumjiya, Bhunjiya, Bunjia.  Dialects: A more divergent dialect of Halbi [hlb].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Biete

[biu] 19,000 (1997). Mizoram northeast, Aizawl District, Darlawn, Ratu, New Vervek villages; Assam; Cachar Hills; Manipur; Meghalaya, Jaintia Hills District. Alternate names: Baite, Bete, Biate.  Dialects: Similar to Hrangkhol [hra], and similar enough to Mizo [lus] and Hmar [hmr] that they can be read with intelligibility.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Bijori

[bix] 25,000 (1998). Jharkhand, Cowerdaga and Ranchi districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts; Madhya Pradesh; Orissa. Alternate names: Binjhia, Birijia, Birjia, Brijia, Burja.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari 
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Bilaspuri

[kfs] 295,000 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Bilaspur District. Alternate names: Bilaspuri Pahari, Kahluri, Kehloori Pahari, Kehluri, Pacchmi.  Dialects: 95% intelligibility with Mandeali [mjl], 94% with Kangri [xnr]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Kangri of Palampur, 86% with Mandeali, 84% with Chambeali [cdh].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Birhor

[biy] 10,000 (1998). Nomadic habits make assessment difficult. Some estimates as low as 1,000 (Parkin 1991). Jharkhand, southern Hazaribag, southern Palamau, Singhbhum, and Ranchi districts; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh District; Orissa, Sundargarh, Kalahandi, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Sambalpur districts; West Bengal, Puruliya District; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Bihor, Birhar, Birhore, Birhul, Mankidi, Mankidia, Mankiria.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 55%–72% with Santhali [sat], Ho [hoc], Mundari [unr], Munda [unx].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Bishnupriya

[bpy] 75,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 115,000. Assam, Cachar, Hailakandi, Karimganj districts; Tripura, North. Also in Bangladesh, Myanmar. Alternate names: Bishnupria Manipuri, Bishnupuriya, Bisna Puriya.  Dialects: Madai Gang (Leimanai), Rajar Gang (Ningthaunai). Related to Bengali [ben], Assamese [asm]. Though once regarded as a Bengali-Meitei creole, it retains pre-Bengali features (Masica 1991). Intelligibility between the 2 caste dialects in Bangladesh sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Lexical similarity: 81%–85% between dialects in Bangladesh, 41%–45% with Bengali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Bodo

[brx] 1,540,000 in India (2007). Population total all countries: 1,543,300. Assam, mainly in Darrang, Nagaon, Kamrup districts; also in Goalpara, Sibsagar, Lakhimpur districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Cooch-Behar districts; Manipur, Chandel (Tengnoupal) District; Meghalaya, West Garo Hills District, 7 villages in the Tikrikilla block, East Khasi Hills District. Also in Nepal. Alternate names: Bara, Bodi, Boro, Boroni, Kachari, Mech, Meche, Mechi, Meci.  Dialects: Chote, Mech. Related to Dimasa [dis], Tripuri [trp], Lalunga. West Bengal dialect reportedly different from Assam.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Bodo Parja

[bdv] 50,000 (2001). Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: Bodo Paraja, Harja, Jhaliya, Jharia, Jhodia Parja, Parajhi, Parja, Parjhi, Parji, Paroja, Poroja, Sodia Parja.  Dialects: Phonology and grammar show Indo-European relationship, not related to Dravidian Duruwa Parji. 86%–96% intelligibility between Bodo and Jhodia caste varieties. Lexical similarity: 76%–86% between Bodo and Jhodia caste varieties, 70%–89% with Desia.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Bondo

[bfw] 9,000 (2002 SIL). Few Lower Bondo are monolingual. 5,565 Upper Bondo and 3,500 Lower Bondo. Orissa, Malkangiri District, Khoirput block, Bondo Hills. Alternate names: Bhonda Bhasha, Bonda, Bondo-Poraja, Nanqa Poroja, Poraja Katha, Remo, Remosum.  Dialects: Upper Bondo, Lower Bondo. Bhuksa dialect sometimes mentioned as a dialect of Kanauji [bjj]. Lexical similarity: 70%–94% with other Bondo varieties, 45%–51% with Gutob Gadaba [gbj], 22% to 32% with Upper Gata’ [gaq] (Didayi).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta’, Gutob-Remo 
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Braj Bhasha

[bra] 44,000 (1997). Uttar Pradesh, Agra region; Rajasthan, Bharatpur, Sawai Madhopur districts; Haryana, Gurgaon District; Bihar; Madhya Pradesh; Delhi. Alternate names: Antarbedi, Antarvedi, Bijbhasha, Braj, Braj Bhakha, Bri, Brij Bhasha, Briju, Bruj.  Dialects: Braj Bhasha, Antarbedi, Bhuksa, Sikarwari, Jadobafi, Dangi. Bhuksa is sometimes mentioned as a dialect of Kanauji [bjj]. Braj Bhasha is usually considered to be a dialect of Hindi, and was the predominant literary language before the switch to Hindi in the 19th century.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified 
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Brokskat

[bkk] 10,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Jammu and Kashmir, along Indus River in Ladakh and Kargil districts, northern Kashmir, villages around Garkhon, including Darchiks, Chulichan, Gurgurdo, Batalik, Dah. Alternate names: Brokpa, Brokpa of Dah-Hanu, Dokskat, Kyango.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina 
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Bugun

[bgg] 900 (2001). Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng District, Singchung and Nafra circles, Wangho, Singchung, New Kaspi, Namphri, Mangopom, Diching, Sachita, Ramu, Situ, Lichini, Dikiang, and Bichom villages on the mountains on both sides of Rupa River, interspersed among the Aka. Alternate names: Kho, Khoa, Khowa.  Dialects: Might be mutually intelligible with Sulung (Chowdhury 1996); Burling (2003) groups it with Sulung [suv] and Sherdukpen [sdp] and possibly also with Lish [lsh] and Sartang [onp]. Lexical similarity: low with all neighboring languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Buksa

[tkb] 43,000 (1999). Uttarakhand, southwestern Nainital District, along a diagonal from Ramnagar to Keneshpur. 130 villages in Kichha and Kashipur tahsils, some in Bijnor and Garhwal districts. Dialects: 95% intelligibility with Rana Tharu [thr]. Lexical similarity: 58%–79% with western Tharu varieties, 58% with Chitwania Tharu [the], 83% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Bundeli

[bns] 644,000 (1997). population estimates range as high as 20,000,000. Uttar Pradesh, Jalaun, Jhansi, Lalitpur, Hamirpur, Banda districts; Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Hoshangabad, Sagar, Sehore, Panna, Satna, Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Shivpuri, Guna, Bhind, Morena, Gwalior, Narsinghpur, Seoni, Datia districts; Maharashtra, Bhandara, Nagpur districts; Rajasthan; Gujarat; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Bondili, Bundelkhandi.  Dialects: Standard Bundeli, Lodhanti (Rathora), Khatola, Banaphari, Kundri, Nibhatta, Tirhari, Bhadauri (Towargarhi), Gaoli, Kirari, Raghobansi, Nagpuri Hindi, Chhindwara Bundeli. Chhatapur dialect is widely understood. Other dialects listed by Grierson are Standard Braj of Mathura, Aligarh, western Agra; Standard Braj of Bulandshahr; Standard Braj of eastern Agra, southern Morena, southern Bharatpur; Braj merging into Kanauji in Etah, Mainpuri, Budaun, and Bareilly; Braj merging into the Bhadauri subdialect in northern Morena; Braj merging into Jaipuri (Rajasthani) in northern Bharatpur and Sawai Uradhopur; Bhuksa in southern Nainital. Lexical similarity: 65%–85% between Chhindwara [gno] and Standard Bundeli, 41% with Nagpuri Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Bundeli 
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Byangsi

[bee] 2,830 in India (2000). No monolinguals. Population total all countries: 4,560. Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh District, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, Kuthi Yangti River valley in the Himalayas on Tibet and Nepal borders. Byangs Patti from Budi south to Kuti village in the north; includes Nabi, Gunji, Napalchyu, Rongkang, and Garbyang villages. Also in Nepal. Alternate names: Bhotia, Byangkho Lwo, Byangkhopa, Byanshi, Byansi, Jaba, Rang, Saukas, Shaukas.  Dialects: Pangjungkho Boli, Yerjungkhu Boli, Kuti. Dialects of Byangs, Chaudangs and Darma valleys are unintelligible to each other (Sharma 1989, 1990). Those in Kuti (India) and Tinkar (Nepal) are closely related and quite different from those in other Byangsi villages. Tinkar variety differs from Byangsi, Chaudangsi [cdn], and Darmiya [drd] in forms of agreement affixes and basic vocabulary. (Sharma 2001).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Chakma

[ccp] 400,000 in India (2002). Other estimates less than 100,000 (2002). Mizoram, southwest along Karnafuli River; Tripura, North Tripura District, Kailashahar Subdivision, South Tripura District; Assam, Karbi, Anglong, North Cachar, Cachar districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap District, Changlang District, Miao Subdivision; Lohit District, Chowkham Circle; West Bengal; Manipur. Alternate names: Chakama, Takam, Tsakma.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Chamari

[cdg] 406,000 (2001 IMB). Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Chamar, Chambhar Boli, Chambhari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified 
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Chambeali

[cdh] 130,000 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Chamba Tahsil; Jammu and Kashmir. Alternate names: Cameali, Chamaya, Chambiali, Chambiyali, Chamiyali Pahari, Chamya.  Dialects: Bansbali, Bansyari, Gadi Chameali. 91% intelligibility with Mandeali [mjl], 87% with Kangri [xnr]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Palampuri Kangri, 86% with Bhattiyali [bht], 84% with Bilaspuri [kfs], 83% with Mandeali, 79% with Gaddi [gbk], 78% with Churahi [cdj].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Changthang

[cna] 10,100 (2000). Jammu and Kashmir, Tibet border area, Changthang region east and southeast of Leh. Alternate names: Byangskat, Byanskat, Changs-Skat, Changtang, Changtang Ladakhi, Rong, Rupshu, Stotpa, Upper Ladakhi.  Dialects: 58%–85% intelligibility with Leh dialect of Ladakhi [lbj] with high standard deviation indicating some acquired intelligibility; 94%–95% intelligibility with Stod Bhoti [sbu] from Darcha village. Identify more with Leh Ladakhi culture than with Stod Bhoti despite lack of intelligibility. Related to Rangkas [rgk], Darmiya [drd], Byangsi [bee].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western, Ladakhi 
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Chaudangsi

[cdn] 1,830 in India (2000). No monolinguals. Population total all countries: 3,030. Uttaranchal, Pithoragarh District, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, Chaudangs Patti, Kali River west bank facing the Nepal border along Mahakali Valley. Villages include Panggu, Rongto, Rimzhim, Waiku, Monggong, Chilla, Song, Sosa, Sirdang, Sirkha, Rung, Zipti, Gala, Tangkul, SyangKhola. Also in Nepal. Alternate names: Bangba Lo, Bangbani, Chanpa Lo, Chaudans Lo, Saukas, Shaukas, Tsaudangsi.  Dialects: Related to Rangkas [rgk], Darmiya [drd], Byangsi [bee].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Chaura

[crv] 2,020 (2000). Nicobar Islands, Chaura Island. Alternate names: Chowra, Tutet.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa 
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Chenchu

[cde] 26,000 (2007). Andhra Pradesh, most in Kurnool District, Nallamalla Hills; Karnataka; Orissa. Alternate names: Chenchucoolam, Chenchwar, Chensulu, Chenswar, Choncharu.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu 
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Chetti, Wayanad

[ctt] 5,000 (2004). Kerala, Wayanad District, Chekadi, Appapara, Panavalli, Pulpalli, Thirunelli, Tholpetti and Kattikkulam villages; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore, Nilgiri and Periyar districts, Karnataka, Bavali. Alternate names: Chetti, Chetty.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62%–76% with Gowder, 65% with Jennu Kurumba [xuj], 52% with Kannada [kan].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Unclassified 
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Chhattisgarhi

[hne] 17,500,000 (2002). 11,456,000 Chhattisgarhi (1997), 79,000 Laria (1997). Chhattisgarh; Bihar; Orissa; possibly in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Tripura. Alternate names: Khaltahi, Laria.  Dialects: Surgujia, Sadri Korwa, Baigani (Baiga, Bega, Bhumia, Gowro), Binjhwari, Kalanga, Bhulia, Chhattisgarhi Proper, Kavardi, Khairagarhi. Most closely related to Awadhi [awa] and Bagheli [bfy]. Surgujia dialect is spoken in Surguja and Raigarh districts of Chhattisgarh; Sadri Korwa spoken by Korwa people in Jashpur tahsil of Raigarh District; Baigani in Balaghat, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh, and Sambalpur District of Orissa; Binjhwari in Raipur and Raigarh districts of Chhattisgarh; Kalanga [kck] and Bhulia dialect are spoken in Patna District of Bihar; Chhattisgarhi Proper in Raipur, Durg, Bilaspur, and other districts of Chhattisgarh.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone 
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Chin, Bawm

[bgr] 4,440 in India (2004). Population total all countries: 21,520. Mizoram, Chhimtuipui, Lunglei, and Aizawl districts; Tripura; Assam. Also in Bangladesh, Myanmar. Alternate names: Bawm, Bawn, Bawng, Bom.  Dialects: Linguistically and ethnically a subgroup of the Laizou (Anal) [anm] (Matisoff et al. 1996:8).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Chin, Falam

[cfm] 21,000 in India (2007). Assam, Karimganj District, south, a few villages in Cachar and North Hills districts; Tripura; Mizoram; West Bengal. Alternate names: Fallam, Halam Chin, Hallam, Tipura.  Dialects: Chorei, Chari Chong, Halam, Kaipang, Kalai (Koloi), Mursum (Molsom), Rupini, Tapong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Haka

[cnh] 30,000 in India (1997 IMA). Mizoram, Chhimtuipui District, 41 villages, and Aizawi District, Champhai Subdivision, southernmost tip; Assam; Meghalaya. Alternate names: Baungshe, “Haka” , Lai, Lai Hawlh, Lai Pawi.  Dialects: Klangklang (Thlantlang), Zokhua, Shonshe.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Chin, Khumi

[cnk]  Assam. Alternate names: Kami, Khami, Khumi, Khuni, Khweymi, Kumi.  Dialects: Khami, Khimi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Khumi 
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Chin, Mara

[mrh] 22,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 42,000. Mizoram, Chhimtuipui District. 60 villages. Also in Myanmar. Alternate names: Lakher, Mara, Maram, Mira, Zao.  Dialects: Tlongsai (Tlosai-Siaha), Hlawthai. Similar to Shendu [shl]. Reportedly affiliated with Lai (Haka Chin) [cnh]. Tlosai-Siaha dialect is the lingua franca of all Mara (Singh 1994, 1995).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Chin, Matu

[hlt] 20,000 in India (2000). Mizoram. Alternate names: Matupi, Nga La.  Dialects: Haltu, Thui Phum.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Chin, Paite

[pck] 78,800 in India (2005). Population total all countries: 91,800. Assam; Manipur, Churachandpur District, Khuga Valley, Copur Bazar; Mizoram, Aizawl District, Champhai Subdivision, 20 villages; Tripura. Also in Myanmar. Alternate names: Haithe, Paite, Paithe, Parte, Zoukam.  Dialects: Bukpi (Bukpui), Dapzal (Dapzar), Dim, Dimpi, Lamzang, Lousau, Saizang, Sihzang, Telzang (Teizang), Tuichiap. Related to Thado Chin [tcz], Tedim Chin [ctd], the Ralte dialect of Mizo [lus], Zou [zom].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Tedim

[ctd] 155,000 in India (1990). Mizoram (north), Manipur (south). Alternate names: Tedim, Tiddim.  Dialects: Sokte, Kamhau (Kamhow, Kamhao).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Thado

[tcz] 205,000 in India (2007). Population total all countries: 231,200. Manipur, Chandel, Churachandpur, Senapati, Tamenglong districts; Assam; Mizoram, northeast; Nagaland, Kohima District; Tripura. Also in Myanmar. Alternate names: Kuki, Kuki-Thado, Thaadou Kuki, Thado-Pao, Thado-Ubiphei, Thadou.  Dialects: Changsen, Jangshen, Kaokeep, Khongzai, Kipgen, Langiung, Sairang, Thangngen, Hawkip, Shithlou, Singson (Shingsol). Related to Kamhau (dialect of Tedim Chin [ctd]), Ralte [ral], Paite Chin [pck], Zou [zom].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chinali

[cih] 750 (1996). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul Valley, Pattan Valley, Gushal village. Alternate names: Chana, Channali, Chinal, Dagi, Harijan, Shipi.  Dialects: Closely related to Sanskrit [san].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Chiru

[cdf] 7,000 (2000 A. Khorong). Manipur, Tamenglong District, Lamdangmei, Dolang villages; Senapati, Kangchup, Thangzing, Sadu, Bungte, Nungshai, Dolang Khunou, Uram villages; Churachandpur District, Charoi Khullen village; Thoubal District, Vaithou; Bishnupur District; Assam, Cachar District, 1 village near Jirbom; Nagaland. Scattered. Alternate names: Chhori.  Dialects: Most similar to Chin Mizo [lus].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chodri

[cdi] 282,000 in Gujarat (2001 census). Gujarat, Surat, Broach and Dangs districts; some in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan. Alternate names: Chaudhari, Chaudri, Chodhari, Choudhara, Choudhary, Chowdhary.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Chug

[cvg] 850 (2005). Arunachal Pradesh state, West Kameng District, Chug village. Alternate names: Chug Monpa, Chugpa, Monpa.  Dialects: Most similar to Lish [lsh].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Unclassified 
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Churahi

[cdj] 111,000 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Chaurah and Saluni tahsils, Bhalai Sub-tahsil. Alternate names: Chaurahi, Churahi Pahari, Churai Pahari.  Dialects: 90% intelligibility with Mandeali [mjl], 83% with Kangri, 85% with Chambeali [cdh]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Chambeali (most similar), 70% with Palampuri Kangri [xnr] and Bhattiyali [bht], 67%–69% with Gaddi [gbk], 65% with Mandeali and Bilaspuri [kfs], 64% with Pangi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Darlong

[dln] 6,000 (1998 T. Darlong). Tripura, North Tripura District, Kailashahar and Kamalpur subdivisions; Assam, Cachar District. Alternate names: Dalong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Darmiya

[drd] 1,750 (2006 Willis). Population total all countries: 2,950. Ethnic population: 4,000. Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh District, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, Dhauli Valley, from Tawaghat near Dharchula south to Sipoo in the north along Dhauli River. Dar, Bongling, Selachal, Nanglin, Baling, Dugtu, Saung, Baun, Philam, Datu, Gwo, Marchha, Dhakar, Sobla, Sipoo villages. Also in Nepal. Alternate names: Darimiya, Darmani, Saukas, Shaukas.  Dialects: Related to Rangkas [rgk], Chaudangsi [cdn], Byangsi [bee].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Deccan

[dcc] 12,800,000 (2000). Central Maharashtra, Deccan Plateau; Karnataka, Belgaum, Bijapur districts; Madhya Pradesh, Raisen, Sehore districts; Gujarat. Alternate names: Desi, Dakini, Deccani.  Dialects: Kalvadi (Dharwar), Bijapuri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified 
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Degaru

[dgu] 10,100 (2000). Bihar; West Bengal. Alternate names: Desi, Dakini, Deccani.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Deori

[der] 26,900 (2000). Ethnic population: 50,000. Assam, Lakhimpur, Demaji, Tinsukia, Jorhat districts. Alternate names: Chutiya, Dari, Deuri, Dewri, Drori.  Dialects: May constitute its own subgroup under Bodo-Garo. Not similar to other languages. Dialect of Lakhimpur District is regarded as purest. Lexical similarity: 77%–93% among Deori varieties, 11%–16% with Bodo [brx].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Desiya

[dso] 50,000 (2003). Orissa, Koraput District, Lamtaput block, Nowrangpur District. Alternate names: Deshia, Desia, Desiya Oriya, Koraput Oriya.  Dialects: Intelligible with Adivasi Oriya [ort] but uses different scripts. Lexical similarity: 80%–85% with Adivasi Oriya dialects in Andhra Pradesh.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Dhanki

[dhn] 163,000 (2007). Secondary speakers. Gujarat, Dangs District; Maharashtra, Jalgaon District; Karnataka; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Dangi, Dangri, Dangs Bhil, Dhanka, Kakachhu-Ki Boli, Tadavi, Tadvi Bhil.  Dialects: Similar to Khandesi [khn].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi 
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Dhanwar

[dha] 104,000 (1981 census). Ethnic population: 165,000 (2007). Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur, Raigarh, Surguja districts; Maharashtra, Akola, Amravati, Yavatmal, Nagpur, Wardha, Chandrapur, Buldana, Satara districts. Alternate names: Danuwar, Dhanvar.  Dialects: Regarded as a ethnic subgroup and dialect of Marathi [mar].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone 
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Dhatki

[mki] 16,400 in India (2000). Western Rajasthan. Alternate names: Thar.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Dhimal

[dhi] 450 in India (2000 K. Cooper). West Bengal, Naxalbari, Chengadhari, Hatighisha, 16 villages. Dialects: Eastern Dhimal.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Dhimal 
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Dhodia

[dho] 152,000 (2007). Gujarat, Surat and Valsad districts, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Dhobi, Dhore, Dhori, Dhowari, Doria.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Dhundari

[dhd] 9,000,000 (2002 L. Gusain). Rajasthan, Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk districts. Possibly in Bundi, Kota, Kishangarh, Ajmer, Jhalawar, northern Karauli, Sawai Madhopur districts. Alternate names: Dhundari-Marwari, Jaipuri.  Dialects: 54% intelligibility with Marwari [rwr]; 86% with Shekhawati [swv]. Lexical similarity: 75%–89% between dialects; 62%–70% with Merwari [wry], 65%–81% with Shekhawati, 46%–66% with Godwari [gdx], 56% to 64% with Mewari [wry], 64%–73% with Harauti [hoj], 62%–67% with Mewati [wtm], 59% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Digaro-Mishmi

[mhu] 8,620 (2001 census). Population total all countries: 9,470. Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District, Hayuliang, Changlagam, Goiliang circles, Dibang Valley District; Assam. Also in China. Alternate names: Darang Deng, Digaro, Digaru, Mishmi, Taaon, Taraon, Taying.  Dialects: May not be in the Tani group, but are related. Lexical similarity: 25% with Idu-Mishmi [clk], 10% with Miju-Mishmi [mxj].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Dimasa

[dis] 106,000 (1997). Assam, North Cachar District and Cachar Hills, Karbi Anglong, Nagaon districts; Nagaland, Haflong District; Meghalaya, Mizoram. Alternate names: Dimasa Kachari, Hills Kachar.  Dialects: Dimasa, Hariamba. Related to Kachari [xac].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Dogri

