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Languages of Iran

Islamic Republic of Iran, Jomhouri-e-Eslami-e-Irân. 67,503,205. National or official language: Western Farsi [pes]. Literacy rate: 70%–75% among those 6 years old and over (1995–1996 Iran Statistical Center). Immigrant languages: Eastern Farsi (1,000,000), Hulaulá (350), Tajiki, Turkish (2,570). Also includes languages of Afghanistan (3,000,000), and of the Kurds (120,000) and Shi’a Arabs from Iraq. Information mainly from E. Drower 1939; R. Macuch 1965; I. Garbell 1965; T. Sebeok 1969, 1970; G. Doerfer et al. 1971; R. Oberling 1974; D. Stilo 1981; R. Hoberman 1988a, b. Blind population: 200,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf population: 3,978,055. Deaf institutions: 50. The number of individual languages listed for Iran is 77. Of those, 75 are living languages and 2 have no known speakers.
Aimaq

[aiq] 170,000 in Iran (Johnstone 1993). Mâzanderân Province. Dialects: Teimuri (Teimurtash).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian 
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Alviri-Vidari

[avd]  Near Saveh, Markazi Province. Dialects: Alvir (Alviri), Vidar (Vidari). Related to Gozarkhâni [goz], Vafsi [vaf].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Arabic, Gulf Spoken

[afb] 200,000 in Iran (1993). South coast; Khamseh nomads in east Fars Province; other Arab nomadic groups in several southcentral provinces. Alternate names: Gulf Arabic, Khaliji.  Dialects: Al-Hasâ, Khamseh.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken

[acm] 1,200,000 in Iran. Khuzestan Province, southwest side of Zagros Mountains, Shatt al Arab River bank. Alternate names: Arabi, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Armenian

[hye] 171,000 in Iran (1993). Northern Iran, Azerbaijan provinces, Khoi, Shahpur, Ahar, Tabriz, Tehran, Esfahan, Shiraz areas. Alternate names: Armani, Armjanski, Erâmani, Ermenice, Haieren, Somekhuri.  Dialects: Eastern Armenian, Agulis, Astrakhân, Jolfâ (Dzhulfa), Karabagh Shamakhi, Khoi-Salmst (Khvoy), Urmia-Maragheh.  Classification: Indo-European, Armenian 
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Ashtiani

[atn] 21,100 (2000). Markazi Province, Ashtiyan and Tafresh. Alternate names: Ashtiyani, Astiani.  Dialects: Ashtiani, Tafresh. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh [tly]. Dialects may be separate languages. Very similar to Vafsi [vaf].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

[aii] 15,000 in Iran (1994). Ethnic population: 80,000 (1994). Reza’iyeh (Rizaiye, Urmia, Urmi). Most in Tehran. Dialects: Iranian Koine (General Urmi).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern 
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Avestan

[ave] Extinct.  Alternate names: Avesta, Pazend.  Dialects: Old Avestan (Gathic), Younger Avestan.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian 
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Azerbaijani

[aze] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 19,147,529. 
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Azerbaijani, South

[azb] 11,200,000 in Iran (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001), increasing. 290,000 Afshar, 5,000 Aynallu, 7,500 Baharlu, 1,000 Moqaddam, 3,500 Nafar 1,000 Pishagchi, 3,000 Qajar, 2,000 Qaragozlu, 130,000 Shahsavani (1993). Population total all countries: 12,612,660. East and West Azerbaijan, Ardebil, Zanjan, and part of Markazi provinces. districts of Tehran; Fars Province and scattered. Also in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Turkey (Asia), United States. Alternate names: Torki.  Dialects: Aynallu (Inallu, Inanlu), Karapapakh, Tabriz, Afshari (Afshar, Afsar), Shahsavani (Shahseven), Moqaddam, Baharlu (Kamesh), Nafar, Qaragozlu, Pishagchi, Bayat, Qajar. Bakhtiari [bqi] is on a dialect continuum between Northern Luri [lrc] and Southern Luri [luz]. Farsi dialects in Chaharmahâl va Bakhtiari Province mutually intelligible with Bakhtiari. Similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Southern Luri (Mamasani), 86% with Southern Luri (Boyerahmadi), 73% with Northern Luri (rural), 78% with Northern Luri (Khorramabadi), 76% with Western Farsi [pes].  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani 
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Bakhtiâri