[dgo] 2,110,000 (1997). Jammu and Kashmir, Udhampur, Reasi, Kathua, Poonch districts. Alternate names: Dhogaryali, Dogari, Dogri Jammu, Dogri Pahari, Dogri-Kangri, Dongari, Hindi Dogri, Tokkaru.  Dialects: Questionnaires reveal little or no difficulty with Dogri speakers understanding each other. Some reported difficulty understanding Kangri [xnr]. Department of Dogri at Jammu University has designated Samba as the standard dialect and published textbooks based on this variety. Lexical similarity: 78% between dialects; excluding the most divergent site, others are over 86% lexically similar.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Dogri

[doi] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 3,805,000. 
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Domari

[rmt] 202,000 in India (2000). Bihar, Saran and Champaran districts; Assam; West Bengal; Uttar Pradesh; Punjab; Madhya Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Orissa. Alternate names: Dom, Domra Magu Hiya.  Dialects: Domaki, Wogri-Boli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom 
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Dubli

[dub] 252,000 (2007). 791,000 (over half speak Gujarati [guj]). Gujarat, Surat, Valsad, Bharuch (Broach), Vadodara districts; Maharashtra, Thane District, Talasari and Dahanu areas; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Daman and Diu; Karnataka: Rajasthan. Alternate names: Dubala, Dubla, Rathod, Talavia.  Dialects: Dubli of Bharuch District is intelligible with Dungri dialect of Vasavi [vas].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Dungra Bhil

[duh] 100,000 (2000). Gujarat, Vadodara District, Chotaudeyapur and Naswadi tahsils; Madhya Pradesh, Jhabua District, Alirajpur tahsil; Maharashtra, Dedgam tahsil; slopes of Vindhya Satpura mountains drained by Narmada River. 200 villages. Dialects: 84%–89% intelligibility with Bhilori [noi] of Maharashtra. Lexical similarity: 75%–85% between subgroups, 71%–87% with Bhilori and Noiri Bhili, below 53% with Garasia [gas].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Duruwa

[pci] 80,000 (2002 IEM). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1986); 65% in Bastar, 35% in Koraput. Chhattisgarh, Bastar District, southeast Jagdalpur Tahsil; Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: Dhruva, Dhurwa, Durva, Paraja, Parajhi, Parjhi, Parji, Tagara, Thakara, Tugara.  Dialects: Tiriya, Nethanar, Dharba, Kukanar. Nethanar dialect is central. Lexical similarity: 90%-96% between dialects, 70%-82% with Halbi [hlb].  Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba 
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Dzongkha

[dzo] 11,000 in India (2007). West Bengal, Kalimpong, Darjeeling, just inside the Indo-Bhutan border; Sikkim; Assam; Arunachal Pradesh; Nagaland; Manipur; Meghalaya. Alternate names: Drukpa, Lhoskad, Hloka.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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English

[eng] 179,000 in India (2006).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Eravallan

[era] 5,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 5,444 (2001 census). 3,890 in Kerala and 1,554 in Tamil Nadu. Kerala, Palakkad District, Chittoor taluk; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District. Alternate names: Ambuvilluvedar, Villu Vedan, Vilvedan.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 91% between Eravallan of Coimbatore and of Palakkad, 70%–74% with Tamil [tam], 59%–77% with Irula [iru], 77%–86% with Malasar [ymr].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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French

[fra] 12,000 in India.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Gadaba, Bodo

[gbj] 8,000 (2000). Orissa, Koraput District, Lamtput, 40 villages; Malkangiri District, Khoirput block. Alternate names: Boi Gadaba, Gadba, Gadwa, Godwa, Gudwa, Gutob, Gutop.  Dialects: Birong Raji, Kinda Raji, Lamtaput, Koraput. Dialects mutually intelligible. Speakers in Lamtaput block have 89%–94% intelligibility in Tikrapada and Audipoda villages. Intelligibility of the Hanumal village variety is less. Lexical similarity: 69%–89% among 7 varieties of Oriya [ori], 90% between listed dialects.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta’, Gutob-Remo 
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Gadaba, Mudhili

[gau] 8,000 (2000). Andhra Pradesh, Vizianagaram District, Salur and Pachipenta Mandals, Vishakhapatnam and Srikakulam districts. Alternate names: Gadaba, Gol Gadaba, Kondekar, Kondko.  Dialects: 93%–98% intelligibility among dialects. Lexical similarity: 84%–94% between dialects, 42%–47% with Different from Dravidian Mudhili Gadaba [gau] and Pottangi Ollar Gadaba [gdb].  Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba 
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Gadaba, Pottangi Ollar

[gdb] 15,000 (2002). 4,000–7,000 in Pottangi block, Koraput District (1995). Orissa, Koraput District, Pottangi and Nandapur blocks. Alternate names: Ollar Gadaba, Ollari, Ollaro, Hallari, Allar, Hollar Gadbas, San Gadaba, Gadba, Sano.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69%–80% with 1 variety; 42%–47% with 1 variety in Andhra Pradesh; 52%–62% with Mudhili Gadaba [gau] in Andhra Pradesh.  Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba 
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Gaddi

[gbk] 110,000 (2007). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Brahmaur Tahsil and Holi sub-tahsils; Uttar Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Madhya Pradesh; Punjab; Delhi. Alternate names: Bharmauri Bhadi, Gaddyali, Gadi, Gadiali, Pahari Bharmauri, Panchi Brahmauri Rajput.  Dialects: Bharmauri, Macleod Ganj. 93% intelligibility with Mandeali [mjl], 97% with Kangri [xnr], 83% with Chambeali [cdh]. Lexical similarity: 74%–80% with Palamuri Kangri [xnr], 79% with Chambeali, 67%–73% with Mandeali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Gahri

[bfu] 4,000 (1997). Himachal Pradesh, Gahr Valley along Bhaga River from confluence with the Chandra and upstream, Biling, Kardang, Kyelang, Guskyar, Yurnad, Gumrang, Barbog, Paspara, Pyukar, Styering villages. Alternate names: Boonan, Bunan, Erankad, Ghara, Keylong Boli, Lahuli of Bunan, Poonan, Punan.  Dialects: Related to Tukpa [tpq], Kanashi [xns], Thebor [jna], Kanam [kcs], Sumcho [scu], Sungnam (Sungam) [ssk], Zangram [jna]. Lexical similarity: 39% with Sunam [ssk], 26%–39% with varieties of Chamba Lahuli (Pattani) [lae], 37% with Tinani [lbf], 26%–34% with varieties of Central Tibetan [bod], 34% with Jangshung [jna] and Shumcho [scu], 31% with Kinnaur Bhoti [nes], 30% with Chitkuli [cik] and Nesang (Tukpa) [tpq], 24% with Lhasa [bod], 23% with Kanauri [kfk].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Gamit

[gbl] 400,000 (2000). Gujarat, Surat District; some in Bharuch, Dangs, and Valsad districts. Alternate names: Gamati, Gameti, Gamith, Gamta, Gamti, Gavit.  Dialects: Similar to Mawchi [mke].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Gangte

[gnb] 15,100 in India (2001 census). Manipur, south Churachandpur District, 37 villages; Meghalaya; Assam. Also in Myanmar. Alternate names: Gante.  Dialects: Related to Thado Chin [tcz]. Differs little from Vaiphei, Paite [pck], or Zou [zom].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Garasia, Adiwasi

[gas] 100,000 (1988 IEM). North Gujarat, Banaskantha District, Danta taluk; Sabarkantha District, Poshina taluk. Alternate names: Adiwasi Girasia, Adiwasi Gujarati, Girasia.  Dialects: Understand Rajput Garasia [gra] well. Lexical similarity: 89%–96% between dialects, 75%–93% with dialects of Rajput Garasia; 79%–92% with dialects of Patelia [bhb]; 79%–93% with Wagdi [wbr]; 76%–87% with Marwari [rwr] dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Garasia, Rajput

[gra] 100,000 (IEM 1999). Rajasthan, Sirchi, Pali, Udaipur districts; Gujarat, Banaskantha District. Alternate names: Dhungri Garasia, Dungari Garasia, Dungri Grasia, Girasia, Grasia, Rajput Garasia.  Dialects: Rajput Garasia do not understand Adiwasi Garasia [gas] but intelligibility is high the other way. Lexical similarity: 94%–99% with Gujarati [guj] and Rajasthani [mve] dialects, 75%–93% with Adiwasi Garasia [gas] dialects; 76%–84% with Patelia [bhb] dialects; 79%–86% with Wagdi [wbr]; 67%–84% with Marwari [rwr] dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Garhwali

[gbm] 2,920,000 (2000). Uttarakhand; Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Dehra Dun, Rudraprayag districts; Himachal Pradesh; Tehri and Uttarkash, Jaunpuri and Ravai. Alternate names: Gadhavali, Gadhawala, Gadwahi, Gashwali, Girwali, Godauli, Gorwali, Gurvali, Pahari Garhwali.  Dialects: Srinagari, Tehri (Gangapariya), Badhani, Dessaulya, Lohbya, Majh-Kumaiya, Bhattiani, Nagpuriya, Rathi, Salani (Pauri), Ravai, Bangani, Parvati, Jaunpuri, Gangadi (Uttarkashi), Chandpuri. Kumaoni [kfy] is most similar language; Jaunsari [jns] is sometimes referred to as a dialect of Garhwali, but most say they cannot understand it. Parvati dialect also reportedly not intelligible; Srinagari is literary standard; Pauri generally regarded as the ‘sweetest’; Srinagari and Pauri are very similar. Lexical similarity: 53%–84% among dialects; 54–69% with Hindi, 55%–66% with Kumaoni. The divergent dialect varieties of Bangani, Parvati, and Ravai are no more similar to Western Pahari varieties than to Garhwali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Garhwali 
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Garo

[grt] 780,000 in India (2007). Population total all countries: 900,000. Meghalaya, Garo Hills District; West Assam, Goalpara, Kamrup, Karbi Anglong districts; Nagaland, Kohima District; Tripura, South Tripura District, Udaipur Subdivision; North Tripura District, Kamalpur, Kailasahar subdivisions; West Tripura District, Sadar Subdivision; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri and Koch Bihar districts. Also in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Garrow, Mande, Mandi.  Dialects: A’beng (A’bengya, Am’beng), A’chick (A’chik), Achik (A’we, Chisak, Dual, Matchi), Dacca, Ganching, Kamrup. Achik is the standardized dialect in India. A’beng dialect used in Bangladesh, but is not mutually intelligible. Most similar to Koch [kdq].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Garo 
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Gata’

[gaq] 3,060 (1991 census). Ethnic population: 7,371 in Orissa. Orissa, Koraput, and Malkangiri districts, Kudumulgumma and Chitrakonda blocks, south of Bondo Hills; some in Khairput block. 47 villages; Andhra Pradesh, East Godavari District. Alternate names: Didayi, Didei, Dire, Gataq, Geta’, Getaq, Gta Asa, Gta’.  Dialects: Plains Geta’, Hill Geta’. Ruhlen treats Plains Geta’ and Hill Geta’ as separate languages. Lexical similarity: 68%–93% among dialects, 27%–37% with Bondo varieties, 22%–28% with Gadaba Gutob [bfw] dialect.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta’, Geta’ 
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Godwari

[gdx] 3,000,000 (2001 census). Rajasthan, Jhalor, Sirohi, Pali districts. Dialects: Balvi, Khuni, Madahaddi, Sirohi. 88%–92% intelligibility with Marwari [rwr]. Lexical similarity: 70% between dialects; 50%–72% with Marwari, 62%–75% with Merwari [wry], 45%–69% with Shekhawati [swv], 51%–73% with Mewari [wry], 46%–66% with Dhundari [dhd], 44%–67% with Harauti [hoj].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Gondi

[gon] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 2,054,000. 
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Gondi, Northern

[gno] 1,950,000 (1997). 2,632,000 all Gondi. Madhya Pradesh, Betul, Chhindwara, Seoni, Mandla, Balaghat districts; Maharashtra state, Amravati, Wardha, Nagpur, Bhandara, Yavatmal districts. Alternate names: Gaudi, Ghond, Godi, Gondi, Gondiva, Gondu, Gondwadi, Goondile, Goudi, Goudwal.  Dialects: Betul, Chhindwara, Mandla, Seoni, Amravati, Bhandara, Nagpur, Yavatmal. Inherent intelligibility between dialects 94%–97%. Speakers tested in other dialects understood Amravati 94%–97%; Betul 83%–96%, and Seoni 82%–97%. 58%–78% intelligibility of Southern Gondi [ggo]. Different from Muria [hlb], Maria [mrr] of Garhchiroli, Dandami Maria [daq], and Koya [kff]. Lexical similarity: 58%–90% among dialects.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Gondi, Southern

[ggo] 100,000 (2004). Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad District; Maharashtra, south Yavatmal, south Chandrapur and southeast Garhchiroli districts; Chhattisgarh. Alternate names: Koi Gondi, Telugu Gondi.  Dialects: Sironcha, Nirmal (Adilabad), Bhamragarh, Utnoor, Aheri, Rajura, Etapally Gondi. Sironcha dialect understood best by the others, with 90%–98% intelligibility. 49%–58% intelligibility of Northern Gondi [gno]. Lexical similarity: 64%–90% among dialects.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Gowlan

[goj] 20,200 (2000). Maharashtra, Amravati District, and among Korku people. Madhya Pradesh, Hoshangabad District; some reported in north Karnata. Dialects: Dialects in Maharashtra and Karnataka reportedly different. May be more similar to Hindi (Central zone) than to Marathi [mar] (Southern zone).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified 
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Gowli

[gok] 35,000 (1997). Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra, Amravati District. Alternate names: Nand.  Dialects: Nand, Ranya, Lingaayat, Khamla. Nand subdialects have 93% or higher intelligibility with Khamla dialect. Dialect used in Madhya Pradesh appears more similar to Marathi [mar] (Southern zone) than to Hindi (Central zone). Lexical similarity: 84%–92% between the Ranya and Nand dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified 
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Groma

[gro] 14,000 in India (2007). Sikkim, North District, Chumbi Valley. Alternate names: Tromowa.  Dialects: Upper Groma, Lower Groma.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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Gujarati

[guj] 45,500,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 46,493,990. Gujarat; Maharashtra; Rajasthan; Karnataka; Madhya Pradesh. Also in Bangladesh, Botswana, Canada, Fiji, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Oman, Pakistan, Réunion, Singapore, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Alternate names: Gujerathi, Gujerati, Gujrathi.  Dialects: Standard Gujarati (Saurashtra Standard, Nagari, Bombay Gujarati, Patnuli), Gamadia (Gramya, Surati, Anawla, Brathela, Eastern Broach Gujarati, Charotari, Patidari, Vadodari, Ahmedabad Gamadia, Patani), Parsi, Kathiyawadi (Jhalawadi, Sorathi, Holadi, Gohilwadi, Bhawnagari), Kharwa, Kakari, Tarimuki (Ghisadi). Some Pakistani dialects are more similar to standard Gujarati than others. Pakistani Gujarati is probably a subdialect of Patani [ptn] (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Memoni ethnic group in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, and other parts of Pakistan reportedly speak a variety more similar to Gujarati. In India reportedly speak a Kachchi [kfr] variety.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Gujari

[gju] 690,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 992,000. Ethnic population: 1,600,000 (2002) in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Delhi. Jammu, Line of Control border tahsils; Kashmir, Kukernag, Kangan, Tral, Doru, Pahalgam, Shopian, Kulgam, Handwara, Karnah, Kupwara, Uri tahsils; Himachal Pradesh; Uttarakhand. Also in Afghanistan, Pakistan. Alternate names: Gujuri, Gujer, Gujar, Gujjari, Gurjar, Gojri, Gogri, Kashmir Gujuri, Rajasthani Gujuri, Gojari, Hindki, Parimu.  Dialects: Ajiri of Hazara. Poonchi [phr] may be understood by others and form the basis for a standard dialect. In Pakistan, Eastern Gujari appears more similar to Northern Hindko [hno] or Pahari-Potwari [phr]. Western Gujari appear to understand the Eastern dialect better than vice versa. Comparison with India varieties is needed. Lexical similarity: between Uttar Pradesh and Pakistan average 60%, with Poonchi 76%.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Gurung, Western

[gvr] 33,000 in India (2007). Ethnic population: 112,000 of which 77,000 speak Nepali. West Bengal, Darjeeling. Possibly in Myanmar. Alternate names: Gurung Kura.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Hadothi

[hoj] 4,730,000 (2001 census). Rajasthan, Kota, Jhalawar, Bundi, Baran districts; Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior District. Alternate names: Hadauti, Hadoti, Harauti, Piploda.  Dialects: 45% intelligibility with standard Marwari [rwr], 57%–67% with Merwari [wry], 58%–66% with Shekhawati [swv], 44%–67% with Godwari [gdx], 61%–71% with Mewari [mtr], 64%–73% with Dhundari [dhd], 52%–70% with Mewati [wtm], 55%–62% with Bagri [bgq] 83%–99% between dialects including varieties of Mina [myi], 63%–77% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Hajong

[haj] 60,000 (Karotemprel 1998). Population total all countries: 68,000. Meghalaya, West Garo Hills District, western side, West and East Khasi Hills; Assam, Goalpara, Nagaon districts; Arunachal Pradesh; West Bengal. Also in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Haijong, Hazong.  Dialects: Banai, Dalu. No prestige or standard dialect recognized. Bhunjia [bhu] and Kawari considered more divergent dialects. Reportedly a creole language. Grierson (1903–1928) called it a dialect of Marathi [mar] for convenience, but noted similarities to Bhatri [bgw], a dialect of Oriya [ori]. Halbi [hlb] intelligible only with difficulty. Intelligible with Hajong of Bangladesh. Lexical similarity: 82%–91% between Banai dialect of Koch [kdq] and mainstream Hajong varieties; 74%–77% between Dalu dialect and mainstream Hajong varieties; 79% between Banai dialect of Koch [kdq] and Dalu; 54%–64% with Assamese [asm]; 63%–67% with Bengali [ben]; 74%–85% with Hajong of Bangladesh.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Halbi

[hlb] 500,000 (2000). Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat District; Chhattisgarh, plains in Bastar District; Maharashtra, Gondia District; Orissa, Koraput District; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Bastari, Halabi, Halba, Halvas, Halvi, Mahari, Mehari.  Dialects: Adkuri, Bastari, Bhunjia, Chandari, Gachikolo, Govari of Balaghat, Kawari, Kunbi, Mahari (Mahara, Mehari), Muri (Muria), Sundi. Bhunjia [bhu] and Kawari dialect considered more divergent dialects. Reportedly a creole language. Grierson (1903–1928) called it a dialect of Marathi [mar] for convenience, but noted similarities to Bhatri [bgw], a dialect of Oriya [ori]. Halbi [hlb] intelligible only with difficulty.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Haryanvi

[bgc] 13,000,000 (1992 SIL). 107,000 Haryanvi proper (1997). Ethnic population: 16,000,000 (1992 SIL). Haryana; Rajasthan; Punjab; Karnataka; Delhi; Himachal Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: Bangaru, Banger, Bangri, Bangru, Chamarwa, Desari, Hariani, Hariyani, Haryani, Jatu.  Dialects: Bangaru Proper, Deswali, Khadar. Good intelligibility among dialects, but Haryanvi is not intelligible with Hindi. Most similar to Braj Bhasha [bra]. Lexical similarity: 92% among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified 
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Hindi

[hin] 180,000,000 in India (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 181,676,620. Throughout north India: Delhi; Uttar Pradesh; Uttarakhand; Rajasthan; Punjab; Madhya Pradesh; northern Bihar; Himachal Pradesh. Also in Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Botswana, Canada, Djibouti, Germany, Kenya, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Yemen, Zambia. Alternate names: Khadi Boli, Khari Boli.  Dialects: Formal vocabulary borrowed from Sanskrit, de-Persianized, de-Arabicized. Literary Hindi, or Hindi-Urdu, has 4 varieties: Hindi (High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, Literary Hindi, Standard Hindi); Urdu; Dakhini; Rekhta. “Hindustani”, though not listed separately in India, refers here to the unofficial lingua franca of northwest India. Has a lexical mixture in varying proportions of Hindi (vocabulary derived from Sanskrit) and Urdu (vocabulary derived from Persian or Arabic).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani 
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Hinduri

[hii] 29,700 (2001 census). Himachal Pradesh, Solan District, Ramshahr, Nalagarh and surrounding villages. Alternate names: Handuri.  Dialects: Most similar to Bilaspuri [kfs]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Baghliani dialect of Mahasu Pahari [bfz] spoken in Arki; 60% with Lower Mahasui dialect of Pahari [bfz], and 56% with Upper Mahasui dialect of Pahari [bfz] and Sirmauri [srx]; 64% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Hmar

[hmr] 50,000 (1997). Assam, North Cachar and Cachar districts; Manipur, south, Tipaimukh, Churachandpur, 35 villages; Mizoram, Aizawl, Cachar, North Cachar districts; Tripura. Alternate names: Hamar, Hmari, Mhar.  Dialects: Similar to Zou [zom].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Ho

[hoc] 1,500,000 (2003). Jharkhand, Singhbhum District, Kolhan, Seraikella, Dhalbhum areas; Orissa, Mayurbhanj, and Koenjhar districts; West Bengal. Alternate names: Bihar Ho, Lanka Kol.  Dialects: Lohara, Chaibasa-Thakurmunda. Most understand Chaibasa and Thakurmunda dialects well, 90%-92% comprehend narrative discourse. ‘Kherwari’ (Khanwar, Kharar, Kharoali, Kharwari) is group name for Ho, Mundari [unr], Munda [unx], and Santali [sat], closely related languages, and other smaller languages or dialects. Lexical similarity: 85% between most dialects, except for 3 on Ho area east and south edges.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Holiya

[hoy] 500 (2002). Madhya Pradesh, Seoni, Balaghat districts; Maharashtra; Karnataka. Alternate names: Gohllaru, Golari-Kannada, Holar, Holari, Hole, Holian, Holu.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada 
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Hrangkhol

[hra] 18,700 in India (2000), decreasing. Assam; Tripura; a few in Manipur and Mizoram. Alternate names: Rangkhol.  Dialects: Hadem.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Hruso

[hru] 4,000 (Breton 1997). Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng District, Thrizino circle, Jamiri, Husigaon, Gohainthan, Buragaon, Karangonia, Raindogonia, Yayom, Gijiri, Dijungonia, Tulu, Polatari, Raghupam, Tania, Khuppi, Bhalukpong, Balipho, Palizi villages; East Kameng District, Seppa circle, Pisang village. Alternate names: Aka, Hrusso, Angka, Angkae, Tenae, Gusso.  Dialects: Hruso, Levai (Bangru). No apparent wider affiliation within Tibeto-Burman. Varieties sometimes grouped under Tibeto-Burman as ‘Hruish’. Levai is similar to Miju-Mishmi [mxj] and may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 9% between the speech of a group called Koro and the Hruso dialect [hru]. Both are highly dissimilar to neighboring languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Idu-Mishmi

[clk] 11,000 in India (2001 census). 20% are monolingual. Population total all countries: 11,080. Arunachal Pradesh, Dibang Valley District; Assam; West Bengal. Also in China. Alternate names: “Chulikata” , “Chulikotta” , Ida, Idu, Midhi, Midu, Sulikota, Yidu Luoba.  Dialects: Most similar to Digaro-Mishmi [mhu]. Different from Adi [adi]. May be a dialect of Miri [mrg]. Lexical similarity: 7% with the Miju-Mishmi dialect of Miju-Mishmi [mxj], 25% with Digaro-Mishmi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Indian Sign Language

[ins] 2,680,000 in India. 2,680,000 in India (2003). Widespread. Also in Bangladesh, Pakistan. Alternate names: Indo-Pakistani Sign Language, Urban Indian Sign Language.  Dialects: Calcutta Sign Language, Bangalore-Chennai-Hyderabad Sign Language, Mumbai-Delhi Sign Language. Over 75% of signs from all regions are related. Mumbai-Delhi dialect is most influential. Some influence from British Sign Language [bfi] in the fingerspelling system and a few other signs developed indigenously in India. Related to Nepalese Sign Language [nsp].  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Indo-Portuguese

[idb] 4,940 in India (Cardoso 2006). Relatively few monolingual speakers even in Korlai (Cardoso 2006). Population total all countries: 4,970. Daman and Diu; Maharashtra, Korlai near Bombay; Kerala, Cannanore, possibly in Cochin area. Also in Australia, Sri Lanka. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based 
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Irula

[iru] 200,000 (2003). Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri, Coimbatore, Periyar districts; Karnataka; Kerala, Palakkad District, Attapady and Walayar panchayats; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Erukala, Irava, Irulan, Irular, Irular Mozhi, Irulavan, Iruliga, Iruligar, Kad Chensu, Korava.  Dialects: Mele Nadu Irula (Southern Irula), Northern Irula (Kasaba, Kasava, Kasuba), Vette Kada Irula (Irula Pallar), Irula Urali, Attapady Irula, Walayar Irula (Urali Irula). Dialects: Vette Kada had 73% intelligibility with Mele Nadu; Northern Irula had 83% intelligibility with Mele Nadu; not inherently intelligible with Tamil [tam] (Irula survey 93). Vette Kada had 94% intelligibility with Attapady; Walayar had 84% intelligibility with Attapady. (Palakkad survey 04). Lexical similarity: 78%–86% between Mele Nadu dialect varieties, 67%–70% with Northern Irula, 64%–66% with Vette Kada, 47%–50% with Tamil; Attapady has 73%–75% with Mele Nadu and 85%–89% with Vette Kada. Walayar has 74% to 79% with Attapady, 76% with Vette Kada, and 69% with Mele Nadu.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Jad

[jda] 300 (Breton 1997). Uttarakhand, Uttarkashi District, Harsil Subdivision, Jadang and Nilang villages in the gorges of Jad Ganga. Alternate names: Bhotia, Dzad, Rongba.  Dialects: Similar to Spiti Bhoti [spt].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Jangshung

[jna] 1,990 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Morang Tahsil, Jangi, Lippa, Asrang villages. Alternate names: Central Kinnauri, Jangiam, Jangrami, Thebarskad, Thebor, Thebör Skadd, Zangram, Zhang-Zhung.  Dialects: Most similar to Shumcho [scu], Sunam [ssk]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Shumcho, 65% with Sunam, 51% with Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik], 49% with Lower Kinnauri.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Jarawa

[anq] 250 (2006 A. Abbi). Andaman Islands, interior and south central Rutland Island, central interior and south interior South Andaman Island, Middle Andaman Island, west coast, 70 square km reserve. Dialects: Different from Önge [oon] and Sentinel [std].  Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese 
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Jaunsari

[jns] 100,000 (2001). Uttarakhand, Dehra Dun District, Kalsi tahsil, Tiuni tahsil, Chakrata tahsil, Jaunsar-Bawar Division. Alternate names: Jansauri, Jaunsauri, Pahari.  Dialects: Jaunsari, Jaunsari-Bawari. 97% intelligibility between dialects. Perceived by some as a Garhwali [gbm] dialect; but speakers perceive Garhwali as distinct and report lack of intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 70%–77% between dialects, 63%–70% with Garhwali dialects, 64% with Kannada Kurumba [kfi], 66% with Hindi, 51% to 64% with Sirmauri [srx].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Juang

[jun] 50,000 (2000). Orissa, south Keonjhar, north Angul, east Dhenkanal districts. Alternate names: Juango, Patra-Saara, Patua, Puttooas.  Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. Lexical similarity: 20%–22% with Kharia [khr].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang 
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Juray

[juy] 801,000 (2000). Orissa. Dialects: Most similar to Sora [srb].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray 
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Kachari

[xac] 59,000 (1997). Assam, North Cachar District, Cachar Hills; Nagaland, Kohima District, Dimapur, Dhansiri administrative circles, 16 villages. Alternate names: Cachari.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Kachchi

[kfr] 806,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 866,000. Gujarat, Rann of Kachchh Area; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh; Assam; Kerala; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Orissa. Also in Kenya, Malawi, Pakistan, Tanzania. Alternate names: Cuchi, Cutch, Kachchhi, Kachi, Katch, Katchi, Kautchy, Kutchchi, Kutchie.  Dialects: Jadeji. Similar to Sindhi [snd].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi 
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Kadar

[kej] 1,960 (2004), decreasing. Kerala, Thrissur District, Palakkad District, Chittoor Taluk; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District. Alternate names: Kada.  Dialects: Phonology related to Tamil [tam] and vocabulary related to Malayalam [mal] (Menon 1996). Lexical similarity: 56%–62% with Tamil, 62%–65% with Malayalam, 67% with Mala Malasar [ima], 61%–63 % with Kanikkaran [kev]; 62% with Malamuthan.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Kaikadi

[kep] 23,000 (2007). Maharashtra, Jalgaon District; Karnataka. Alternate names: Kaikadia, Kaikai, Kokadi.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Kalanadi

[wkl] 750 (2004). Kerala state, Wayanad District, southwest. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Malayalam [mal], 74% with Paniya [pcg], 72%–75% with Wayanad Kurichiya [kfh], 79%–83% with Mullu Kurumba [kpb], 88% with Pathiya [pty], 81% with Kunduvadi [wku].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern 
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Kamar

[keq] 40,000 (2003). Madhya Pradesh, Rewa District; Chhattisgarh, Raipur District; Maharashtra. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Kamta

[rkt] 5,000,000 in India (2007). West Bengal, Jalpaiguri, Uttar Dinajpur, Koch Bihar, Darjeeling districts; Assam, Dhubri and Kokrajhar districts. Alternate names: Kamtapuri, Rajbangsi, Rajbansi, Rajbanshi, Rajbongshi, Goalparia, Koch Rajbanshi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Kanashi

[xns] 1,400 (Chauhan 2002). Himachal Pradesh, Kullu District, Kullu Tahsil, glen of Bios Valley, Malana (Malani) village area. Alternate names: Kanasi, Malani.  Dialects: No intelligibility with any Tibeto-Burman languages of Lahul-Spiti and Kinnaur (Chauhan).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Kanauji

[bjj] 9,500,000 (2001 USCWM). Uttar Pradesh, Kanpur, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Hardoi, Shahjahanpur, Pilibhit, Mainpuri, Auraiya districts. Alternate names: Bhakha, Braj, Braj Kanauji, Kannauji, Dehati.  Dialects: Kanauji Proper, Tirhari, Transitional Kanauji. Transitional Kanauji dialect is between Kanauji and Awadhi [awa]. Grierson (1903–1928) calls it a form of Braj Bhasha [bra]. The variety spoken in Kannauj and Farrukhabad is considered the pure form. Lexical similarity: 84%–97% between all varieties of Kanauji, 72%–76% with Bundeli [bns], 70%–78% with Braj Bhasha, 83%–94% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified 
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Kangri

[xnr] 1,700,000 (1996). Himachal Pradesh, Kangra, Hamirpur, Una districts. Alternate names: Kangra-Dogri, Pahari, Pahari Kangri.  Dialects: Hamirpuri, Palampuri. Palampuri dialect has lexical similarity 90% with Bilaspuri [kfs] and Chambeali [cdh], 89% with Mandeali [mjl], 83% with Bhattiyali [bht], 80% with the MacLeod Ganj dialect of Gaddi [gbk].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Kanikkaran

[kev] 19,000 (2007). Kerala, Kozhikode, Ernakulam, Koliam, Trivandrum districts, Neyyattinkara and Nedumangadu taluks; Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari, Tirunelveli districts. Alternate names: Kanikkar, Kannikan, Kannikaran, Kannikharan, Malampashi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71%–80% between Kanikkaran varieties in Kerala, 67%–71% between Kanikkaran in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, 66%–75% with Malayalam [mal], 59%–65% with Tamil [tam].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Kanjari

[kft] 91,200 (1995). Uttar Pradesh, Aligarh, Farrukhabad, Etawah, Sitapur, Kheri districts; Rajasthan; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: Kagari, Kangar Bhat, Kangri, Kanjri.  Dialects: Kuchbandhi. It may be in the Panjabi group.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Kannada

[kan] 35,300,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 35,327,600. Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra. Also in Canada, United States. Alternate names: Banglori, Canarese, Kanarese, Madrassi.  Dialects: Bellary, Bijapur, Gulbarga, Kumta, Aine Kuruba, Jeinu Kuruba, Nanjangud. About 20 dialects; Badaga may be one.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada 
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Karbi

[mjw] 492,000 (2007). Assam, Karbi Anglong District, Mikir and Rengma hills, Nagaon, Darrang, Marigaon, Sonitpur, Lakhimpur, North Cachar districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Papumpare District, Balijan circle; Meghalaya, Jaintia District; Nagaland, foothills around Dimapur. Alternate names: Arleng Alam, Karbi Karbak, Manchati, “Mikir” , “Mikiri” , Nihang, Puta.  Dialects: Chingthang (Jynthong), Mirlong, Rong Kethang (Rengkhang, Rongkhang). Lexical similarity: 82%–96% between dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Mikir 
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Kashmiri

[kas] 5,420,000 in India. Population total all countries: 5,640,940. Jammu and Kashmir; Punjab; Uttar Pradesh; Delhi; Kashmir Valley. Also in Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States. Alternate names: Cashmeeree, Cashmiri, Kacmiri, Kaschemiri, Keshur, Koshur.  Dialects: Bakawali, Bunjwali, Standard Kashmiri, Kishtwari (Kashtawari, Kistwali, Kashtwari, Kathiawari), Miraski, Poguli, Rambani, Riasi, Shah-Mansuri, Siraji of Doda, Siraji-Kashmiri, Zayoli, Zirak-Boli. Transitional dialects to Panjabi [pan]. Kashtawari dialect is standard, other dialects are influenced by Dogri [dgo].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kashmiri 
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Katkari

[kfu] 12,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 294,000 Kathodi. Maharashtra, Raigad and Thane districts, Sahayadri Range foothills; Rajasthan, northwest, Onga, Samicha Parebati, Mubusha, Jhadol police station areas; Gujarat, Surat, Bharuch, Sabarkantha, Dang districts; Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Amboli and Dapada Panchayat areas. Alternate names: Katakari, Katari, Kathodi, Katvadi.  Dialects: Northern Katkari, Central Katkari, Southern Katkari. Referred to as a dialect of Marathi [mar]. 89%–96% intelligibility between dialects. Lexical similarity: 67%–75% with Marathi, 77%–90% among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Khaling

[klr] Ethnic population: 294,000 Katkari [kfu], most speak Marathi [mar]. Darjeeling and Sikkim area, scattered. Alternate names: Khael Baat, Khael Bra, Khalinge Rai.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Khamba

[kbg] 1,330 (1991). Arunachal Pradesh, West Siang District, Singa circle, Yang Sang Chu valley, Nyering, Nuykkang, Yortung, Mankota, Tashigong villages. Alternate names: Khamba Khaadi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Khamti

[kht] 8,880 in India (2000). Assam, Lakimpur District, Barkhamti, Barigaon, Deotola, Tunijan, Sribhuyan, Barpathar, Tipling villages, Dibrugarh District; Arunachal Pradesh, Siang and Lohit districts, Chakham, Memong, Barpathar, Mime, Kheram, M. Pong, Man Khao villages within the Namsai Subdivision and Ningro, Nanam, Inten, Nathaw, Mamareng, Mahang villages in Lohit. Alternate names: Hkamti, Kham-Tai, Khampti, Khamti Shan, Khantis, Tai Kham Ti.  Dialects: Assam Khamti, North Burma Khamti, Sinkaling Khamti.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Khamyang

[ksu] 50 (2003 S. Morley). Ethnic population: Over 800. Assam, Tinsukia District, Pawaimukh village. Alternate names: Khamiyang, Khamjang, Shyam, Tai Khamyang.  Dialects: Similar to Phake [phk] of Assam and Shan [shn] of Myanmar.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest  Nearly extinct.
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Khandesi

[khn] 1,580,000 (1997). Maharashtra, Dhule District, Sakri tahsil, Nasik District, Satna tahsil, Nandurbar District, Nandurbar and Shahada tahsils; Gujarat. Alternate names: Khandeshi, Khandish, Dhed Gujari, Khandeshi Bhili, Maharashtra Bhil.  Dialects: Dangri, Kunbi (Kunbau), Rangari, Khandesi, Kotali Bhil. All varieties of Khandesi tested at 90% or higher intelligibility with each other. A group of Kukna in Dhule District speak Khandesi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Khandesi 
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Kharia

[khr] 292,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 293,580. Primarily Jharkhand, Ranchi District, Simdega Subdivision, Thethaitangar Anchal and Kolebira Anchal in Khunti Subdivision; West Singhbhum, East Singhbhum; also Chhattisgarh, Raigarh, Jashpur, Durg, Bilaspur, Raipur districts; Orissa, Sundargarh, Sambalpur, Mayurbhanj districts; Assam; Tripura; West Bengal; Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Dhelki mainly in Jashpur, northwest Gangpur (Raigarh) and Sundargarh. Dudh to the east and south, in southern Ranchi, Gangpur (Raigarh) and western Sambalpur. Also in Nepal. Alternate names: Haria, Khadia, Khariya, Kharvi, Khatria, Kheria.  Dialects: Dhelki Kharia, Dudh Kharia, Mirdha-Kharia.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang 
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Kharia Thar

[ksy] 25,000. Many have shifted to Bengali [ben] or Oriya [ori] as L1. Ethnic population: 25,500 (2007 survey). West Bengal, Purulia District, Bundwan, Manbazar, Purulia Muffasil, Puncha, Balrampur, Barabazar, Hura blocks, Bankura District, Raipur, Ranibandh, Indpur blocks, West Medinipur District, Binpur block; Jharkhand, East Singhbhum District, Potka, Dhalbhumgarh, Ghatsila, Musabani, Dumaria, Chakulia blocks; a few in West Singhbhum District. Dialects: A Western subdialect of Bengali [ben] (Grierson 1903–1928). Lexical similarity: 57%–90% among varieties of Kharia Thar; 53%–63% with Bengali, 51%–67% with Oriya [ori]; 57%–75% with Lodhi [lbm].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Khasi

[kha] 865,000 in India (1997). Meghalaya, East and West Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills districts; Assam, Cachar, Nagaon, North Cachar Hills, Lakhimpur, Kamrup districts; Manipur; West Bengal; Tripura. Also in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Kahasi, Kassi, Khasa, Khashi, Khasiyas, Khuchia.  Dialects: Bhoi-Khasi Khasi (Cherrapunji, Sohra), Khynrium, War. Bhoi Khasi in East Khasi Hills, Nongpoh block, and Nonglung in East Khasi Hills, Umksning block are very different from standard Khasi, with different word order. Many varieties have only partial mutual inherent intelligibility. War dialect is separate from War-Jaintia [aml]. Cherrapunji (Sohra) is the standard. Lexical similarity: 75% between War dialect and standard Khasi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian 
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Khirwar

[kwx] 34,300. Madhya Pradesh, Bhind, Guna, Morena, Vidisha districts; Chhattisgarh, Surguja District. Alternate names: Kherwari, Khirwara.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Khowar

[khw] 19,200 in India (2000).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Chitral 
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Kinnauri

[kfk] 63,800 (2000). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur, Lahul-Spiti districts, Chauhra to Sangla and north along Satluj River to Morang, upper Ropa River Valley villages; Shimla and Rampur area; Uttar Pradesh; Punjab; Kashmir. Alternate names: Kanauri, Kanaury Anuskad, Kanawari, Kanawi, Kanoreunu Skad, Kanorin Skad, Kanorug Skadd, Kinnaura Yanuskad, Kinner, Kinori, Koonawure, Kunawari, Kunawur, Lower Kinnauri, Malhesti, Milchan, Milchanang, Milchang, Tibas Skad.  Dialects: Dialect at Nichar has 79% inherent intelligibility of Sangla. Other varieties have functional intelligibility of each other. Related languages: Kanashi [xns], Chitkuli Kinnauri [cjk], Jangshung Tukpa [jna]. Lexical similarity: 76%–90% among varieties.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Kinnauri, Bhoti

[nes] 6,790 (2000 USCWM). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Morang Tahsil, upper Kinnauri Sutlej River basin where it becomes Spiti River, Morang Tahsil, Nesang village, Puh Tahsil, Puh village. Possibly in Kuno, Charang villages. Alternate names: Bhotea of Upper Kinnauri, Bod-Skad, Bud-Kat, Myamkat, Myamskad, Nyamkat, Nyamskad, Puh, Sangyas, Sangs-Rgyas.  Dialects: May be more than 1 language. Lexical similarity: 71% with Tukpa [tpq], 63% with Mane village, 59% with Darcha village, 54% with Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Kinnauri, Chitkuli

[cik] 1,060 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Nichar Subdivision, Sangla Valley, Baspa River area, Chitkul, Rakchham villages. Alternate names: Chitkhuli, Chitkuli, Kanauri, Kinnauri, Thebarskad, Tsíhuli, Tsitkhuli.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 46% with Kinnauri [kfk], 51% with Jangshung [jna], 43% with Shumcho [scu], 38% with Sunam [ssk].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Kinnauri, Harijan

[kjo] 6,330 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, throughout Kinnaur District. Alternate names: Chamang Boli, Harijan Boli, Orasi, Ores, Boli, Sonar Boli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Koch

[kdq] 30,000 in India (2007), increasing. Hardly any monolinguals. Population total all countries: 36,000. Meghalaya, West Garo Hills District; Assam, Goalpara, Nagaon districts; Tripura; West Bengal; Bihar. Also in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Koc, Kocch, Koce, Kocha, Kochboli, Konch.  Dialects: Harigaya, Margan (Dasgaya), Tintekiya, Wanang. Tintekiya in Meghalaya is intelligible with same dialect in Bangladesh; Tintekiya not intelligible with other Koch dialects; Koch-Rabha and Harigaya are mutually intelligible with Wanang; Dasgaya and Harigaya are mutually intelligible; except for Tintekiya, forming a dialect chain (Koch-Rabha-Wanang-Harigaya-Dasgaya). Lexical similarity: 90% between Tintekiya Koch of India and Bangladesh; Tintekiya has only 44%–55% similarity with other Koch dialects, 31%–39% all Koch dialects with Rongdani Rabha [rah], 13%–17% all Koch dialects with Garo [grt]. Some borrowing of lexical items from Assamese [asm].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch 
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Koda

[cdz] 300 (Parkin 1991). Ethnic population: 28,200 (1991 census). West Bengal, Burdwan, and Bankura. Alternate names: Kaora, Kora, Korali, Korati, Kore, Mudi, Mudikora.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Kodaku

[ksz] 15,700 (1991 census). Chhattisgarh, Surguja District; Jharkhand, Palamau, Garhwa districts; Uttar Pradesh, Sonbhadra District. Alternate names: Koraku, Korku.  Dialects: A subgroup of Korwa [kfp] (Parkin 1991). Lexical similarity: 82%–96% between varieties, 50%–70% with Korwa.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari 
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Kodava

[kfa] 241,000 (Rajyashree 2001). Ethnic population: 100,000 in Kodagu District plus 100,000 in other districts of Karnataka and major cities of India. Karnataka, Coorg (Kodagu) District, around Mercara, Malayalam border south. Alternate names: Coorge, Kadagi, Khurgi, Kodagu, Kotagu, Kurja, Kurug.  Dialects: May be more than 1 language. 66% intelligibility of Malappuram [pcg]. Lexical similarity: 72% with Malappuram Paniya [pcg].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu 
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Koireng

[nkd] 3,000 (2002). 1,056 in Manipur (2001 census). Manipur, Senapati District, Saikul and Kangpokpi subdivisions, 5 villages; Bishnupur District, 3 villages south of Moirang; Chandel District, 2 villages near Palel; Nagaland. Alternate names: Koirng, Kolren, Koren, Kwoireng, Liangmai, Liangmei, Liyang, Liyangmai, Lyengmai, Quoireng.  Dialects: Not intelligible with any related speech varieties (1991 P. Khasung). Lexical similarity: 62%–68% with Aimol [aim], 60%–66% with Purum [pub], 64% with Kharam Naga [kfw].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Kok Borok

[trp] 691,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 696,000. Tripura; Assam. Also in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Kakbarak, Kokbarak, Tipura, Tripura, Tripuri, Usipi Mrung.  Dialects: Jamatia, Noatia (Tipra), Debbarma. Debbarma is spoken by the royal family and is medium of communication with the other dialects; understood by all, but not vice versa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Kolami, Northwestern

[kfb] 200,000 (2000 IICCC). All Kolami 115,000 (1997). Maharashtra, Yavatmal, Wardha, and Nanded districts; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh. Alternate names: Kolam, Kolamboli, Kolamy, Kolmi, Kulme.  Dialects: Madka-Kinwat, Pulgaon, Wani, Maregaon. Northwestern [kfb] and Southeastern Kolami [nit] not inherently intelligible. Neither is intelligible with Bodo Parja [bdv], Gadaba [gau], or Pottangi Ollar Gadaba [gdb]. Lexical similarity: 61%–68% with Southeastern Kolami [nit].  Classification: Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki 
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Kolami, Southeastern

[nit] 10,000 (1989 F. Blair). Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad District; Maharashtra, Chandrapur, Nanded districts. Dialects: Metla-Kinwat, Utnur, Asifabad, Naiki. Not intelligible with Northwestern Kolami [kfb]. Rao (1950) reports another dialect in Chinnoor and Sirpur Taluks of Adilabad District. The Naiki dialect is different from Naikri (Zvelebil 1970:13). Lexical similarity: 85%–88% between Naiki and other Southeastern Kolami dialects; 83% between the Metla-Kinwat and Utnur; 86% between Asifabad and Utnur; 60%–74% with Northwestern Kolami.  Classification: Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki 
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Koli, Kachi