[bqi] 1,000,000 (2001). 350,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (2001). Southwest Iran: west Chahar-Mahal va Bakhtiari, east Khuzestan, east Lorestan, west Esfahan. Masjed-e Soleiman, Shahr-e Kord, Dorud. Alternate names: Lori, Lori-ye Khaveri.  Dialects: Haft-Lang, Charlang, Chelgerd, Kuhrang (Kohrang). Bakhtiari is on a dialect continuum between Northern Luri [lrc] and Southern Luri [luz]. Farsi dialects in Chaharmahâl va Bakhtiari Province are mutually intelligible with Bakhtiari. Similar to Kumzari [kum]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Southern Luri (Mamasani), 86% with Southern Luri (Boyerahmadi), 73% with Northern Luri (rural), 78% with Northern Luri (Khorramabadi), 76% with Western Farsi [pes].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri 
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Balochi, Southern

[bcc] 405,000 in Iran. South Sistan va Baluchistan Province. Alternate names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci.  Dialects: Makrani (Lotuni).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi 
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Balochi, Western

[bgn] 451,000 in Iran (1986). North Sistan va Baluchistan Province. Half in cities and villages, half nomadic. Alternate names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci.  Dialects: Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi 
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Bashkardi

[bsg] 7,030 (2000). East Hormozgan, South Kerman, possibly southwest Sistan va Baluchistan provinces. Alternate names: Bashaka.  Dialects: Northern Bashaka, Southern Bashaka.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi 
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Brahui

[brh] 20,000 in Iran (2007), increasing. Central Sistan and Baluchistan provinces, including Zahedan. Alternate names: Brahudi, Birahui, Kur Galli, Barahui.  Dialects: Jharawan (Jhalawan), Kalat, Sarawan.  Classification: Dravidian, Northern 
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Dari, Zoroastrian

[gbz] 11,500 (1999). Yezd and Kerman areas. Alternate names: “Gabar” , “Gabri” , “Yazdi”.  Dialects: Related to Parsi-Dari [prd], Nâyini [nyq].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Dezfuli

[def]  Dezful, north Khuzestan Province. Alternate names: Dizfuli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Unclassified 
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Domari

[rmt] 1,340,000 in Iran (2000). Population total all countries: 3,952,810. Kurbat and Luli in west; Mehtar in Fars and Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province; Karachi in north. Also in Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Libya, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Russian Federation (Europe), Sudan, Syria, Turkey (Europe), Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Gypsy, Luti, Mehtar, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene.  Dialects: Kurbati (Ghorbati), Qinati, Yürük, Koli, Karachi, Luli, Maznoug, Nawar. Dialects in Iran may be highly divergent from one another. Not intelligible to Romani speakers.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom 
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Dzhidi

[jpr]   Alternate names: Djudi, Judeo-Persian, Judi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian 
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Eshtehardi

[esh]  Markazi Province, Karaj District, Eshtehard area. Dialects: Similar to Takestani [tks]. May be the same language as some dialects spoken southwest of Qazvin.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Fars, Northwestern

[faz] 7,500 (2006). Scattered in isolated pockets of Fars Province. Dialects: Similar to Sivandi [siy].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Fars, Southwestern

[fay] 7,500 (2006). Central Fars Province: Somghun, Papun, Masarm, Buringun, Kondazi, Davani, others. Alternate names: “Tajik”.  Dialects: Related to Lari [lrl].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars 
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Farsi, Western

[pes] 22,000,000 in Iran (1997), increasing. 800,000 Eastern Fasi in Khorasan, Gilan, Tat, Bakhtiari, Lur. Population total all countries: 23,879,300. Widespread. Most concentrated in central, south central, and northeast. Also in Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iraq, Israel, Netherlands, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey (Asia), Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: New Persian, Parsi, Persian.  Dialects: Abadani, Ketabi, Tehrani, Shirazi, Old Shirazi, Qazvini, Mahalhamadani, Kashani, Esfahani, Sedehi, Kermani, Araki, Shirazjahromi, Shahrudi Kazeruni, Mashadi (Meshed), Basseri, Yazdi, Bandari. Literary language virtually identical in Iran and Afghanistan, with very minor lexical differences. The Zargari dialect of Romani, Balkan [rmn] may be a dialect used by goldsmiths. Dialect shading into Dari [gbz] in Afghanistan and Tajiki [tgk] in Tajikistan. Many dialects may be separate languages.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian 
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Gazi

[gzi] 7,030 (2000). Gaz. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Georgian

[kat] 60,000 in Iran. Fereydan and Fereydunshahr provinces, Esfahan, Najaf Abad, Shahin Shahr, Yazdanshahr. Alternate names: Gruzin, Kartuli.  Dialects: Fereydan (Ferejdan).  Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian 
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Gilaki