[gjk] 400,000 in India (1998). 100,000 Kachi Koli, 250,000 Rabari, 50,000 or more Vagri Meghwar, Katai Meghwar, and Zalavaria Koli. Gujarat, Rann of Kachchh District, centered around Bhuj. Alternate names: Bajania, Kachi, Kachi Gujarati, Katchi, Kohli, Kolhi, Koli, Kori, Kuchi, Kuchikoli, Vagari, Vagaria, Vaghri.  Dialects: Kachi, Rabari (Rahabari), Kachi Bhil, Vagri (Kachi Meghwar), Katai Meghwar, Zalavaria Koli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Koli, Wadiyara

[kxp] 404,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 579,000. Gujarat, near Wadhyar town. Also in Pakistan. Alternate names: Wadaria, Wadhiara.  Dialects: Tharadari Koli. Mewasi [kxp] and Wadiyara are almost the same linguistically and are converging as a caste. Dialects listed are distinct sociolinguistic endogamous ethnic groups. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kachi Koli [gjk].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Kom

[kmm] 15,500 (2001 census). East and central Manipur, Churachandandpur, Tamenglong, and Senapati districts, 22 villages. Alternate names: Kom Rem.  Dialects: Kolhreng. Kolhreng may be a separate language.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Konda-Dora

[kfc] 20,000 (2007). Konda-Dora in Andhra Pradesh, Visianagaram, Srikakulam, East Godavari districts; Kubi in Orissa, Koraput District; Assam. Alternate names: Porja.  Dialects: Konda-Dora (Konda), Kubi. Konda and Kubi dialects mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 83% between Konda-Dora and Kubi dialect, 28%–36% with Telugu [tel].  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda 
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Konkani

[knn] 4,000,000 in India. Population total all countries: 4,004,490. North and central coastal strip of Maharashtra; Karnataka; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Kerala. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Bankoti, Concorinum, Cugani, Central Konkan, North Konkan, Konkan Standard, Konkanese, Konkani Mangalorean, Kunabi.  Dialects: Agari of Kolaba, Parabhi (Kayasthi, Damani), Koli, Kiristav, Dhanagari, Bhandari, Thakuri (Thakari, Thakri, Thakua, Thakura), Karhadi, Sangamesvari (Bakoti, Bankoti), Ghati (Maoli), Mahari (Dhed, Holia, Parvari), Chitapavani. Dialects closely related; Chitapavani recognized as Standard Konkani. Local fishermen use the Koli dialect (Hukkeri). Related to Katkari [kfu] (dialects: Kathodi, Katvadi), Varli [vav], Phudagi [phd], Samvedi [smv], Mangelas.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Konkani

[kok] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 7,636,074. 
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Konkani, Goan

[gom] 3,630,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 3,633,900. South coast strip of Maharashtra, Ratnagari District; Goa; Karnataka; Kerala. Also in Kenya, United Arab Emirates. Alternate names: Gomataki, Goan, Konanni, Southern Kanara.  Dialects: Bardeskari (Gomantaki), Sarasvat Brahmin, Chitpavani (Konkanasths), Daldi (Nawaits), Kudali (Malvani), Mangalore Standard Konkani (Goan). Daldi and Chitapavani [knn] are intermediate varieties between Goan and Standard Konkani [knn].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Koraga, Korra

[kfd] 14,000 (1981 census). Karnataka, Dakshina Kannada, Udipi districts; Kerala, Kannur, and Kasargod districts; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Koragar, Koragara, Korangi, Korra.  Dialects: Ande, Onti, Tappu. Related to Tulu [tcy], Bellari [brw]. Not intelligible with Mudu Koraga [vmd], Tulu [tcy], or Kannada [kan]. Structural differences in phonology with Mudu Koraga. According to Bhat (1968), there are 4 dialects: Onti (spoken in Udipi), Tappu (in Hebri), Mudu (in Coondapur), Ande (in Mangalore).  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga 
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Koraga, Mudu

[vmd]  Kerala. Alternate names: Muudu.  Dialects: Distinct from Korra Koraga [kfd], Tulu [tcy], or Kannada [kan]. Structural differences in phonology with Korra Koraga.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga 
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Korku

[kfq] 478,000 (1997). South Madhya Pradesh, south Betul District, north and Betul City area, Hoshangabad District, East Nimar (Khandwa) District; north Maharashtra, Amravati, Buldana, Akola districts. Alternate names: Bondeya, Bopchi, Korki, Kuri, Kurku, Kurku-Ruma, Ramekhera.  Dialects: Bouriya, Bondoy, Ruma, Mawasi (Muwasi, Muasi). Dialects in northern Maharashtra and south central Madhya Pradesh constitute one language; 82% to 97% intelligibility among them; Bouriya most widely understood. Lexical similarity: of dialects with Laki Bouriya is 76%–82%.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Korku 
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Korlai Creole Portuguese

[vkp] 750 (1998 J. Clements). Maharashtra, Korlai, 200 kms. south of Mumbai, west coast. Alternate names: Creole Portuguese.  Dialects: A blend of Portuguese and Marathi [mar].  Classification: Creole, Portuguese based 
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Korwa

[kfp] 66,000 (1997). Few monolinguals. Jharkhand, Palamau, Garhwa and Gumla districts; Chhattisgarh, Jashpur, Surguja, Raigarh, Korba, Bilaspur districts; Orissa, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh districts; Uttar Pradesh, Mirzapur District; West Bengal; Andhra Pradesh; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Ernga, Singli.  Dialects: Majhi-Korwa. Lexical similarity: 71%–92% between dialects, 50%–70% with Kodaku [ksz], 26%–36% with local Sadri [sck] spoken by Dihari Korwa. Lexical similarity with Sadri (an Indo-Aryan language) shows noticeable influence of Sadri on Korwa.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Kota

[kfe] 900 (2007). Tamil Nadu, Sholur Kokkal, New Kotagiri, Kilkotagiri, Kollimalai, Kundah Kotagiri, Trichicady, and Gudalur settlements; a few in Ooty, Coonoor, Indunagar, Aravankavu, and Wellington; Chennai. Alternate names: Kother-Tamil, Kotta, Kowe-Adiwasi.  Dialects: Ko Bashai. Reportedly intelligible with Toda [tcx] (Menon 1996). Lexical similarity: 35% with Badaga [bfq], 38% with Tamil [tam], 36% with Malayalam [mal], 24% with Toda.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota 
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Koya

[kff] 300,000 (2003). Estimates up to 10,000,000 speakers. Andhra Pradesh, south of Godavari River, adjoining districts north of the river; Orissa, Koraput District, Malkangiri Subdivision; Chhattisgarh, Bastar District; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Kavor, Kaya, Koa, Koi, Koi Gondi, Koitar, Koyato, Koyi, Raj Koya.  Dialects: Malakanagiri Koya, Podia Koya (Gotte Koya), Jaganathapuram Koya (Gommu Koya, Godavari Koya), Dorli (Chintoor Koya, Korla, Dora, Dor Koi, Dora Koi, Dorla Koitur, Dorla Koya). Linguistic center is Chintoor. Malkangiri and Podia are more divergent. Separate from North Gondi [gno] and South Gondi [ggo].  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi 
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Kudiya

[kfg] 2,800 (2007). Karnataka, Kodagu, Dakshina, Kannada districts; Kerala, Kannur, Kasargod districts; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Male Kudiya.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu 
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Kudmali

[kyw] 37,000 (1997). Jharkhand, east side; West Bengal, west Purulia, Bankura Malda, Nadia, and Western Midnapur districts; Orissa, Keonjhar, Mayourbhanj, and Sundargargh districts; Assam, Darrang, Sonitpur, Golaghat, Jorhat districts. Alternate names: Bedia, Dharua, Khotta, Kurmali, Kurumali, Kurmali Thar.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 58%–89% between varieties, 61%–86% with Panchpargania [tdb], 58%–72% with Khortha, 51%–73% with Sadri [sck], 46% to 53% with Oriya [ori], 41%–55% with Bengali [ben], 44%–58% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Kui

[kxu] 765,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 410,000 ethnic Kui Khond who speak Kui plus additional ethnic groups. Orissa, Phulbani, Koraput, Ganjam districts; Ganjam, Udayagiri area; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Kanda, Kandh, Khond, Khondi, Khondo, Kodu, Kodulu, Kuinga, Kuy.  Dialects: Khondi, Gumsai.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi 
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Kukna

[kex] 400,000 (2000 IICCC). Gujarat, Dangs, Valsad districts; Maharashtra, Dhule, Nasik, Thane districts; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Karnataka, Dakshina Kannada (Kanara) District; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Kanara, Kanara Konkani, Kokna, Kokni.  Dialects: Dhule District Kukna has 98%–100% intelligibility with Khandesi [khn].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Kulung

[kle]  Sikkim; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri District; Uttarakhand, Dehradun; Assam. Alternate names: Kholung, Khulung, Khulunge Rai, Kulu Ring.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Kumaoni

[kfy] 2,360,000 (1998). 20% monolingual. Scattered in Nepal border area. Uttarakhand, Almora, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Bageshwar, Champawat, Udhamsingh Nagar districts; Central Kumaoni in Almora and north Nainital; Northeastern Kumaoni in Pithoragarh; Southeastern Kumaoni in southeast Nainital; Western Kumaoni west of Almora and Nainital. Alternate names: Kamaoni, Kumauni, Kumau, Kumawani, Kumgoni, Kumman, Kunayaoni.  Dialects: Central Kumaoni, Northeastern Kumaoni, Southeastern Kumaoni, Western Kumaoni. Dialects mutually functionally intelligible. Reportedly, eastern dialects are different. Names sometimes listed for dialects or subgroups are: Askoti, Bhabari of Rampur, Chaugarkhiya, Danpuriya, Gangola, Johari, Khasparjiya, Kumaiya Pachhai, Pashchimi, Phaldakotiya, Kumaoni, Rau-Chaubhaisi, Sirali, Soriyali. Most closely related to Garwhali [gbm] and Nepali [nep].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Central Pahari 
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Kumarbhag Paharia

[kmj] 20,200 (2000). Jharkhand, central part of former Santhal Pargana District, Sundar Pahari block of Godda District, Pakaur District except block most south. Reported in West Bengal, Bankura, Barddhaman, Murshidabad districts; Orissa, Mayurbhanj. Alternate names: Kumar, Mad, Mal, Maler, Malti, Malto, Maltu, Paharia, Pahariya.  Dialects: Low comprehension of Mal Paharia [mkb]. Related to Kurux [kru]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Mal Paharia.  Classification: Dravidian, Northern 
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Kumbaran

[wkb] 20,000 (2005 IJMF). Kerala state, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Malappuram districts; Palakkad, Trissur, Ernakkulam, Kannur; all states in peninsular India. Dialects: Reportedly cannot understand Telugu [tel] on Wayanad District radio. Lexical similarity: 48% with Telugu.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern 
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Kunduvadi

[wku] 1,000 (2004 SIL). Kerala state, Wayanad District, Puthadi, Purakkadi and Pulpalli villages; Kozhikode District, Vythiri Taluk, Cheeyambam, Irulambam, Manaluvayal, Pakkam, Porakady villages. Dialects: Like Malayalam [mal] but with peculiar intonation and dialect virtually unintelligible to others (Shashi 1994; Menon 1996). Lexical similarity: 65% with Malayalam, 61% with Aranadan [aaf], 83% with Pathiya [pty], 81% with Kalanadi [wkl].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern 
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Kupia

[key] 6,600 (2007). Ethnic population: 79,000 Valmiki. Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam, East Godavari districts. Alternate names: Valmiki.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Kurichiya

[kfh] 29,400 (2004). Ethnic population: 32,746 (2001 census). Kerala, Wayanad District, Mananthavady, Vythiri tahsils; Kannur, Kozhikode districts. Alternate names: Kowohans, Kurichchan, Kurichchia, Kurichia, Kurichiyars, Kuruchans.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern 
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Kurmukar

[kfv] 3,000 in India (2000). Assam, Barpeta, Goalpara, Dhubri districts; Tripura, West Bengal, Bihar, a few in Madhya Pradesh. Also in Nepal. Alternate names: Karmakar, Kamar, Karmokar, Umar, Kumbhakar, Kumhar.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Kurumba, Alu

[xua] 2,500 (1997). Tamil Nadu, east Nilgiri Hills. Alternate names: Alu Kurumba Nonstandard Kannada, Hal Kurumba, Pal Kurumba.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% between Alu Nonstandard Kannada and Pal.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu 
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Kurumba, Attapady

[pkr] 1,370 (1991 census). Kerala state, Palakkad District, Attapady block. Alternate names: Kurumba, Pal Kurumba.  Dialects: Separate from Alu Kurumba [xua], Kurumba Kannada [kfi]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Muduga [udg]; 61% to 70% with Irula [iru], 50% with Alu Kurumba, 52% with Kurumba Kannada, 55% with Malayalam [mal], 58% with Tamil [tam].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern 
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Kurumba, Betta

[xub] 32,000 (2003), increasing. Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri District, Gudalur, Panthalur taluks; Karnataka, Kodagu District, Virarajendrapet, Somvarpet taluks; Mysore District, Heggadadevanakote, Piriyapatna taluks; Chamrajnagar District, Gundlupet taluk; Kerala, Wayanad District, S. Bathery, Mananthavady, Vythiri taluks. Alternate names: Kadu Kurumba, Urali Kurumba.  Dialects: A nonstandard variety of Tamil [tam] or Kannada [kan]. May be same as Betta Kurumba dialect in Coorg District. Lexical similarity: 59%–77% among groups that are called ‘Betta Kurumba’.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Kurumba, Jennu

[xuj] 35,000 (1997). North Nilgiri Hills, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka border, east of Kerala border, Karnataka, Mysore and Kodagu districts; Kerala, Wynad District. Alternate names: Jen Kurumba, Jennu Kurumba, Jennu Nudi, Kattu Nayaka, Naik Kurumba, Naikan, Nonstandard Kannada, Shola Nayakan, Ten Kurumba.  Dialects: May or may not be the same as Jeinu Kuruba dialect of Kannada [kan]. Lexical similarity: 61%–83% among varieties called ‘Jennu Kurumba’, less than 60% with Betta Kurumba [xub] dialects.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu 
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Kurumba, Kannada

[kfi] 180,000 (2000). Tamil Nadu, Teni District, Kambam Valley; Dindigul District, Sirumalai, Senkuruchi Hillocks, Palani; Coimbatore District, Pollachi, Western Fields, Western Gate Hills; Dharmapuri, Vellore, Chingalpattu, Salem districts; Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Canarese, Korambar, Kuramwari, Kuremban, Kuruba, Kuruban, Kurubar, Kuruman, Kurumans, Kurumar, Kurumba, Kurumban, Kurumbar, Kurumbas, Kurumvari, Kurubas Kuruma, Palu Kurumba, Southern Non-standard Kannada.  Dialects: Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Pudukottai.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu 
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Kurumba, Mullu

[kpb] 26,000 (2004). 25,000 in Wayanad and 1,000 in Gudalur of Nilgiri. Kerala, east Wayanad District, Sulthan Bathery and Vythiri tahsils; Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri District, west Gudalur tahsil, Erumad and Cherangodu villages, 10 hamlets. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 89%–92% between Mullu Kurumba varieties in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, 73%–77% with Malayalam [mal], 56%–65% with Tamil [tam], 22%–36% with Kannada Kurumba [kfi], 29%–41% with other Kurumba languages.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu 
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Kurux

[kru] 2,050,000 in India (1997). 1,834,000 Oraon, 219,000 Kisan. Population total all countries: 2,094,200. Chhattisgarh, Raigarh, Surguja districts; Jharkhand Ranchi District; West Bengal, Jalpaigiri District; Bihar; Orissa, Sundargarh, Jharsuguda districts; Assam; Tripura. Also in Bangladesh, Bhutan. Alternate names: Birhor, Kadukali, Kisan, Koda, Kola, Kora, Kuda, Kunha, Kunhar, Kunna, Kunrukh, Kunuk, Kurka, Kurukh, Morva, Oraon, Urang, Uraon.  Dialects: Oraon, Kisan. Kisan and Oraon dialects have 73% intelligibility. Oraon becoming standard. Related to Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj]. Different from Nepali Kurux [kxl].  Classification: Dravidian, Northern 
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Kuvi

[kxv] 350,000 (1995). Orissa, Koraput, Kalahandi, Ganjam, and Phulbani districts; Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam districts. Alternate names: Jatapu, Khondh, Khondi, Kond, Kuvi Kond, Kuvinga, Kuwi.  Dialects: Laxmipur, Rayagada, Dongria Khond.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi 
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Ladakhi

[lbj] 150,000 in India (2003). Population total all countries: 162,000. Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh District. 250 villages and hamlets. Also in China. Alternate names: Ladak, Ladakh Skat, Ladaphi, Ladhakhi, Ladwags.  Dialects: Leh (Central Ladakhi), Shamma (Sham, Shamskat, Lower Ladakhi), Nubra Ladakhi. Perhaps 30%–40% intelligibility with Tibetan [bod]. Leh comprehend Zangskari [zau] and Changthang [cna] 90%. Nubra and Sham do not have adequate intelligibility with Leh to use educational, literacy, or development materials. Changthang and Zanskar, while understanding Stod Bhoti [sbu] better than Leh dialect, identify more with Leh Ladakhi culture. 58% to 85% intelligibility of Leh by Changthang, 73% to 81% by Zanskar. Leh is in and around Leh; Shamma is west of Leh along the Indus Valley and south of Khaltse; Nubra is in Nubra Tahsil north of Leh. Lexical similarity: 71%–83% with Purik [prx], 53% to 60% with Tibetan, 84%–94% among 5 main dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western, Ladakhi 
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Lambadi

[lmn] 6,000,000 (2004). Ethnic population: Estimates range up to 40,000,000 for the total group. Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Himachal Pradesh; Gujarat; Tamil Nadu; Maharashtra; Karnataka; Orissa; West Bengal. Alternate names: Bangala, Banjara, Banjari, Banjori, Banjuri, Brinjari, Gohar-Herkeri, Goola, Gormati, Gurmarti, Kora, Labhani, Labhani Muka, Lamadi, Lamani, Lambani, Lambara, Lavani, Lemadi, Lumadale, Singali, Sugali, Sukali, Tanda, Vanjari, Wanji.  Dialects: Maharashtra Lamani, Karnataka Lamani (Mysore Lamani), Andhra Pradesh Lamani (Telugu Lamani).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Lamkang

[lmk] 10,000 in India (1999 census). Southeast Manipur, Chandel District, 6 villages west of Chandel District east of Shuganu, 6 villages between Chalong and Mombi New, 18 villages between Palel, Chandel town, Palel and Sibong; Nagaland; Dimapur, Thamlakhuren. Also in Myanmar. Alternate names: “Hiroi-Lamgang” , “Lamgang” , Lamkaang, Lamkang Naga.  Dialects: Most similar to Anal Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Lepcha

[lep] 48,000 in India (2007). Population total all countries: 52,830. Sikkim, Dzongu District; West Bengal, Darjeeling District, Kalimpong. Also in Bhutan, Nepal. Alternate names: Lapche, Nünpa, Rong, Rongke, Rongpa.  Dialects: Ilammu, Tamsangmu, Rengjongmu. Classification still uncertain; has been classified both in Himalayan and Naga groups.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Lepcha 
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Lhomi

[lhm] 1,320 (2000 USCWM). West Bengal, Darjeeling. Alternate names: Lhoket, Shing Saapa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Limbu

[lif] 24,000 in India (2007). Ethnic population: 143,792. Sikkim, West District; West Bengal, Darjeeling District; Assam. Alternate names: Limbo, Lumbu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Lish

[lsh] 2,340 (2005). Arunachal Pradesh state, West Kameng District, Lish, Lish Gompache, Lish Gompalok villages. Alternate names: Kishpignag, Lish Monpa, Lishpa, Monpa.  Dialects: Most similar to Chug [cvg] but probably not adequately intelligible.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Unclassified 
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Lisu

[lis] 1,000 in India (Breton 1997). Arunachal Pradesh, Changlang District, Miao and Vijaynagar circles. Alternate names: Yawyin, Yobin.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Lisu 
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Lodhi

[lbm] 25,000 (2007). Orissa, Mayurbhanj District, Morada and Suliapada in the Sadar Subdivision, Balasore District, Sora block; West Bengal, West Medinipur District, Binpur, Kharagpur-I blocks; Jharkhand, along West Bengal border. Alternate names: Lodha, Lodi, Lohi, Lozi.  Dialects: Related to Sora [srb]. Lexical similarity: with Oriya [ori] 59%–67%, with Bangla (Bengali [ben]) 56%–72%, Santali [sat] 20%, Mundari [unr], Munda [unx] 10%; 66%–85% between varieties of Lodhi; 57% to 75% with Kharia Thar [ksy].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Lohar, Gade

[gda] 1,010 (2000). Rajasthan; Gujarat; Madhya Pradesh; Maharashtra; Uttar Pradesh; Delhi; Haryana; Punjab. Alternate names: Bagri Lohar, Belani, Bhubaliya Lohar, Chitodi Lohar, Chittoriya Lohar, Dhunkuria, Domba, Dombiali, Gadia Lohar, Gaduliya Lohar, Gara, Kanwar Khati, Lohari, Lohpitta, Panchal Lohar, Rajput Lohar.  Dialects: No significant dialect differences. May be same as Loarki [lrk] in Pakistan.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Lohar, Lahul

[lhl] 750 (1996). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul Valley. Alternate names: Garas, Lohar.  Dialects: Different from Gade Lohar [gda].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Lyngngam

[lyg] 5,000 (Singh 94). Meghalaya state; Assam state, Kamrup District. Alternate names: Khasi, Lyngam, Lyngym.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 36% with standard Khasi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian 
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Magahi

[mag] 13,000,000 (2002). Bihar, Gaya, Bhagalpur, eastern Patna districts; Jharkhand, northern Chotanagpur Division, Hazaribagh District; West Bengal, Maldah District. Alternate names: Bihari, Magadhi, Magaya, Maghai, Maghaya, Maghori, Magi, Magodhi, Megahi.  Dialects: Southern Magahi, Northern Magahi, Central Magahi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Magar, Eastern

[mgp] 71,700 in India (2006). Ethnic population: 278,247. Sikkim, South District, scattered in East District. Alternate names: Magari, Magarkura, Mangari, Manggar.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Magar 
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Mahali

[mjx] 33,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 278,000. Jharkhand, Chotanagpur region, Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Gumla, Santal Pargana, Lohardaga, West Singhbhum, East Singhbhum, Saraikela Kharsawan, Dhanbad districts; Orissa, Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar districts; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri, West Medinipur districts; Assam, on tea estates. Alternate names: Mahili, Mahle, Mahli.  Dialects: Possible dialect of Santali. Lexical similarity: 69%–87% between varieties of Mahali; 78%–93% with Santali; 53%–59% with Mundari [unr].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali 
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Maithili

[mai] 31,900,000 in India (2000). 40% monolingual. Population total all countries: 34,700,000. Bihar, Muzaffarpur on west, past Kosi east to west Purnia District, to Munger, Bhagalpur districts south, and Himalayan foothills north; Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai. Many settled abroad. Cultural and linguistic centers are Madhubani and Darbhanga towns. Janakpur also important culturally and religiously. Also in Nepal. Alternate names: Apabhramsa, Bihari, Maitili, Maitli, Methli, Tirahutia, Tirhuti, Tirhutia.  Dialects: Standard Maithili, Southern Standard Maithili, Eastern Maithili (Khotta, Kortha, Kortha Bihari), Western Maithili, Jolaha, Central Colloquial Maithili (Sotipura), Kisan, Dehati, Bajjika, Thetiya. Caste variation more than geographic variation in dialects. Functional intelligibility among all dialects, including those in Nepal. Most similar to Magahi [mag]. Lexical similarity: 91% between Brahmin and non-Brahmin dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Majhi

[mjz] 20,400 in India (2000). Ethnic population: 121,000. Jharkhand, Gumla District; Sikkim, South District, Majhigaon near Jorethang; East District, Majhitar near Rangpo; West Bengal; Assam. Alternate names: Manjhi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Majhwar

[mmj] 34,300 (1995). Ethnic population: 174,000. Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur District, Katghora tahsil, Raigarh and Surguja districts; Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mirzapur districts; Sikkim. Alternate names: Majhvar, Manjhi, Manjhia.  Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Asuri [asr].  Classification: Unclassified 
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Mal Paharia

[mkb] 61,000 (1994). Possibly 40,000 in West Bengal. Ethnic population: 110,983 (2000). Jharkhand, south Santal Pargana District, Ramgarh Hills. Dumka District, Pakaur; south Godda, and Deoghar districts; some in Sahibganj District, Borio, Depart village. Reported in West Benga, Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts. Possibly in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Dehri, Mad, Mader, Mal, Mal Pahariya, Maler, Malpaharia, Malti, Malto, Maltu, Manlati, Mar, Marpaharia, Maw, Mawdo, Mawer, Mawer Nondi, Paharia, Parsi.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj], Sauria Paharia [mjt], Bengali [ben], or Hindi. Part of the Malto ethnic group. Speak a variety similar to Kharia Thar [ksy] of Manbhum (Jharkhand). Lexical similarity: 85% between dialects, but 59% with Mal Paharia Barmasiya and 55% with Khorta Babudoha.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Mala Malasar

[ima] 1,000 (2004). Kerala, Palakkad District, Parambikulam wildlife sanctuary; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District, Annamalai hills. Alternate names: Maha Malasar, Malai Malasar, Malasir.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68%–74% with the Malasar variety, 70% with Eravallan [era], 70% with Muduga [udg], 65% with Tamil [tam], 61% with Malayalam [mal], 67%–72% with the Attapady dialect of Irula [iru], 75% with the Walayar dialect of Irula.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified 
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Malankuravan

[mjo] 18,600 (2001 census). Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari District; Kerala, Trivandrum, Kollam, Kottayam districts, Chittar, Kattachira, Rajanpara in Ranni Range, Pathanamthitta Taluk, Nottakal in Pathanapuram Taluk, Pampa River banks, Neduvanged Taluk forest tracks. Alternate names: Mala Koravan, Malaikuravan, Malakkuravan, Male Kuravan.  Dialects: Malayadiars.  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Malapandaram

[mjp] 5,850 (2001 census). Kerala, Pathanamthitta, Kollam districts, some in Kottayam and Palakkad districts; Tamil Nadu, Villupuram, Coimbatore and Madurai districts. Alternate names: Hill Pantaram, Malapantaram, Malepantaram, Pandaram Basha.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83%–94% between varieties in Kerala, 63%–68% with Malayalam [mal], 64%–68% with Tamil [tam].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Malaryan

[mjq] Extinct. Kerala, Ernakulam, Idukki, Kottayam, and Trichur districts; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Arayans, Karingal, Malai Arayan, Malayarayan, Malayarayar, Male Arayans, Maley Arayan, Vazhiyammar.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Malasar

[ymr] 7,760 (2001 census). Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District, Pollachi Taluk; Kerala, Palakkad District, Chittoor and Palakkad taluks. Alternate names: Malayar.  Dialects: 68-74% with Tamil, 79-83% with Walayar Irula, 77-86% with Eravallan, 57-61% with Malayalam, 68-75% with Mala Malasar; (04 survey); 52-56% with Malayan, 77-82% between Malasar and Kollimalakkar, Kollimalakkar 80% with Malapulaya (06 survey).  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified 
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Malavedan

[mjr] Total population unknown. 6,186 in Kerala, 6,411 in Tamil Nadu (2001 census). Kerala, Pathanamthitta, Idukki, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Kollam, Trivandrum districts; Tamil Nadu, Kanniyakumari, Madurai, Dindigul, Nilgiris, Salem, and Tirunelveli districts. Alternate names: Malai Vedan, Malavetan, Towetan, Vedans, Veda Bhasha, Vettava Bhasha.  Dialects: Vetan, Vettuvan. Lexical similarity: 64%–68% with Malayalam [mal], 48%–52% with Tamil [tam].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Malayalam

[mal] 35,400,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 35,893,990. Kerala, Laccadive Islands, neighboring states. Also in Bahrain, Canada, Fiji, Israel, Malaysia (Peninsular), Qatar, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. Alternate names: Alealum, Malayalani, Malayali, Malean, Maliyad, Mallealle, Mopla.  Dialects: Malabar, Nagari-Malayalam, Malayalam, South Kerala, Central Kerala, North Kerala, Kayavar, Namboodiri, Moplah (Mapilla), Pulaya, Nasrani, Nayar, Kasargod. Caste and communal dialects: Namboodiri, Nayar, Moplah, Pulaya, Nasrani. Mapilla is among the most divergent dialects, differing considerably from literary Malayalam.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Maldivian

[div] 15,000 in India (2007). 10,000 in Minicoy and 5000 expatriates in Trivandrum. Laccadive Islands, Minicoy Island; Kerala, Trivandrum. Alternate names: Dhivehi, Dhivehi Bas, Divehi, Mahl, Malikh, Malki.  Dialects: Maliku Bas (Minicoy Dialect).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Sinhalese-Maldivian 
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Malvi

[mup] 10,400,000 (2003). 20% monolingual. Madhya Pradesh, Ujjain, Indore, Rathlam, Mandsaur, Rajgarh, Dewas, Shajapur, Nimuch, Sehore, Dhar, Bhopal districts; Rajasthan, Jhalawar District. Sondwari dialect geographically isolated from the others. Alternate names: Malavi, Mallow, Malwada, Malwi, Ujjaini.  Dialects: Ujjaini (Malvi Proper, Avanthika), Rajawadi, Umadwadi, Sondwari (Soudhwari, Sondhwadi). Considered the standard variety, Southeastern Rajasthani Nimadi [noe] is most similar language with 70% intelligibility. 88%–92% intelligibility of Ujjaini dialect by other dialects. Lexical similarity: 65%–89% among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Manda

[mha] 4,040 (2000). Orissa, Kalahandi District, Thuamul Rampur Subdivision. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo 
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Mandeali

[mjl] 900,000 (1991 census). Himachal Pradesh, Mandi District. Alternate names: Himachali, Mandi, Mandiali, Pahari Mandiyali.  Dialects: Preliminary survey suggests speakers have functional intelligibility of Kangri [xnr]. People in outheast Mandi District may have more difficulty understanding Kangri. Standard Mandeali is spoken throughout the broad valley running north and south from Jogindernagar to Sundarnagar. Mandeali Pahari is spoken north around Barot, east of Uhl River. Intelligible with difficulty to standard Mandeali. May be intermediate variety between Mandeali and Kullui [kfx]. Southeast District contains transition to Mahasui [bfz]. In the west, Sarkaghat is also a bit different from standard Mandeali, perhaps forming a transition towards Hamirpur [xnr] and Bilaspur [kfs]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Palampuri (dial. Kangri) [xnr], 83% with Chambeali [cdh].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Manna-Dora

[mju] Population unknown. Ethnic population: 30,000. Andhra Pradesh, East Godavari, Srikakulam, Vishakhapatnam, Vizianagaram districts; Tamil Nadu. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu 
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Mannan

[mjv] 7,850 (2001 census). Kerala, Idukki District, Udumpanchola, Devikulam, Pirmed tahsils; Tamil Nadu, Madurai District. Alternate names: Manne, Mannyod, Mannan Pasha.  Dialects: Little variation between varieties with 92% intelligibility, 70% intelligibility with Malayalam [mal]. Lexical similarity: 86%–96% between varieties, 57%–61% with Tamil [tam], 56%–64% with Malayalam.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam 
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Marathi

[mar] 68,000,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 68,061,130. Maharashtra and adjacent states. Also in Canada, Israel, Mauritius, United States. Alternate names: Maharashtra, Maharathi, Malhatee, Marthi, Muruthu.  Dialects: Cochin, Gawdi of Goa, Kasargod, Kosti, Kudali, Nagpuri Marati. 42 dialects. The dialect situation in the area is complex. Dialects bordering other major language areas share many features with those languages. Dialects or closely related languages: Konkani [knn], Goan Konkani [gom], Deccan [dcc], Varhadi-Nagpuri [vah], Gowlan [goj]. There is a dialect in Thanjavur District and elsewhere in Tamil Nadu influenced lexically by Tamil [tam] and Kannada [kan], with at least 100,000 speakers.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone 
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Maria

[mrr] 165,000 (2000). 141,200 Maria and 23,700 Hill Maria. Maharashtra, Garhchiroli (Chanda) District, Etapalli, Bhamragad, and Sironcha tahsils; Chhattisgarh, Bastar District, Narayanpur and Bijapur tahsils. In Narayanpur, an administrative block of 200 villages is known as ‘Abujhmar block’. Alternate names: Hill Maria, Madi, Madia, Madiya, Modh, Modi.  Dialects: Abujmaria (Abujhmadia, Abujhmaria, Abujmariya, Abujmar Maria, Hill Maria), Adewada, Bhamani Maria (Bhamani), Etapally Maria. Etapally Maria dialect is apparently understood by all. A separate language from Muria, Dandami Maria [daq], Northern Gondi [gno], Southern Gondi [ggo], and Koya [kff]. 76%–77% intelligibility with other Gondi varieties. Muria Gondi is intelligible to Abujmaria around Narainpur area but not elsewhere. “Distinct from Maria dialect of Chanda District MH” (Natarajan). Intelligibility 90%–100% of Bhamragarh dialect by other Maria speakers. Maria is intelligible with the speech of the Gatte Maria, an ethnic group. Lexical similarity: 59%–80% among dialects (1991 survey), 65%–98% (1999 survey).  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Maria, Dandami

[daq] 200,000 (2000). Chhattisgarh, Bastar, Dantewara districts; Maharashtra, Garhichiroli District. Alternate names: Bastar Koya, Bison Horn Maria, Maria Gond, Madiya, Dhuru, Dandami Madiya.  Dialects: Those in Geedam and Bailadila have 95%-98% mutual intelligibility, 81% of the Sukma variety, but 18%-21% of Maria [mrr], 18%-45% of Muria in Sukma understood the Geedam variety at 81% or lower; those in Bailadila understood Sukma at 92%. May be more than 1 language. A separate language from Northern Gondi [gno], Southern Gondi [ggo], Maria of Garhchiroli, and Koya [kff].  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Marma

[rmz] 16,500 in India (2007). Mizoram; Tripura. Alternate names: “Mogh”.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern 
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Marwari

[mwr] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 31,142,637. 
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Marwari

[rwr] 5,600,000 in India (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 5,622,600. Rajasthan, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Pali, Jalore districts; Gujarat; Madhya Pradesh; Punjab; Delhi; Haryana; Uttar Pradesh; thoughout India. Also in Nepal, Pakistan. Alternate names: Marvari, Marwadi, Marvadi, Rajasthani.  Dialects: Barmeri, Bikaneri, Jaisalmeri, Standard Marwari (Jodhpuri). The standard form of Marwari. May or may not be different from Marwari of Pakistan [mve]. 67% intelligibility by Shekhawati [swv], 61% by Godwari [gdx], 54% by Mewari [mtr], 54% by Dhundari [dhd], 45% by Harauti [hoj], 45% by Mewati [wtm]. 53% intelligibility of Shekawati by Marwari. Lexical similarity: 57%–69% between dialects; 49%–74% with Merwari [wry], 51%–68% with Shekhawati [swv], 50%–72% with Godwari [gdx], 56%–70% with Mewari [mtr], 53%–60% with Dhundari [dhd], 50%–60% with Harauti [hoj], 50%–61% with Mewati [wtm]; 80%–85% among some Gujarat and Rajasthan Marwari Bhil dialects; 75%–80% with Wagdi [wbr]; 75%–83% with the Patelia dialect of Bhili [bhb]; 67%–87% with Adiwasi Garasia [gas]; 67%–84% with Rajput Garasia [gra].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Mawchi

[mke] 80,000 (2007). Southwest Gujarat; Maharashtra, Dhule District. Alternate names: Mauchi, Mavchi, Mawachi, Mawchi Bhil, Mowchi.  Dialects: Gamti, Mawchi, Padvi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Meitei

[mni] 1,370,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 1,391,000. Manipur; Assam, Cachar, Karimganji; Nagaland; Tripura, West and North Tripura districts; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal. Also in Bangladesh, Myanmar. Alternate names: Kathe, Kathi, Manipuri, Meiteilon, Meiteiron, Meithe, Meithei, Menipuri, Mitei, Mithe, Ponna.  Dialects: Meitei, Loi (Chakpa), Pangal (Panal, Panan, Manipuri Muslim). Intelligibility of Meitei in Bangladesh is difficult. Those in Bangladesh may understand India Meitei better than vice versa possibly due to more language change in Bangladesh over the years. India Meitei is more standard. Intelligibility between dialects in Bangladesh definitely sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Lexical similarity: 80%–86% between dialects in Bangladesh, 65%–70% between Bangladesh and India varieties.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Meitei 
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Merwari

[wry] 3,900,000 (2001 census). Rajasthan, Ajmer, Nagaur districts. Alternate names: Ajmeri.  Dialects: 82%–97% intelligibility with Marwari. Lexical similarity: 60%–73% between varieties of Merwari in Ajmer and Nagaur districts; 49%–74% with Marwari [rwr], 58%–80% with Shekhawati [swv], 44%–70% with Godwari [gdx], 54% to 72% with Mewari [mtr], 62%–70% with Dhundari [dhd], 57%–67% with Harauti [hoj].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Mewari

[mtr] 2,000,000 (2003). Rajasthan, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Chittoaurgarh districts; Gujarat; Haryana; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: Mewadi.  Dialects: 54% intelligibility with Marwari [rwr]. Lexical similarity: 81%–97% between dialects, 73%–91% with Marwari, 75%–90% with Wagri-Dhevdi, 72%–89% with Malvi [mup], 54% to 72% with Merwari [wry], 57%–66% with Shekhawati [swv], 51%–73% with Godwari [gdx], 56%–64% with Dhundari [dhd], 69%–84% with Harauti [hoj].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Mewati

[wtm] 5,000,000 (2002 L. Gusain). 8% monolinguals. Rajasthan, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur districts; Uttar Pradesh, Madhura District; Haryana, Gurgaon, Faridabad districts. Alternate names: Mewathi.  Dialects: 45% intelligibility of Marwari [rwr]. Over 90% intelligibility with Alwar District dialect throughout Mewati area. Dialect in the Nuh area of Gurgaon is considered purest. Lexical similarity: 72%–77% with Hindi, 63% to 68% with Haryanvi [bgc], 57%–70% with Shekhawati [swv], 62%–67% with Dhundari [dhd], 52%–70% with Harauti [hoj], 68%–71% with Braj Bhasha [bra], 86%–99% between all varieties of Mewati.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified 
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Miji

[sjl] 6,500 (2001). Arunachal Pradesh, West Kemang District, Nafra circle, Bichom and Pakesa River valley, 25 villages including Debbing, Dichik, Rurang, Nachinghom, Upper Dzang, Naku, Khellong, Dibrick, Nizong, Najang, Zangnaching, Chalang, Nafra, Lower Dzang; East Kameng District, Bameng and Lada Circles, Wakke, Nabolong, Kojo, Rojo, Sekong, Panker, Zarkam, Drackchi, Besai, Naschgzang, Sachung, Gerangzing, Kampaa, Salang, Pego, Dongko villages. Alternate names: Dammai, Dhammai, Namrei, Sajalong.  Dialects: Generally considered in the Mirish subgroup. Lexical similarity: 54%–65% between varieties of West and East Kameng; 54%–83% between all varieties.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Miju-Mishmi

[mxj] 18,000. Population total all countries: 18,200. Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District, 25 villages, high altitudes of east, upper Lohit and Dau valleys, area east of Haguliang, Billong, and Tilai valleys; Assam. Also in China. Alternate names: Eastern Mishmi, Geman Dend, Gaman Deng, Kaman, Mishmi, Miji, Miju.  Dialects: Conflicting reports about Miju-Mishmi [kjo] similarity to Idu-Mishmi [clk] and Digaro-Mishmi [mhu]. Reportedly intelligible but recorded Lexical similarity: is too low for this to be possible. Ethnically related, but may not be linguistically similar. Related to Kachin, Chin and Lepcha [lep] languages (Chowdhury 1996). Some linguists believe the language to also be similar to Jingpho [kac]. Lexical similarity 7% with Idu-Mishmi, 10% with Digaro-Mishmi (IICCC).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Mina

[myi] 3,800,000 (2003). Madhya Pradesh, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Guna, Rajgarh districts, Vidisha District, Sironj Subdivision; Rajasthan, Jaipur, Alwar, Bharatpur, Sawai Madhopur, Tonk, Bundi, Ajmer districts. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Mirgan

[zrg] 60,000 (1998 INDBT). Chhattisgarh, Bastar District; Orissa, Koraput, Nabarangapur districts. Alternate names: Mirgami, Mirkan, Panika, Panka.  Dialects: Batasuna, Jagdal Pur, Kosagumuda, Kotpad, Nabarang Pur, Umerkote. Dialects have good intelligibility. Not functionally intelligible with Halbi [hlb]. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Miri

[mrg] 571,000 (2007). 10,050 Hill Miri. Assam, North Lakhimpur, Sonitput, Dhemaji, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Jorhat, Golaghat, Tinsukia districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Lower Subansiri District, Ziro Subdivision, a few villages near Pasighat, on both sides of Kamla River; Upper Subansiri District, Daporizo Subdivision. The Hill Miri are in Arunachal Pradesh, the Plain Miri are in Assam. Alternate names: Mishing, Mising, Takam.  Dialects: Idu-Mishmi [clk] may be a dialect.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Mizo

[lus] 529,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 541,750. Mizoram; Assam; Manipur, Churachandpur District; Nagaland; Tripura, Jampui Hill range. Also in Bangladesh, Myanmar. Alternate names: Duhlian Twang, Dulien, Hualngo, Lukhai, Lusago, Lusai, Lusei, Lushai, Lushei, Sailau, Whelngo.  Dialects: Fannai, Mizo, Ngente, Tlau. Related to Hmar [hmr], Pangkhua [pkh], the Zahao dialect of Falam Chin [cfm].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Monpa, Kalaktang

[kkf] 8,000 (2005). Arunachal Pradesh state, West Kameng District, Kalaktang Administrative Center, Khalaktang, Balimu, and Tomko villages. Alternate names: Southern Monpa, Tsangla Monpa.  Dialects: Most similar to Dirang dialect of Tshangla [tsj], average 55% intelligibility of Dirang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Unclassified 
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Monpa, Tawang

[twm] 8,600 in India. Population total all countries: 9,900. Arunachal Pradesh state, Tawang District. Also in China. Alternate names: Brahmi, Cuona Menba, Dwags, Monkit, Northern Monpa, Takpa, Tawan Monba.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Unclassified 
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Mru

[mro] 1,230 in India (1981 census). Ethnic population: 2,100. West Bengal, Jalpaiguri, Nadia, and Hoogly districts. Alternate names: Mro, Mrung, Murung, Niopheng.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Mru 
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Muduga

[udg] 3,370 (1991 census). Kerala state, Palakkad District, Mannarkad Taluk, Attapady block, Chundakki, Thazhachundakki, Veeranuru, Karuvare, Ommale, Kallamale, Kottamale, Chitturu, Chandakulam, Koravanpady, Ummathupadiga, Molakambi, Thekkumpanna, Abbannuru, Kottiyuru, Pettikkallu, Kakkuppady, and Mukkali hamlets; Tamil Nadu state, Nilgiris, and Coimbatore. Alternate names: Mudugar.  Dialects: Muduga influenced by Kannada [kan], Tamil [tam], Malayalam [mal], and Tulu [tcy], but not a dialect of any of them. Though it has similarities with Tamil in grammatical structure, it cannot be treated as a dialect of Tamil. It is distinct in the Dravidian family (Menon 1996:274 citing Rajendran). No dialects of Muduga determined on survey. Lexical similarity: 55%–57% with Malayalam, 59% with Muthuvan [muv], 60% with Tamil, 75% with the Attapady dialect of Irula [iru], 82%–83% with Attapady Kurumba [pkr].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern 
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Mugom

[muk] 500 in India (2006). 100 families in India. Himachal Pradesh, Kullu, Manali; Kinnaur, Dharmshala, Ladakh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Mukha-Dora

[mmk] 29,700 (1991 census). Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram districts. Alternate names: Conta-Reddi, Mukha Dhora, Nooka Dora, Nuka-Dora, Reddi, Reddi-Dora, Riddi.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda 
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Munda

[unx] 519,000 (1997 IMA). Orissa, Jharkhand; possibly Bihar and West Bengal. Alternate names: Heriki, Killi.  Dialects: Most similar to Mundari [unr].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Mundari

[unr] 1,550,000 in India (1997). 1,022,000 Mundari, 528,000 Bhumij. Population total all countries: 1,560,280. Jharkhand, south and west Ranchi District; Orissa; Madhya Pradesh; West Bengal; Himachal Pradesh; Assam; Tripura; Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Also in Bangladesh, Nepal. Alternate names: Mandari, Munari, Mondari, Horo, Colh.  Dialects: Hasada’, Latar, Naguri, Kera’, Bhumij (Sadar Bhumij, Bhumij Munda, Bhumij Thar). Related to Ho [hoc] and Santali [sat]. 75% intelligibility of Ho. Lexical similarity: 70%–84% with the Bhumij dialect.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Muria, Eastern

[emu] 200,000 (2007). Chhattisgarh, Northeast Bastar District, Keshkal, Kondagaon tahsils; Orissa, Nabrangpur District, Raigarh tahsil. Dialects: Raigarh, Lanjoda. 95% intelligibility between dialects; 73%–83% with Western Muria [mut]; 19%–34% with Northern Gondi [gno]; 35% with Dandami Maria [daq]. Lexical similarity: 74%–77% with Western Muria, 65%–75% with Far Western Muria [fmu].  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Muria, Far Western

[fmu] 400,000 (2007). Maharashtra, north Garhchiroli District, Kurkheda, Korchi, Dhanora, Armori tahsils, Gondia District, Jamdi tahsil; Chhattisgarh, Rajnandgaon District, Manpur and Mahola tahsils. Alternate names: Gondi, Koitor Boli, Koitori.  Dialects: 79%–88% intelligibility with other Muria languages; 74% with Dandami Maria [daq], 0% to 34% with Northern Gondi [gno], 6%–50% with Southern Gondi [ggo], 2%–70% with Maria [mrr]. Lexical similarity: 72%–80% with Western Muria [mut]; 65%–75% with Eastern Muria [emu].  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Muria, Western

[mut] 400,000 (2000). Chhattisgarh, north and west Bastar District. Alternate names: Jhoria, Mudia, Muria Gondi.  Dialects: Sonapal, Banchapai, Dhanora. 80%–96% intelligibility among dialects, 69% to 73% with Eastern Muria [emu], 51%–78% with Far Western Muria [fmu]. Not inherently intelligible with Dandami Maria [daq], Northern Gondi [gno], Southern Gondi [ggo], or Maria [mrr]. Lexical similarity: 72%–80% with Far Western Muria; 74%–77% with Eastern Muria.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Muthuvan

[muv] 16,800 (2006). Kerala, Idukki District, Devikulam tahsil, Devikulam and Adimali blocks; Kozhikode, Kannur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, and Thrissur districts; Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District, Udumalpet and Valparai tahsils, Anaimalai Hills; Madurai District, Cardamom hills; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Muduva, Mudavan, Muduvan, Muduvar, Mutuvar.  Dialects: Western (Malayalam Muthuvan, Nattu Muthuvan), Eastern (Tamil Muthuvan, Pandi Muthuvan). 82%–87% between dialects, eastern dialect more intelligible to western than vice versa, 80% intelligibility with Malayalam [mal]. Lexical similarity: 77%–88% between dialects, 62%–67% with Tamil [tam], 58%–68% with Malayalam.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Na

[nbt] 1,500. Arunachal Pradesh, Upper Subansiri District; Taksing circle, Gumsing, Taying, Esnaya, Lingbing, Tongla, Yeja, Reding, Redi, Dadu villages. Dialects: Affinity with Tagin dialect of Nisi [dap] (Singh 1994).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Naga Pidgin

[nag] 30,000 (Holm 1989). Nagaland, Kohima District, Dimapur Subdivision; Arunachal Pradesh border area. Alternate names: Bodo, Kachari Bengali, Naga Creole Assamese, Naga-Assamese, Nagamese.  Dialects: A variety farthest from Assamese [asm] is spoken by the Yimchenger Naga, and varieties most similar to Assamese by the Angami Naga, and around Dimapur and Kohima.  Classification: Creole, Assamese based 
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Naga, Angami

[njm] 125,000 (2001). West Nagaland, Kohima District; Manipur; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Angamis, Gnamei, Monr, Ngami, Tendydie, Tsanglo, Tsoghami, Tsugumi.  Dialects: Dzuna, Kehena, Khonoma, Chakroma (Western Angami), Mima, Nali, Mozome, Tengima (Kohima). Tengima (Kohima) dialect is standard. Naga Chokri and Naga Khezha are eastern Angami groups with their own dialects. 2 southern varieties (Viswemal, Jakhama) are not intelligible with dialects listed.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Ao

[njo] 232,000 (2001). Northeast Nagaland, central Mokokchung District; Assam. Alternate names: Ao, Aorr, Cholimi, Hatigoria, Nowgong, Paimi, Uri.  Dialects: Mongsen Khari, Changki, Chongli (Chungli), Dordar (Yacham), Longla. Chongli and Mongsen border on mutual unintelligibility (Burling 3003).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao 
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Naga, Chang

[nbc] 60,900 (2001). East central Nagaland, Tuensang District, 36 villages; Assam. Alternate names: Chang, Changyanguh, Machongrr, Mochumi, Mochungrr, Mojung.  Dialects: Similar to Wancho Naga [nnp]. Tuensang village dialect is central and intelligible to all.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Chokri

[nri] 24,000 (2001). Nagaland, Phek District; Cheswezumi is main village. Alternate names: Chakhesang, Chakrima Naga, Chakru, Chokri, Eastern Angami.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Chothe

[nct] 3,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,600. Southeast Manipur, Chandel District, 15 villages; Nagaland, near Myanmar border. Alternate names: Chothe, Chowte, Chawte, Chote.  Dialects: Most similar to Tarao Naga [tro]. Reported intelligibility with Aimol [aim]. Lexical similarity: less than 60% with any neighboring languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Inpui

[nkf] 10,000 (2000 Baptist Ass’n). Manipur, Senapati, Tamenglong, Imphal districts, 16 villages; Nagaland, Dimapur, New Zaluke, Mahei Namchi, Peren; Assam. Alternate names: Inpui, Kabui, Kabui Naga, Kapwi, Koboi, Kubai.  Dialects: Considered by some the same language as Puimei Naga [npu]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Puimei Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Kharam

[kfw] 1,400 (2000 SIL). Manipur, Senapati District, Phaijol, Laikot, Thuisenpai villages, Kharam Pallen village. Alternate names: Duisalongmei, Thinglong.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71%–73% with Purum [pub], 58%–60% with Kom [kmm], 64% with Koireng [nkd].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Khezha

[nkh] 23,000 (1997). East Nagaland, Kohima District, Khezhakhonoma, Phek District. Alternate names: Kezami, Khezha, Khezhama.  Dialects: An east Angami group with its own language.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Khiamniungan

[kix] 38,100 (2001 census). Nagaland, east central part of Tuensang District. Alternate names: Aoshedd, Khiamngan, Khiamniungan, Kalyokengnyu, Nokaw, Welam.  Dialects: A divergent member of the Konyak subgroup.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Khoibu

[nkb] 25,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 25,600. Manipur, southeast, Laiching; mountainous regions north border of Chandel District, Khoibu, Narum, Yangkhul, Saibol villages. Alternate names: Khoibu, Khoibu Maring, Khoibu Maring Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Tangkhul 
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Naga, Konyak

[nbe] 244,000 (2001). Assam, Sibsagar District, Nagagaon, Bortol villages near Simulguri Township; northeast Nagaland, Mon, Tuensang districts. Alternate names: Kanyak, Konyak.  Dialects: Angphang, Hopao, Changnyu, Chen, Chingkao, Chinglang, Choha, Gelekidoria, Jakphang, Longching, Longkhai, Longmein, Longwa, Mon, Mulung, Ngangching, Sang, Shanlang, Shunyuo, Shengha, Sima, Sowa, Shamnyuyanga, Tableng (Mohung, Kongon, Angwangku, Wakching) Tabu, Tamkhungnyuo, Tang, Tobunyuo, Tolamleinyua, Totok. Tableng is standard dialect spoken in Wanching and Wakching. Similar to Phom Naga [nph].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Liangmai

[njn] 41,100 (2001 census). Nagaland, Kohima District, Jhaluke, Paren, Medzephima blocks. Alternate names: Kacha, Liangmai, Liangmei, Liyang, Lyangmay, Lyengmai.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Lotha

[njh] 148,000 (2001 census). Nagaland, west central, Wokha District. Alternate names: Chizima, Choimi, Hlota, Kyong, Lhota, Lotha, Lutha, Miklai, Tsindir, Tsontsii.  Dialects: Live, Tsontsu, Ndreng, Kyong, Kyo, Kyon, Kyou.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao 
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Naga, Makuri

[jmn] 4,000 (2007). Nagaland, Phek, Kiphire districts. Alternate names: Makury Naga, Shaera.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Unclassified 
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Naga, Mao

[nbi] 81,000 (1997). Northwest Manipur, Senapati District; Nagaland. Alternate names: Mao, Spowama, Sopvoma, Maikel, Memi, Sopfomo, Emela, Imemai, Southern Angami.  Dialects: Paomata. Related to Angami Naga [njm]. Paomata dialect and Poumei Naga [pmx] may be the same (Breton 1997).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Maram

[nma] 25,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 25,000. North Manipur, Senapati District, 5 villages near Senapati, 26 villages near Maram; Imphal District; Assam. Alternate names: Maram.  Dialects: Willong Circle, Maram Khullen Circle, T. Khullen, Ngatan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Maring

[nng] 17,400 (2001 census). Manipur, southeast, Laiching; mountainous regions along Chandel District north border, Tengnoupal Subdivision. Alternate names: Maring.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Tangkhul 
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Naga, Monsang

[nmh] 3,200 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,200. Manipur, Chandel District, Chandel Subdivision, Liwchangning, Heibunglok, Liwa Sarei, Japhou, Monsang Pantha villages; north Nagaland, near Myanmar border. Alternate names: Mawshang, Monshang, Moshang, Mushang.  Dialects: Most similar to Moyon Naga [mno], Anal Naga [anm].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Moyon

[nmo] 3,700 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,700. Nagaland, near Myanmar border; Manipur state, Chandel District, 14 villages including Moyon Khullen, Khongjom, Mitong, Komlathabi, Penaching, Heigru Tampak. Alternate names: Mayol, Mayon Naga, Moyon.  Dialects: Related to Monsang Naga [nmh], Anal Naga [anm].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Mzieme

[nme] 29,000 (1997). Southwest Nagaland, Kohima District, Paren area, northeast of Zeme. Alternate names: Mzieme, Northern Zeme.  Dialects: Different from Zeme Naga [nzm].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Nocte

[njb] 35,000 (2001). Southeast Arunachal Pradesh, Tirap District, Khonsa, Namsang, Laju circles; Changlang District; Assam, Lakhimpur District, Jaipur; North Nagaland, Mon District, Namsang. Alternate names: Borduria, Jaipuria, Mohongia, Namsangia, Nocte, Nokte, Paniduria.  Dialects: Khapa, Laju, Ponthai (Lamlak). Similar to Tase Naga [nst]. Ponthai may be an ethnic group, not a dialect. 50% intelligible with Wancho Naga [nnp].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Northern Rengma

[nnl] 13,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 50,966. Nagaland; Kohima District, north Rengma. Kotsenyu is chief Ntenyi village. Alternate names: Northern Rengma, Ntenyi, Ntenyi Naga, Nthenyi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Phom

[nph] 115,000 (2001 census). Northeast Nagaland, Tuensang District, Longleng Subdivision, 36 villages. Alternate names: Phom, Phon, Tamlu Naga, Chingmengu, Tamlu, Assiringia.  Dialects: Yongyasha. Similar to Konyak Naga [nbe].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Pochuri

[npo] 15,900 (2001 census). Southeast Nagaland. Phek District, Meluri Subdivision. 27 villages. Alternate names: Pochuri, Pochury, Meluri, Eastern Rengma.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Poumei

[pmx] 51,000 (1997). Manipur. Alternate names: Paumei, Pomai, Pome, Poumei.  Dialects: Similar to Mao Naga [nbi]. Not the same as Puimei Naga [npu] (Breton 1997:217). Paomata dialect of Mao Naga [mbi] and Poumei Naga may be the same (Breton 1997).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Puimei

[npu] 3,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,000. Manipur; Assam. Alternate names: Puimei.  Dialects: Different from Poumei Naga [pmx] (Breton 1997:217). Not functionally intelligible with any related language (Khasung). Lexical similarity: 68% with Inpui Naga [nkf].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Unclassified 
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Naga, Purum

[puz] 500 (2001 census). Manipur, Senapati District, Purumlikli, Purumkhulen, Purumkhunou, Waicheiphai, Moibunglikli villages; Chandel District, Lamlang Huipi, Chandanpokpi, Khongkhang Chothe, Loirang Talsi, Salemthar, Zat’lang, New Wangparan. Dialects: 95% intelligibility with Kharam Naga [kfw]. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Kom [kmm], 60%–66% with Koireng [nkd], 57%–60% with Aimol [aim], 71%–73% with Kharam Naga [kfw].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Rongmei

[nbu] 59,000 (1997). Northwest Manipur; Nagaland; Assam, Cachar District. 35 villages. Alternate names: Kabui, Maruongmai, Nruanghmei, Rongmai, Rongmei.  Dialects: Songbu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Sangtam

[nsa] 83,700 (2001 census). Southeast Nagaland, Tuensang District, Kiphire Subdivision and Chare Circle. Alternate names: Isachanure, Lophomi, Sangtam.  Dialects: Kizare, Pirr (Northern Sangtam), Phelongre, Thukumi (Central Sangtam), Photsimi, Purr (Southern Sangtam). Standard based on Tsadanger village dialect. Kizare north of Meluri, and not known how much it differs from other Sangtam.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao 
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Naga, Southern Rengma

[nre] 21,000 (1997). West central Nagaland, Kohima District, Tseminyu Subdivision; Assam, Karbi-Anglong District, 15 villages; Manipur. Alternate names: Rengma, Rengma Naga, Mozhumi, Moiyui, Mon, Unza, Nzong, Nzonyu, Injang, Southern Rengma, Western Rengma.  Dialects: Keteneneyu, Azonyu (Nzonyu, Southern Rengma). Tseminyu is main center for the principal dialect. Southern Rengma and Northern Rengma [nnl] are reportedly mutually inherently unintelligible.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Sumi

[nsm] 242,000 (2001 census). Central and south Nagaland, Zunheboto, Kohima, Mokokchung, Tuensang districts; Assam, Tinsukia District, 7 villages. Dayang is near Dayang River. Alternate names: Sema, Simi, Sumi.  Dialects: Dayang (Western Sumi), Lazemi, Zhimomi, Zumomi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Angami-Pochuri 
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Naga, Tangkhul

[nmf] 125,000 (2007). Manipur, Ukhrul District; Nagaland; Tripura. Alternate names: Champhung, Luhuppa, Luppa, Somra, Tagkhul, Tangkhul, Thangkhulm.  Dialects: Ukhrul, Khunggoi, Khangoi, Kupome, Phadang. Ukhrul is principal dialect.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Tangkhul 
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Naga, Tarao

[tro] 870 (2000). Manipur, Chandel District, 3 villages near Palel (Heikakpokpi, Leishokching, Khuringmul Laiminei village); Ukhrul District, Sinakeithei village. Alternate names: Tarao, Taraotrong, Tarau.  Dialects: Most similar to Chothe Naga [nct], 70% intelligibility. Lexical similarity: less than 60% with any neighboring language; 43%–46% with Chothe Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Naga, Tase

[nst] 45,000 in India (2001). Southeast Arunachal Pradesh, Changlang District, East Hills, Tirap River valley and Namchik area; Assam. Alternate names: Cham Chang, Rangpan, Tangsa, Tasey, Tangshang.  Dialects: Have (Havoy), Higsho, Higtsii, Kimsing (Khemsing, Chamchang, Sanke, Shangge, Sechu, Shechu), Longphi (Longkhi), Lungchang, Lungri, Miti, Moklum, Mosang (Hewa), Mungray (Morang), Ngemu, Ponthai, Rongrang, Ronrang (Poerah), Sangche, Sangwal, Taipi, Tikhak, Tonglim (Tangrim), Yogli (Jugli), Yongkuk (Yukok).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Thangal

[nki] 23,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 23,600. North Manipur, Senapati District, East and West Sadar Hills subdivisions, Mapao Thangal, Thangal Surung, Makeng Thangal, Tumnoupokpi, Yaikangpou, Tikhulen, Ningthoubam, Mayangkhang, and Gailongde. Most are east of Barak Valley. Alternate names: Khoirao, Khoirao Naga, Koirao, Kolya, Mayangkhang, Miyang-Khang, Ngari, Thangal, Thanggal, Tukaimi.  Dialects: Similar to Maram Naga [nma].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Naga, Tutsa

[tvt] 25,000 (2001). 50% monolingual. Arunachal Pradesh, south Changlang and east Tirap districts. Alternate names: Totcha, Tutsa.  Dialects: Similar to Nocte [njb], Tase [nst] Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Wancho

[nnp] 48,000 (2007). Southeast Arunachal Pradesh, southwest Tirap District, 36 villages; Assam; Nagaland. Alternate names: Wancho, Banpara Naga, Joboka, Jokoba.  Dialects: Changnoi, Bor Muthun (Bor Mutonia), Horu Muthun, Kulung Muthun (Mithan). Significant variation between spoken language in upper and lower regions. Similar to Chang Naga [nbc] and Konyak Naga [nbe].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Yimchungru

[yim] 96,400 (2001 census). North Nagaland, Tuensang District, between Namchik and Patkoi. Alternate names: Tozhuma, Yachumi, Yanchunger, Yimchunger, Yimchungre, Yimchungru.  Dialects: Tikhir, Wai, Chirr, Minir, Pherrongre, Yimchungru. The last 3 dialects listed are in the south.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Ao 
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Naga, Zeme

[nzm] 72,800 (2001). Assam, North Cachar District, large upper Barak Valley; Manipur, Tamenglong District; Nagaland, Kohima District, Jhaluke, Paren, Medzephima blocks. Alternate names: Arung, Empui, Jeme, Kacha, Kachcha, Kutcha, Mezama, Sangrima, Sengima, Zemi.  Dialects: Paren, Njauna. Intelligible with Liangmei [njn].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Naga, Zeme 
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Nagarchal

[nbg]  Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Mandla, Seoni districts; Chhattisgarh, Durg District; Maharashtra, Bhandara District; Rajasthan. Alternate names: Nagar, Nagarchi.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi  Nearly extinct.
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Nahali

[nlx] 15,000 (2003). Maharashtra, Nandurbar District, Dhadgaon tahsil, 12 villages near Toranmal, Jalgaon District; Chopda tahsil, north of Amalwadi. Alternate names: Kalto, Nahal, Nahale, Nahalia.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 58%–68% with Noiri varieties, 60%–61% with Dungra Bhil [duh], 69%–73% with Bareli Pauri [bfb].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Nahari

[nhh] 20,400 (2000). Chhattisgarh, Raipur, Bilaspur districts; Orissa, Sambalpur District. Alternate names: Nahali.  Dialects: A more divergent variety, related to Halbi [hlb].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Nefamese

[nef] Population unknown. May be replaced by Hindi. Arunachal Pradesh. Alternate names: Arunamese.  Dialects: Most closely related to Adi Galo [adl].  Classification: Pidgin, Assamese based  Nearly extinct.
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Nepali

[nep] 2,500,000 in India (2001). West Bengal, Darjeeling area; Sikkim; Assam; Arunachal Pradesh; Bihar; Haryana; Himachal Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh; Uttarakhand; Manipur; Mizoram; Nagaland; Meghalaya, Tripura. Alternate names: Eastern Pahari, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Nepalese, Parbatiya.  Dialects: Gorkhali, Palpa, Nepali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari 
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Newar

[new] 14,000 in India (2007). Ethnic population: 166,000. Sikkim; West Bengal; Some in Bettiah, Bihar; Andamans. Alternate names: “Newari”.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Newari 
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Nicobarese, Car

[caq] 37,000 (2005). North Nicobar Islands, Car Island. Alternate names: Car, Pu.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Car 
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Nicobarese, Central

[ncb] 10,100 (2001 census). 800 Nancowry, 1,400 closely related dialects (Radhakrishnan 1981). 22,100 in all 6 Nicobarese languages (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Nicobar Islands, Katchal, Camorta, Nancowry, and Trinket islands. Alternate names: Nicobar.  Dialects: Camorta (Kamorta), Katchal (Kachel, Tehnu), Nancowry (Nancoury), Trinkut (Trinkat). Related to Car, Chaura [crv], Shom Peng [sii], Southern Nicobarese [nik], Teressa [teg]. “Central Nicobar” once regarded as one language but no longer generally accepted. Dialects now regarded as mutually unintelligible with the exception of Trinket and Katchal. (Parkin 1991).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Nancowry 
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Nicobarese, Southern

[nik] 57,500 (2001). 348 on Little Nicobar Island, 7,566 total on Great Nicobar, about 400 of these are Shompen. Nicobar Islands, Little Nicobar and outer Great Nicobar islands. Alternate names: Nicobara.  Dialects: Condul (Kondul), Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar, Milo, Sambelong, Tafwap.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Great Nicobar 
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Nihali

[nll] 2,000 (Parkin 1991). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987). Maharashtra, Buldana District, Jamod Jalgaon tahsil. Alternate names: Nihal.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 25% between Nihal in Chikaldara taluk and Akola District and Korku [kfq] (Munda).  Classification: Language isolate 
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Nimadi

[noe] 1,430,000 (2000). Madhya Pradesh, Khandwa, Khargone, Barwani, and south Dhar districts; Uttar Pradesh; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Nemadi, Nimari, Nimiadi.  Dialects: Bhuani. Dialects have 90%–100% mutual inherent intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 74%–94% among dialects, 64% to 75% with Malvi [mup], 62%–77% with Hindi, 56%–64% with Gujarati [guj], 49%–58% with Marathi [mar].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified 
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Nisi

[dap] 261,000 (1997). 37,300 Tagin. Arunachal Pradesh, lower Subansiri and East Kameng districts; Assam, Darrang District. Alternate names: Bangni, “Dafla” , “Daphla” , Lel, Nishi, Nissi, Nyishi, Nyising.  Dialects: Aka Lel, Bangni, Tagin, Nishang. Related to Apatani [apt], Adi [adi], Yano, possibly Lepcha [lep]. Tagin dialect may be a separate language. Apatani [apt] may be a dialect of Nisi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Noiri

[noi] 100,000 (2003). Maharashtra, Nandurbar District, Dhadgaon, Akkalkua, and Shahada tahsils; Dhule District, Shirpur Tahsil; Jalgaon District, Chopda Tahsil; Madhya Pradesh, Badwani District, Pansemal Tahsil. Dialects: Barutiya. Highly intelligible with Dungra Bhili [duh]. Barutiya people have high acquired intelligibility of Vasavi [vas] and Bareli Pauri [bfb]. Lexical similarity: 77%–87% with Dungra Bhili, 60%-71% with different Vasavi varieties, 58%–68% with Nahali [nlx] of Toranmal, 47%–54% with the Kotali dialect of Bhili [bhb]; the Barutiya dialect of Noiri, 64%–70% with Bareli Pauri. Noiri-Barutiya dialect/alternate name falls between Vasavi and Bareli Pauri on a dialect continuum.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Oko-Juwoi

[okj] Extinct. Andaman Islands, west central and southwest interior Middle Andaman Island. Alternate names: Junoi, Juwoi, Oku-Juwoi.  Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central 
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Öñge

[oon] 94 (2006). Mainly monolingual. Ethnic population: 110 (1999 report). South Andaman Islands, Dugong Creek and South Bay islands. Alternate names: Ong.  Dialects: Distinct from Sentinel [std].  Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese 
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Oriya

[ori] 31,700,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 31,732,500. Orissa; Jharkhand, Singhbhum, Ranchi districts; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh, Raipur, Bastar districts; West Bengal, Medinipur (Midnapore) District; Assam; Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam District. Also in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Odri, Odrum, Oliya, Orissa, Uriya, Utkali, Vadiya, Yudhia.  Dialects: Mughalbandi (Oriya Proper, Standard Oriya), Southern Oriya, Northwestern Oriya, Western Oriya (Sambalpuri), North Balasore Oriya, Midnapore Oriya, Halbi. Some larger dialects have many subdialects. Sambalpuri around Sambalpur and Sundargh is highly similar to Standard Oriya.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Oriya, Adivasi

[ort] 150,000 in India (1998 U. Gustafsson). Population total all countries: 152,370. Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam District, Araku Valley. Also in United States. Alternate names: Adiwasi Oriya, Kotia Oriya, Kotiya, Tribal Oriya.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 38%–42% with Standard Oriya [ori], 80%–85% with Desiya [dso] in Orissa.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Pahari, Kullu

[kfx] 109,000 (1997). All Pahari 2,173,000 (1997). Himachal Pradesh, Kullu District, Banjar, Balichowk, Sainj tahsils. Alternate names: Kauli, Kullui, Kulu Boli, Kulu Pahari, Kului, Kulvi, Kulwali, Pahari, Pahari Kullu, Phari Kulu.  Dialects: Inner Siragi (Inner Seraji, Siragi, Siraji, Saraji), Kullui, Outer Seraji. Inner Siragi is apparently different from the Siraji-Kashmiri dialect of Kashmiri [kas]. Lexical similarity: 85% or higher among dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Pahari, Mahasu

[bfz] 1,000,000 (2002). Himachal Pradesh, Shimla (Simla) and Solan districts. Alternate names: Mahasui.  Dialects: Lower Mahasu Pahari (Kiunthali, Baghati, Baghliani), Upper Mahasu Pahari (Shimla Siraji, Sodochi, Rampuri, Rohruri). The Kiunthali variety appears to be understood by others, and their attitude toward it is favorable. The Rampuri variety is also called Kochi; the Rohruri variety is also called Soracholi. Intelligibility among dialects is above 85%. Lexical similarity: 74%–82% with upper dialects, 74%–95% with lower dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Pali

[pli] Extinct. Also in Myanmar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Paliyan

[pcf] 9,520 (2001 census). Kerala, Idukki District, Pirmed tahsil, Kumily, Vandanmedu, Chakkupallam panchayats; Ernakulam, Kottayam districts; Tamil Nadu, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Thanjavur, Pudukkottai, Tirunelveli, Coimbatore districts; Karnataka. Alternate names: Palaya, Palayan, Paliyar, Malai Paliyar, Palliyar, Poliyar, Palleyan, Palani, Makkal, Seramar, Tamil.  Dialects: Mala Pulayan (Hill Pulaya, Karavazhi). Lexical similarity: 71%–75% with Tamil [tam], 62%–65% with Malayalam [mal], 79%–85% with Mala Pulayan [pcf].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Panchpargania

[tdb] 274,000 (1997). Jharkhand, Ranchi, Singhbhum districts; West Bengal; Assam, tea gardens of upper Assam. Alternate names: Bedia, Chik Barik, Pan, Pan Sawasi, Tair, Tamara, Tamaria, Tanti, Temoral, Tumariya.  Dialects: Related to Sadri [sck]. Possibly the same as Kudmali [kyw]. Sonahatu variety considered most pure. Lexical similarity: 77%–94% between dialects, 61%–86% with Kudmali, 68%–76% with Khortha, 61%–70% with Sadri, 48%–52% with Oriya [ori], 45%–58% with Bengali [ben], 50% to 60% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Pangwali

[pgg] 17,000 (1997). Himachal Pradesh, Chamba District, Pangi Tahsil, Lahul-Spiti District, Udaipur down the Chenab (Chandra-Bhaga) River to Chamba border at Purthi. Possibly from Tandi to Sach Pass. Alternate names: Pahari, Pangi, Pangwali Pahari.  Dialects: 64% inherent intelligibility with Mandeali [mjl], 52% with Kangri [xnr], 44% with Chambeali [cdh], 50% with Bhadrawahi [bhd]; some dialect variation throughout the valley in Chamba District; Purthi reportedly most divergent. Lexical similarity: 55% with Hindi, 77% with Kullu Pahari [kfx]; 45% with Bhadrawahi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Paniya

[pcg] 94,000 (2003). 56,952 in Kerala, 6,393 in Tamil Nadu, 482 in Karnataka. Kerala, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Kannur, Malappuram districts; Tamil Nadu, west of Nilgiris Hills; Karnataka, Kodagu District. Alternate names: Nil, Pania, Paniyan, Panyah.  Dialects: Intelligibility with Malappura Paniya by Kodava [kfa] is 66%. Dialects have 79%–88% lexical similarity with Malappura Paniya, Kodava has 71%. Lexical similarity: 79%–88% between dialects and Malappuram Paniya, 71% with Kodaku [ksz].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Panjabi, Eastern

[pan] 27,100,000 in India. 26,975,000 Panjabi, 134,000 Bhatneri (1991). Population total all countries: 28,163,600. Punjab, Majhi in Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts, South Firozpur District, Bhatyiana; Rajasthan, north Ganganagar District, Bhatyiana; Haryana; Delhi; Jammu and Kashmir. Also in Bangladesh, Canada, Fiji, Kenya, Libya, Malaysia (Peninsular), Mauritius, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. Alternate names: Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi, Punjabi.  Dialects: Panjabi Proper, Majhi, Doab, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Powadhi, Malwa, Bathi. Western Panjabi [pnb] is distinct from Eastern Panjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu) [urd]. Bhatyiana dialect considered a mixture of Panjabi and Marwari [mve].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Panjabi 
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Panjabi, Mirpur

[pmu] 1,020,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 1,045,000. Kashmir, Mirpur area, near Pakistan border. Possibly in Pakistan. Also in United Kingdom. Alternate names: Mirpuri.  Dialects: Distinct from Western Panjabi [pnb], though closely related.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda 
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Panjabi, Western

[pnb] 1,910,000 in India (2007). Population unknown. Jammu and Kashmir; Delhi; Haryana. Alternate names: Hindki, Lahanda, Lahnda, Lahndi, Western Punjabi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda 
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Pankhu

[pkh] 230 in India (1971). Mizoram, Chhimtuipui, Lunglei districts. 12 villages. Alternate names: Paang, Pang, Pang Khua, Pangkhu, Pankho, Pankhua, Panko, Pankua.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Pao

[ppa] 53,000 (2000). Madhya Pradesh, Satna, Chhatarpur, Datia, Panna, Rewa, Shahdol, Sidhi, Tikamgarh districts. Alternate names: Pabra.  Dialects: May not be Tibeto-Burman.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Pardhan

[pch] 135,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 347,000. Madhya Pradesh, Seoni, Mandla, Chhindawara, Hoshangabad, Betul, Balaghat, Jabalpur districts; Chhattisgarh, Raipur, Bilaspur, Surguja districts; Maharashtra, Bhandara, Garhchiroli, Nagpur, Wardha, Yavatmal districts; Andhra Pradesh, Adilbad District. Alternate names: Pradhan, Pradhani.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi 
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Pardhi

[pcl] 120,000 (2007). Maharashtra; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Gujarat; widely scattered. Alternate names: Bahelia, Chita Pardhi, Lango Pardhi, Paidia, Paradi, Paria, Phans Pardhi, Takankar, Takia.  Dialects: Neelishikari, Pittala Bhasha, Takari, Haran Shikari. Probably more than 1 language (Lango). Possibly a dialect of Bhili [bhb].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Parenga

[pcj] 6,700 (2006). Ethnic population: 12,646 (2001 census). Orissa, Koraput District; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Gorum, Gorum Sama, Pareng, Parenga Parja, Parengi, Parenji, Poroja.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Gorum 
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Parsi

[prp] 151,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 326,000. Gujarat; Maharashtra. Also in China, Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States. Alternate names: Parsee.  Dialects: Parsi reportedly not inherently intelligible with Parsi-Dari [prd], from whom they separated 600 to 700 years ago. Other reports say they came to India 1300 years ago. Related to Zoroastrian Dari [gbz] in Iran.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Pathiya

[pty] 1,000 (2004 SIL). Kerala state, Wayanad District, Mathamangalam, Thelampatta, Thekkumpatta, Cheramkolli, Kazhambu villages. Dialects: According to Menon (1996:313) and Shashi (1994 Vol.11) they speak Malayalam [mal] mixed with Kannada [kan] words. Lexical similarity: 88% with Kalanadi [wkl], 83% with Kunduvadi [wku], 72% with Malayalam, 79% with Paniya [pcg], 76%–80% with Mullu Kurumba [kpb], 70%–74% with Wayanad Kurichiya.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern 
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Pattani

[lae] 11,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 20,000. Himachal Pradesh, Lahul Valley, Pattan, Chamba-Lahul, and lower Mayar valleys. Some in Kullu, Manali cities. Alternate names: Chamba, Chamba Lahuli, Changsapa Boli, Lahuli, Manchad, Manchati, Patni, Swangla.  Dialects: Chamba-Lahuli (Western Pattani), Eastern Pattani, Central Pattani. Dialects mutually intelligible. 3 caste dialects exist (Pandit-Rajput, Harijan and Lohar). The lower castes understand Pandit-Rajput, but not vice versa. Lexical similarity: 63%–55% between Western Pattani dialect and Tinani [lbf], 39%–26% with Bunan [bfu], 37% with Shumcho [scu], 35% with Jangshung [jna], 33% with Sunam [ssk], 31% with Chitkuli [cik] and Kinnauri [kfk], 25% with Puh and Kinnaur District varieties (Kinnaur Bhoti [nes]) of Tibetan, 22% with Nesang [tpq], 18% with Tibetan [bod], 14%–15% with the Spiti and Stod varieties of Tibetan. Average of 80% between dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Pengo

[peg] 350,000 (2000). Orissa, Koraput District, Kashipur, Pappadahandi, Nowrangapur, Dasamantapur, and Nandapur tahsils; Kalahandi District. Alternate names: Pengu, Hengo.  Dialects: Indi, Awe. Similar to Aiton [aio]. Similar to Shan [shn] of Myanmar.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo 
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Phake

[phk] 5,000 (Diller 1990). Assam, Dibrugarh District, Bor-phake, Nam-phake, Tipam-phake, Man-long, Man-po-mung, Pha-neng, Ning-gam, Nong-lai, Mung-lang villages along Dihing River; Arunachal Pradesh. Alternate names: Faake, Phakey, Phakial.  Dialects: Similar to Aiton [aio]. Similar to Shan [shn] of Myanmar.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Phudagi

[phd] 1,010 (2000). Maharashtra, Thane District. Alternate names: Vadval.  Dialects: A more divergent dialect of, or closely related language to, Konkani [knn].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Pnar

[pbv] 84,000 in India (1991). Population total all countries: 88,000. Meghalaya, Khasi and Jaintia Hills, north of War Jaintia; Mizoram, Aizawl District, north; Assam, North Cachar Hills, Jatinga, Borolokha, Dibruchera; Karbi Anglong District, Ulukunchi. Also in Bangladesh. Dialects: Jaintia (Synteng), Nongtung. Formerly considered a dialect of Khasi [khi]. Jaintia dialect has 12 spoken forms: Jowai, Shangpung, Batau, Raliang, Sutnga, Sumer, Nartiang, Barato, Rymbai, Lakadong, Mynso, Nongtalang. All are intelligible, except for Nongtalang, which is akin to Central Khmer [khm]. Jowai is standard spoken form. Lexical similarity: 68% with standard Khasi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian 
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Portuguese

[por] 250,000 in India. Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, and Nagar Haveli. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician 
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Powari

[pwr] 214,000 (1991 census). Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1986 All India Powar council). Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat, Seoni, Chindwara, Betul districts; Maharashtra, Wardha, Bhandara, Gondia districts. Dialects: Bhoyar Powari (Bhoyari, Bhomiyari, Bhoyaroo, Bhuiyar, Bhuria, Bohoyeri), Vyneganga Powari, Govari of Seoni, Khalari, Koshti, Kumbhari, Lodhi, Marari. Reported intelligibility between Bhoyar and Vyneganga. Balaghat District dialect considered central among Bhoyar and Vyneganga varieties. Lexical similarity: 60%–87% among dialects; Koshti, Kumbhari, and Khalari subgroup at 80% to 83%; 49%–65% with Bagheli [bfy], 46% to 64% with Bundeli [bns].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone 
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Purik

[prx] 37,700 (2001 census). North Kashmir, Kargil District, mainly Suru Valley; Dras Valley, some in western Himalayas. Alternate names: Burig, Burigskat, Purig, Purigskad, Purik Bhotia, Purki.  Dialects: Similar to Balti [bft].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western 
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Rabha

[rah] 50,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 374,152. West Assam, Darrang, Goalpara, Kamrup districts; Nagaland; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri, Alipurduar Subdivision, Koch Bihar District, Tafangunj Subdivision; Meghalaya, East, West Garo Hills districts. Alternate names: Rava.  Dialects: Maitaria (Maituri, Maitoria), Rangdania (Rongdani). Rongdani is the standard dialect. Lexical similarity: 73% between Maituri and Rongdani. 31%–39% with Koch [kdq].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch 
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Rajasthani

[raj] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 19,972,883. 
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Ralte

[ral] 900 in India (2007). Ethnic population: 34,000. Mizoram, mainly Aizawl District, scattered in Lunglei and Chhimtuipui districts; Manipur; Tripura, a few in Jampui Hills. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Rangkas

[rgk] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,014 in India, 1,421 all countries (2000). Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh District, Johar Valley, Darchula and Munsyari tahsils, facing Nepal border along Mahakali Valley. Alternate names: Canpa, Chyanam, Johari, Kyonam, Saukas, Saukiya Khun, Shaukas.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Ranglong

[rnl] 8,000 (BI 2003). Tripura, Joitang village; Assam, Mizoram. Alternate names: Ronglong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Rathawi

[rtw] 451,000 (2006). Gujarat, Vadodara District, Chhota Udaipur, Kavant taluks, and Panchmahals District; Madhya Pradesh, Jhabua District, Alirajpur taluk. Alternate names: Kohelia, Bal-La, Rathwi.  Dialects: 76% intelligibility with Bhilali [bhi]. There is a dialect continuum from Bhilali to Rathawa; extremes have limited mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 83% with Bhilali [bhi].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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Ravula

[yea] 26,900 (2007). Karnataka, Coorg (Kodagu) District; Kerala, Wayanad District, Mananthavadi tahsil, Kannur District. Alternate names: Adiya, Adiyan, Iryavula, Panjiri Yerava, Yoruba, Yerava.  Dialects: Adiya, Pani Yerava, Panjiri Yerava. 93%–94% dialect intelligibility between Yerava and Adiya dialects. Pani Yerava may be a dialect of Ravula or of Paniya [pcg]. Lexical similarity: 83%–98% among Yerava and Adiya varieties, 53%–61% with Standard Malayalam [mal], 35%–40% with Badaga [bfq], 32%–42% with colloquial Kannada [kan], 66%–74% Pani Yerava dialect with the Adiya and Yerava dialects.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam 
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Rawang

[raw] 60,500 in India (2000). Kunlang dialect is in Arunachal Pradesh, near the Myanmar and Tibet border. Alternate names: Ch’opa, Chiutse, Ganung-Rawang, Hkanung, Kiutze, Krangku, Numg, Nung Rawang, Taron.  Dialects: Kunlang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish 
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Rawat

[jnl] 670 in India (1998). Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh District, north of Askot Maila. 9 villages. Alternate names: Ban Manus, Ban Rauts, Bhulla, Dzanggali, Jangali, Janggali, Jhangar, Raji, Raut.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Janggali 
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Reli

[rei] 19,000 (1997). Andhra Pradesh, near Adiwasi Oriya; Orissa, Koraput District. Alternate names: Relli.  Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Oriya [ori].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Oriya 
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Riang

[ria] 5,400 in India (2007). Population total all countries: 5,900. Ethnic population: 144,000. North and central Tripura; Mizoram, Aizawl, Lunglei, Chhimtuipui districts, Karnafuli River bank area, 30 villages; Assam, Karimganj District. Also in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Kau Bru, Reang, Tipra.  Dialects: Considered dialect of Kok Borok [trp] called ’Polong-O’ (Muanthanga).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Rongpo

[rnp] 7,500 (D. Bradley 2001). Uttarakhand, Chamoli District, Joshimath Tahsil, Niti valley, Niti, Gamshali, Bampa, Malari villages; Mana valley, Mana, Indradhara, Gajkoti, Pathiya-Dhantoli, Hanuman Chatti, Benakuli, Aut; Marchha dialect in Mana and Niti valleys, a few Tolchha in Niti valley. Alternate names: “Manchhi Bhassa” , “Marchha Pahari” , “Marchha” , Rang Po Bhasa, Rangkas, Rangpa, “Tolchha”.  Dialects: “Marchha” , “Tolchha” . A Himalayan language distinct from Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish 
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Ruga

[ruh]  Meghalaya, near the Garo. Dialects: Most closely related to A’tong [aot], Koch [kdq], Rabha [rah]. Not inherently intelligible with Garo [grt].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Koch  Nearly extinct.
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Sadri

[sck] 1,970,000 (1997). 1,381,000 Sadani, 574,000 Nagpuria. Jharkhand, Ranchi, Palamau districts; West Bengal; Orissa; Assam; Madhya Pradesh; Andaman Islands; Nagaland. Alternate names: Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Ganwari, Gauuari, Gawari, Goari, Jharkhandhi, Nagpuri, Nagpuria, Sadan, Sadana, Sadani, Sadari, Sadati, Sadhan, Sadhari, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri.  Dialects: High mutual intelligibility among dialects. 77% of Sadri [sdr], Oraon of Bangladesh. Speakers name 3 registers of Sadri: Sadani (finer, respectful, formal), Common Sadri (Nagpuri), and Lower Sadri (rough). Lexical similarity: 77%–96% between dialects, 58%–71% with Hindi, 47%–54% with Oriya [ori], 45%–61% with Bengali [ben].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Sakachep

[sch] 25,000 (2003). Assam, Karbi Anglong, N. Cachar Hills, Cachar Hills districts; Nagaland, Kohima District, Khelma village; Meghalaya, Jaintia Hills District, Saithsma, Rumphung, Mongor villages; Tripura; Mizoram; Manipur. Alternate names: Sankechep, Khelma.  Dialects: Khelma, Thangkachep, Sakachep.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Samvedi

[smv]  Maharashtra. Dialects: A divergent dialect of, or closely related language to Konkani [knn]. Shares many features with Gujarati [guj].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Sansi

[ssi] 60,000 in India (Gusain 2002). Population total all countries: 76,200. Rajasthan; Punjab; Haryana; Delhi; Himachal Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Madhya Pradesh; Karnataka; Uttar Pradesh. Also in Pakistan. Alternate names: Bhilki, Sansiboli.  Dialects: Intermediate between Eastern Panjabi [pan] and Hindustani. Sometimes identify themselves as Marwari [rwr]. Lexical similarity: 71% with Urdu [urd], 83% with the Sochi dialect of Sansi [ssi]. Numerous phonological and morphological borrowings from Eastern Panjabi, Hindi, and Gujarati [guj] (Gusain 2002).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Sansi 
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Sanskrit

[san] 2,950 (2001).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 
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Santali

[sat] 5,960,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 6,170,900. Bihar, Bhagalpur, Munger districts; Jharkhand, Manbhum, Hazaribagh districts, Orissa, Balasore District; West Bengal, Birbhum, Bankura districts; Assam; Mizoram; Tripura. Also in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal. Alternate names: Har, Hor, Samtali, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Santhali, Santhiali, Satar, Sentali, Sonthal.  Dialects: Karmali (Khole), Kamari-Santali, Lohari-Santali, Manjhi, Paharia. Similar to Ho [hoc], Mundari [unr], Munda [unx].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali 
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Sartang

[onp] 1,000 (2005). Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng District, Nafra and Dirang circles, Jerigaon, Sellary, Khoitam, Rahung, Darbu and Khoina villages. Alternate names: Bootpa, But Monpa, But Pa, Matchopa.  Dialects: Most similar language: Sherdukpen [sdp]. Lexical similarity: 49%–60% with Sherdukpen.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman 
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Saurashtra

[saz] 310,000 (1997). Districts listed each have communities of at least 5,000. Tamil Nadu, Madurai, Thanjavur, Dindugul Quaid-E. Milleth, Ramanathapuram, Chengai-Annai, Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli, North Arcot districts, Madras, Deccan, Madurai, Thanjavur, Salem cities; Karnataka; Andhra Pradesh. Alternate names: Patnuli, Saurashtri, Sourashtra, Sowrashtra.  Dialects: Southern Saurashtra, Northern Saurashtra. Indo-Aryan elements reveal Gujarati [guj] relationship; some structure from Dravidian, lexicon from Telugu [tel] and Tamil [tam]. An Indo-European island surrounded by Dravidian languages. The 3 main populations in Salem, Thanjavur, and Madurai cities had between 67% and 97% inherent intelligibility among themselves. Lexical similarity: 77%–96% between all varieties. The 3 main populations: 84%–96%. Southern dialects have 83% or higher lexical similarity with Thanjavur variety.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Sauria Paharia

[mjt] 110,000 in India (2000). Population total all countries: 117,000. Jharkhand, north part of former Santhal Pargana District, Rajmahal hills, Sahibganj and Godda districts, Pakaur District, Litipara block; West Bengal, Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts. Also in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Malatri, Maler, Malti, Malto, Maltu, Sawriya Malto.  Dialects: Sahibganj, Godda, Hiranpur, Litipara (Chatgam). Some inherent intelligibility of Kumarbhag Paharis [kmj]. Related to Kurux [kru]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Kumarbhag Paharia.  Classification: Dravidian, Northern 
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Savara

[svr] 20,200 (2000). Andhra Pradesh; Orissa. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu 
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Sentinel

[std] 100 (2000). Southeast Andaman Islands, Sentinel Island. Alternate names: Sentinelese.  Dialects: Similar to Önge [oon].  Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese 
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Seraiki

[skr] 20,000 in India (2000). Punjab; Rajasthan; Delhi; Gujarat; Maharashtra; Andhra Pradesh; Madhya Pradesh; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: Bahawalpuri, Multani, Mutani, Reasati, Riasati, Saraiki, Siraiki, Southern Panjabi.  Dialects: Jafri, Siraiki Hindki, Thali, Jatki, Bahawalpuri (Bhawalpuri, Riasati, Reasati).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda 
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Shekhawati

[swv] 3,000,000 (L. Gusain 2002). Rajasthan, Sikar, Jhunjhunun, Churu districts. Alternate names: Shekhawati-Marwari.  Dialects: Jhunjhunu-Churu, Sikar. 78% comprehension of Marwari [rwr], 72% intelligibility of Dhundari [dhd]. Lexical similarity: 74%–77% between dialects; 51%–68% with Marwari, 58%–80% with Merwari [wry], 45%–69% with Godwari [gdx], 57%–66% with Mewari [mtr], 66%–73% with Dhundari, 58%–66% with Harauti [hoj], 57% to 70% with Mewati [wtm], 69%–76% with Bagri [gda], 61%–73% with Haryanvi [bgc], 55% to 69% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Shendu

[shl]  Mizoram. Alternate names: Khieng, Khyen, Sandu, Shandu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Sho 
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Sherdukpen

[sdp] 3,100 (2001). Arunachal Pradesh, West Kameng District, south of Bomdi La Range, Tengapani River valleys, Rupa (Kupa), Shargang (Shergaon), Jigang (Jigaon), Thungrao villages; Assam. Alternate names: Ngnok.  Dialects: Most similar to Sartang [onp]. Lexical similarity: 49%-60% with Sartang. Burling (2003) groups it with Sulung [suv] and Bugun [bgg] and possibly also with Lish [lsh] and Sartang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Unclassified 
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Sherpa

[xsr] 30,700 in India (2000). Ethnic population: 66,854. West Bengal, Darjeeling District; Sikkim; Arunachal Pradesh. Alternate names: Serwa, Sharpa, Sharpa Bhotia, Xiaerba.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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Shina

[scl] 21,000 in India (2006). North Kashmir, Dras Valley, Kishenganga Valley, Gurais area. Alternate names: Shinaki, Sina.  Dialects: Drasi, Gurezi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina 
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Sholaga

[sle] 24,000 (2006). Karnataka, Mysore District, Biligiri Rangana Hills; Tamil Nadu. Alternate names: Kadu Sholigar, Sholanayika, Sholiga, Sholigar, Solaga, Solanayakkans, Soliga, Soligar.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65% with Kannada [kan].  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Shom Peng

[sii] 400 (2004). Nicobar Islands, interior Great Nicobar Island. Alternate names: Shobang, Shom Pen, Shompen, Shompeng.  Dialects: Distinct from other Nicobarese languages.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Shom Peng 
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Shumcho

[scu] 2,170 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Puh Tahsil, Kanam, Labrang, Spilo, Shyaso, Taling, Rushkaling villages. Alternate names: Central Kinnauri, Shumcu, Sumcho, Sumchu, Sumtsu, Thebarskad, Thebor, Thebör Skadd.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Jangshung [jna], 67% with Sunam [ssk], 45% with Lower Kinnauri [kjo], 43% with Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Sikkimese

[sip] 70,300 (2001). Sikkim, all districts; West Bengal, Darjeeling. Possibly in Tibet. Alternate names: Dandzongka, Danjongka, Danyouka, Denjong, Denjongkha, Denjongpa, Denjonka, Denjonke, Lachengpa, Lachungpa, Sikami, Sikkim Bhotia, Sikkim Bhutia.  Dialects: Partially intelligible with Dzongkha [dzo] of Bhutan. Lexical similarity: 65% with Dzongkha of Bhutan, 42% with Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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Simte

[smt] 7,150 (2001 census). Southwest Manipur, Churachandpur District, Mingjang, Tubuong, Simveng, New Bazar, Thanlon, Leikangpai, Zouthang, Shumtuk, Monjon, Pamjal, Sasinoujang, Tallian, Dumsao, Khungung, Lungthul, Singhat, Moijin, Maokot, Suangdai, Suangpuhmun. Dialects: Related to Chin Thado [tcz] and Zou [zom]. An alternate name for Paite [pck] (Singh 1994).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Sindhi

[snd] 2,810,000 in India (1997). Gujarat; Rajasthan; Maharashtra; Andhra Pradesh; Bihar; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh; Orissa; Tamil Nadu; Uttar Pradesh. Dialects: Bhatia, Jadeji, Kayasthi, Lari, Lasi, Thareli, Thari, Viccholi, Visholi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi 
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Singpho

[sgp] 2,500 (Morey 2006). Assam, Tinsukia District, Margherita Subdivision, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar districts; Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit, and Changlang districts. Alternate names: Jingphaw, Kachin, Sing-Fo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 50% with Jingpho [kac] of Myanmar.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho 
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Sirmauri

[srx] 400,000 (2005 SIL). Himachal Pradesh, Sirmaur District, Shimla District, southeast section. Alternate names: Himachali, Pahari, Sirmouri, Sirmuri.  Dialects: Dharthi (Giriwari), Giripari. Difficult intelligibility between Dharthi and Giripari; and between Upper Mahasui and Giripar. Dharthi dialect more influenced by Hindi. In south Shimla District, Kiunthali and Sirmauri are used interchangeably, but there is reportedly a different variety of Sirmauri in Sirmaur District. Lexical similarity: 56%–70% between Dharthi and Giripari, with considerable variation within each dialect; Giripari 67% with Lower Mahasui, 65% with Upper Mahasui, 61% with Jaunsari [jns].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari 
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Sora

[srb] 310,000 (Encyclopedia Britannica 2007). South Orissa, Ganjam, Koraput, Phulbani districts; Andhra Pradesh, Srikakulam District; Madhya Pradesh; Bihar; Tamil Nadu; West Bengal; Assam, Plains Division. Alternate names: Sabar, Sabara, Saonras, Saora, Saura, Savara, Sawaria, Shabari, Swara.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray 
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Spiti Bhoti

[spt] 10,000 (2000). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul-Spiti District, Spiti subdistrict. Alternate names: Piti Bhoti, Nyam.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Ladakhi [lbj]; difficult intelligibility with Stod Bhoti [sbu]. All areas of Spiti understand each other. Lexical similarity: 41% with the Lhasa Tibetan dialect of Central Tibetan [bod], 57% with Ladakhi (Leh), 57% with Stod Bhoti from Darcha.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Stod Bhoti

[sbu] 2,500 (1996). Himachal Pradesh, Lahul region, Stod, Khoksar, and upper Mayar valleys. Alternate names: Lahul Bhoti, Stod, Stod-Kad, Tod, Tod-Kad.  Dialects: Stod (Kolong), Khoksar (Khoksar Bhoti), Mayar (Mayar Bhoti, Mayari). 85% intelligibility of Stod Bhoti by Khoksar, 75% by Mayar, 62% of Khoksar by Mayar, 95% of Khoksar by Stod Bhoti. Lexical similarity: 74% with Spiti Bhoti [spt].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Sulung

[suv] 5,000 (2007 SIL). Arunachal Pradesh, East Kameng, Papumpare, Kurung Kumey, Lower Subansiri districts, along Par River. 53 villages. Possibly also in China. Alternate names: Puroik.  Dialects: A divergent language which may not be Sino-Tibetan but possibly Austro-Asiatic. Intelligible with Bugun [bgg] (Chowdhury 1996). Burling (2003) groups it with Sherdukpen [sdp] and Bugun and possibly also with Lish [lsh] and Sartang [onp]. Lexical similarity: 54%–67% between varieties; 57%–68% with Chug [cvg]; less than 15% with Bugun and Nisi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, North Assam, Tani 
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Sunam

[ssk] 560 (1998). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Puh Tahsil, Sunam village. Alternate names: Sungam, Sungnam, Sunnam, Thebor, Thebör Skadd, Thebarshad, Central Kinnauri, Sangnaur.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Shumcho [scu], 65% with Jangshung [jna], 38% with Lower Kinnauri (Harijan) [kjo] and Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Surjapuri

[sjp] 273,000 (1997 IMA). Bihar, Purnia, Kishanganj, Katihar, Araria districts; West Bengal, Uttar Dinajpur District. Alternate names: Sura.  Dialects: Preliminary survey results show sufficient intelligibility with Nepali Rajbanshi [rjs]. 70%–74% with Hindi, 67%–71% with the western variety of Kamta [rkt] spoken near Dinajpur, 77%–86% between varieties of Surjapuri [sjp].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Sylheti

[syl] 3,000,000 in India (2003). South Assam: Barak Valley region; Karimganj, Cachar, Hailakandi districts; Nagaland, Calcutta. Alternate names: Bengali of Cachar, Sileti, Siloti, Srihattia, Sylheti Bangla, Sylheti Bengali, Sylhetti, Syloti, Syloty.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Tamang, Eastern

[taj] 14,000 in India (1997). Ethnic population: 272,329. Sikkim, lower Teesta valley, Rangit valley; West Bengal, Darjeeling; Arunachal Pradesh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Tamil

[tam] 61,500,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 65,675,200. Tamil Nadu and neighboring states. Also in Bahrain, Canada, Fiji, Germany, Malaysia (Peninsular), Mauritius, Netherlands, Qatar, Réunion, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. Alternate names: Damulian, Tamal, Tamalsan, Tambul, Tamili.  Dialects: Adi Dravida, Aiyar, Aiyangar, Arava, Burgandi, Kongar, Madrasi, Madurai, Pattapu Bhasha, Tamil, Sri Lanka Tamil, Malaya Tamil, Burma Tamil, South Africa Tamil, Tigalu, Harijan, Sanketi, Hebbar, Mandyam Brahmin, Secunderabad Brahmin. Burgandi are nomadic. Aiyar and Aiyangar are Brahmin dialects. Southern dialect around Madurai is literary standard. Eastern dialect is colloquial standard (Zvelebil 1998). Sanketi dialect in Karnataka used by immigrants from Madurai and Shenkotta in Tamil Nadu. Their lexicon is greatly influenced by Kannada.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Telugu

[tel] 69,600,000 in India (1997). Population total all countries: 69,758,890. Andhra Pradesh and neighboring states. Also in Bahrain, Canada, Fiji, Malaysia (Peninsular), Mauritius, Singapore, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United States. Alternate names: Andhra, Gentoo, Tailangi, Telangire, Telegu, Telgi, Tengu, Terangi, Tolangan.  Dialects: Berad, Dasari, Dommara, Golari, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Salewari, Telangana, Telugu, Vadaga, Srikakula, Vishakhapatnam, East Godaveri, Rayalseema, Nellore, Guntur, Vadari, Yanadi (Yenadi).  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu 
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Teressa

[tef] 2,080 (2001). Teressa, Bompoka, and Nicobar islands. Alternate names: Taih-Long.  Dialects: Bompoka (Bompaka, Pauhut).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa 
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Thachanadan

[thn] 3,000 (2004 SIL). Kerala, Wayanad District, Kalpetta, Meppadi, Muttil and Ambalavayal panchayats, Malappuram District, Nilambur area. Alternate names: Moopan, Thacchanadens, Thachanad Muppans.  Dialects: 60-64% with Malayalam, 50-54% with Tamil, 66-72% with Mullu Kurumba.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified 
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Thangmi

[thf] 500 in India. Sikkim, East District, Aritar Sunua; West Bengal, Darjeeling. Alternate names: Thami.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Eastern 
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Tharu, Chitwania

[the]   Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Tharu, Dangaura

[thl] 174,000 in India (2007). Uttar Pradesh, Kheri District, Nighasan tahsil border; Gonda District, Tulsipur tahsil; Bahraich District. Alternate names: Chaudary, Chaudhari, Chaudhuri, Dang, Dangali, Dangha, Dangora, Dangura.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified 
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Tharu, Kathoriya

[tkt]   Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified 
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Tharu, Kochila

[thq]   Alternate names: Saptari.  Dialects: Morangia.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Tharu, Rana

[thr] 150,000 in India (2003). Nepal border, Uttar Pradesh, Kheri District, near Nighasan Tahsil, Pilibhit District; Uttarakhand, Nainital District, Khatima, Sitargani, Kiccha, and Haldwani tahsils. Alternate names: Rana Thakur.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Thulung

[tdh] 3,310 in India (1961 census). Sikkim; West Bengal, Darjeeling District; Uttar Pradesh. Alternate names: Thulunge Rai.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Tibetan

[bod] 189,000 in India (2007). Himachal Pradesh, Tibet border; Uttarakhand; Arunachal Pradesh; Assam; Delhi; Sikkim. Alternate names: Bhotia, Bod, Central Tibetan, Phoke, Pohbetian, Poke, Skad, Tebilian, Tibate.  Dialects: Aba (Batang), Dartsemdo (Tatsienlu), Dru, Gtsang, Hanniu, Kongbo, Nganshuenkuan (Anshuenkuan Nyarong), Panakha-Panags, Paurong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Tinani

[lbf] 2,000 in India (1996). Population total all countries: 2,450. Himachal Pradesh, Lahul and Spiti Subdivision, lower Chandra, Tinan, Rangloi Valleys; Gondhla main village. Also in China. Alternate names: Gondhla, Gondla, Lahauli, Lahouli, Lahuli, Rangloi, Teenan, Tinan Lahuli.  Dialects: Similar to Pattani [lae]. Lexical similarity: 63%–56% with Pattani [lae], 32%–37% with Bunan, 21% with the Spiti [spt] and Stod [sbu] varieties of central Tibetan [bod], 62% with Tandi village, 34% with Shumcho [scu], 32% with Jangshung [jna], 31% with Kanauri and Sunam [ssk], 13% with Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Tiwa

[lax] 23,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 170,622. Assam, Nagaon, Karbi Anglong, Kamrup, Sibsagar, Lakhimpur districts; Meghalaya, Khasi Hills District. Alternate names: Dowyan, Lalung.  Dialects: Hajowali, Datiyali.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Toda

[tcx] 1,100 (2007). Ethnic population: 1,560. Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Hills, Kunda hills. Alternate names: Todi, Tuda.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 24% with Kota [kfe], the most similar language.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota 
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Toto

[txo] 20,000 (King 1994). West Bengal, Jalpaiguri District, Subhapara, Dhunchipara, Panchayatpara hillocks on Indo-Bhutan border, Totopara village. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Dhimal [dhi] of Nepal. Low lexical similarity with Dhimal.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Dhimal 
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Tshangla

[tsj] 11,200 in India. 8,200 in Kameng District; 3,000 in West Siang. West Arunachal Pradesh, Kameng District, Dirang area, Namsu, Tempang, Sangti, Bishing villages; West Siang District, former Padma-bkod region, Tuting, Mechuka circles, Mechuka, Opu, Bona, Galling, Korfu, Dorgling Halung, Tuting villages. Alternate names: Tsangla, Sangla, Cangluo Menba, Memba, Menba, Monba, Monpa, Motuo, Central Monpa, Sharchopkha, Dirang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Bodish, Tshangla 
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Tukpa

[tpq] 610 (2000). Himachal Pradesh, Kinnaur District, Nesang, Charang, and Kunnu villages. Alternate names: Nesang, Nyam-kat.  Dialects: Related to Bhoti Kinnauri [nes], Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik], Kanashi [xns].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Tulu

[tcy] 1,950,000 (1997). 636,123 monolinguals (1981). Karnataka, South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada) and Udipi districts; Kerala, Kasargod District; scattered in other states in India. Alternate names: Tal, Tallu, Thalu, Thulu, Tilu, Tullu, Tuluva Bhasa.  Dialects: Northwest Tulu (Udipi, Mangalore), Northeast Tulu (Kerala, Belthangadi), Southwest Tulu (Manjeswara, Kasaragod), Southcentral Tulu (Bantwal, Puttur), Southeast (Sullia Subrahmanya), Brahmin Tulu, Common Tulu.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu 
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Turi

[trd] 2,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 354,000. Jharkhand, Ranchi, Gumla, Lohardaga districts, Chotanagpur area; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh District; Orissa, Sambalpur and Sundargarh districts; West Bengal, Birbhum, Nadia, Murshidabad, Bankura districts. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali 
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Turung

[try] Extinct. Assam, Golaghat District, Titabar; Karbi Anglong. Alternate names: Tai Turung, Tailung, Tairong.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, East Central, Northwest 
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Ullatan

[ull] Ethnic population: 16,741 (2001 census). Kerala, Palakkad, Thrissur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Idukki, Koliam, Pathanamthitta, Alleppey, Trivandrum districts. Alternate names: Katan, Kattalan, Kochuvelan, Ulladan.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Urali

[url]  Kerala, Idukki District, Upputhara, Kanchiyar, Vannappuram, Velliyamattom, Ayyappankovil panchayats. Alternate names: Oorazhi, Uraly, Urli.  Dialects: Shares features with Tamil [tam], Irula [iru], and Kannada [kan] (Lal 1991). Lexical similarity: 60%–71% with Malayalam [mal], 54%–58% with Tamil.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada  Nearly extinct.
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Urdu

[urd] 48,100,000 in India (1997). Jammu, Kashmir and by Muslims in many parts of India; Dakhini around Hyderabad and in Maharashtra. Alternate names: Islami, Undri, Urudu.  Dialects: Dakhini (Dakani, Dakkhini, Deccan, Desia, Mirgan), Pinjari, Rekhta (Rekhti).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani 
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Vaagri Booli

[vaa] 9,300 (2007). Ethnic population: 12,000. Tamil Nadu, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Cuddalore, Villupuram districts; Andhra Pradesh, Pondicherry, Karnataka, Maharashtra. Alternate names: Narakureavar, Narikkorava, Kuruvikkaran, Karikkorava, Hakkipikkaru, Haki Piki, Guvvalollu, Shikarijanam, Rattiyan, Marattiyan, Wogri Boli, Wagri Vel, Vagri.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 36% with Marathi [mar], 40% with Hindi [hnd].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Vaiphei

[vap] 27,800 (2001 census). South Manipur, Churachandpur District, 30+ villages; Assam; Meghalaya; Tripura. Alternate names: Bhaipei, Vaipei, Veiphei.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Varhadi-Nagpuri

[vah] 6,970,000 (1995). Maharashtra, Amravati, Buldana, Akola districts; Madhya Pradesh, Chhindwara and Balaghat districts; Andhra Pradesh, Adilabad and Nizamabad districts. Alternate names: Berar Marathi, Berari, Dhanagari, Kumbhari, Madhya Pradesh Marathi.  Dialects: Brahmani, Kunbi, Raipur, Jhadpi, Govari, Kosti (Rangari), Kunban (Kohli), Mahari (Dhedi). Regarded by some as a dialect of Marathi [mar]. More distinct varieties are Marheti, Natakani, Katiyai dialect of Malvi [mup].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Unclassified 
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Varli

[vav] 600,000 (2003). Maharashtra, north Thane District, Dahanu, Talasari taluks, Nasik and Dhule districts; Gujarat, Valsad District, Dharampur taluk; Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Davari in far north Thane District and south Gujarat. Alternate names: Warli.  Dialects: Davari, Western Nihiri, Eastern Nihiri. Some classify this as a dialect of Gujarati [guj] or Bhili [bhb]. Lexical similarity: 61%–93% among dialects, 60% with Marathi [mar], 65% with Kukna [kex].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone, Konkani 
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Vasavi

[vas] 1,200,000 (2002). Maharashtra, Nandurbar District, Tapti River area; Gujarat, Surat, Bharuch districts, north of Tapti River in southern areas of Akkalkuwa and Akrani (Dhadgaon) tahsils, a narrow belt of land between Satpudas and Tapti banks; Satpudas; south of Tapti in central and north Nandurbar and Nawapur tahsils. Alternate names: Adiwasi Bhil, Dhogri Bhil, Keski Bhil, Bhilori, Padwi Bhilori, Ambodia Bhil, Vasava, Vasava Bhil, Vasave.  Dialects: Dehvali (Kolche), Ambodi (Ambodia), Dogri (Dungri, Dhogri), Khatalia, Kot. Not intelligible with Pauri [bfb] or Bhili [bhb]. 77%–93% intelligibility between Dogri, Khatali, Dehwali, Dubli, and Kotni varieties. Vasavi Dungri 79% intelligible with Dungra Bhil.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Vishavan

[vis] 150 (Shashi 1994). Kerala, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Thrissur districts, Parana and Perumuzhi on Idamala River, Idyara Range, Moovatupuzha Taluk; Chalakudi River near Ittyani. Alternate names: Malankudi, Malarkuti.  Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified 
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Waddar

[wbq] 1,930,000 (2003 IMA). Ethnic population: Population of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka is 3.2 million (IMA 2003). Andhra Pradesh; Karnataka; Maharashtra, Jalgaon District. Alternate names: Od, Orh, Vadari, Vadda Beldar, Werders, Wodde.  Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu 
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Wagdi

[wbr] 1,710,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 3,000,000. Rajasthan, south Udaipur, Dungarpur, Banswara districts; Gujarat, Sabarkantha, Panchmahals; Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. Alternate names: Bhili, Bhilodi, Mina Bhil, Vagadi, Vagari, Vagdi, Vaged, Vageri, Vagi, Wagadi, Wagari, Waghari, Wagholi, Wagri.  Dialects: Kherwara, Sagwara, Adivasi Wagdi, Rewadi. Dialect intelligibility above 95%. Intelligible with Adivasi Garasia [gas] of Bhiloda. Wagdi Banswara highly intelligible to Bhilodi of Gujarat. Wagdi highly intelligible to Patelia [bhb] of Gujarat. Lexical similarity: 84% with Patelia dialects; 75% to 80% with Marwari [rwr] dialects; 79%–93% with Adiwasi Garasia dialects; 79%–87% with Rajput Garasia dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Bhil 
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War-Jaintia

[aml] 12,000 in India (2000 SIL). Meghalaya, Khasi and Jaintia Hills area; Assam. Alternate names: Amwi, Khasi, War.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian 
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Yakha

[ybh] 810 in India (2000). West Bengal, Darjeeling District; Sikkim. Alternate names: Yakkha, Yakkhaba.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Yerukula

[yeu] 300,000 (1997). Andhra Pradesh, Rayalseema, Telengana and Andhra regions; Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri, Coimbatore, Periyar, Salem, Chengai Anna; Karnataka; Kerala; Maharashtra. Alternate names: Erukala, Eruku Bhasha, Korava, Korchi, Kurru Bhasha, Kurutha, Yarukula, Yerkula, Yerukala, Yerukala-Korava, Yerukla, Yerukula-Bhasha.  Dialects: Parikala, Sankara-Yerukala. Similar to Ravula [yea], Irula [iru]. Lexical similarity: among varieties ranges from 53% to 81%, with Irula from 33%–38%, with Ravula from 28%–45%, with Tamil [tam] from 27% to 45%.  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Zakhring

[zkr] 300 (2002). Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit District, Walong and Kibithoo, Lohit River area. Alternate names: Eastern Mishmi, Meyor, Zaiwa.  Dialects: Similar to Tibetan [bod] (Singh), Miju-Mishmi [mxj]. Not related to Zaiwa [atb] in Yunnan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Zangskari

[zau] 12,000 (2000). Jammu and Kashmir, Zaskar Mts.; southernmost end of Kargil District, between Himalayas and Indus River Valley, next to Leh-Ladakhi and Kargil-Purik areas. Alternate names: Zanskari, Zaskari.  Dialects: 73%–81% intelligibility of Leh Ladakhi [lbj] with high standard deviation indicating some acquired intelligibility; 90% intelligibility of Stod Bhoti [sbu] of Darcha village.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western 
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Zou

[zom] 20,600 in India (2001 census). Manipur, Chandel District, Singngat Subdivision, Sugnu area; Churachandpur District; Assam. Alternate names: Jou, Zo, Zoukamz.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Zyphe

[zyp] 3,000 in India (2000). Mizoram, Lakher District. Alternate names: Vawngtu, Zophei, Zoptei.  Dialects: Lower Zyphe, Upper Zyphe.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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