[glk] 3,270,000 (1993), decreasing. 2,000 Galeshi. Gilan region, coastal plain, south of Talish. Galeshi is a mountain dialect. Alternate names: Gelaki, Gilani, Guilaki, Guilani.  Dialects: Galeshi, Rashti, Rudbari, Some’e Sarai, Lahijani, Langerudi, Rudsari, Bandar Anzali, Fumani. Similar to Mâzanderâni [mzn].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian 
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Gozarkhani

[goz]  Gozarkhan (northwest of Qazvin); Tajrish, north of Tehran; Alamut area. Dialects: Similar to Maraghei [vmh] and Semnani [smy].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Harzani

[hrz] 28,100 (2000). West Azerbaijan Province: Qalingie, between Marand and Jolfa, northwest of Tabriz; related varieties in Galin Qaya, Babra, and Dizmar. Dialects: Similar to Karingani [kgn], Talysh [tly].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Hawrami

[hac] 22,900 in Iran (2000). For all speakers of Gurani group, several million; Hawrami dialect: 20,000 (Blau 1989). West Kordestan Province, near Iraqi border, Hewraman, east of Sanandaj, also north of Kermanshah. Alternate names: Awromani, Gorani, Gurani, Hawramani, Hewrami, Howrami.  Dialects: Kakai (Macho), Hawraman-I Luhon, Hawraman-I Taxt, Kandula, Gawhara, Gurani (Gorani).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani 
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Hazaragi

[haz] 283,000 in Iran (1993). Population increased significantly due to influx of Hazaragi-speaking refugees from Afghanistan. Widespread, especially urban centers. Alternate names: Hazara, Hezare’i, Hezareh.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian 
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Jadgali

[jdg]   Alternate names: Jat, Jatgali, Jatki.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi 
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Kabatei

[xkp]  Rudbar District, Gilan Province. Dialects: Kalas, Kabate. Similar to Upper Taromi [tov].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Kajali

[xkj]  East Azerbaijan Province, Kaqazkonan District, Kajal. Dialects: Similar to Shahrudi [shm], Koresh-e Rostam [okh].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Karingani

[kgn] 17,600 (2000). East Azerbaijan Province, Dizmar District, Keringan village; Hasanu District, northeast of Tabriz. Alternate names: Keringani.  Dialects: Various dialects. Very similar to Harzani [hrz].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Kashkay

[qxq] 1,500,000 (1997). Southwest Iran, Fars and South Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province. Shiraz, Gachsaran, and Firuzabad are centers. Alternate names: Kashkai, Qashqai, Qashqa’I, Qashqay.  Dialects: Similar to Azerbaijani [azb].  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani 
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Kazakh

[kaz] 3,000 in Iran (1982). Mazanderan Province, Gorgan City. Alternate names: Gazaqi, Kazak, Kazakhi.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian 
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Khalaj

[kjf] 42,100 in Iran (2000 WCD).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern 
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Khalaj, Turkic

[klj] 42,100 (2000 WCD). Central Province, northeast of Arak. Alternate names: Khalaj.  Dialects: Not a dialect of Azerbaijani [azb], as previously supposed. An independent language distinct from other extant Turkish languages (Doerfer et al 1971).  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani 
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Kho’ini

[xkc]  Zanjan Province, Kho’in District. Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Kabatei [xkp], Takestani [tks]. Closely related varieties spoken in nearby villages of Balbavin, Sefidkamar, Halab, Sa’dabad.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Khorasani Turkish

[kmz] 400,000 (1977 G. Doerfer). Northeast Iran, north Khorasan Province, northwest of Mashhad. West dialect in Bojnurd region; north in Quchan region (probably largest), south around Soltanabad near Sabzevar. Alternate names: Quchani.  Dialects: West Quchani (Northwest Quchani), North Quchani (Northeast Quchani), South Quchani. Midway linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen [tuk], but not a dialect of either. The Oghuz-Uzbek dialect of Uzbek, Northern [uzn] in Uzbekistan is reportedly a dialect.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish 
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Khunsari

[kfm] 21,100 (2000). Esfahan Province, Kashan and Esfahan areas. Dialects: May be one of a large complex of dialects in Esfahan Province. Other Northwestern dialects that have been described in the same area and which may be very closely related include Vonishun, Qohrud, Keshe, Zefre, Sedeh, Gaz, Kafran, Mahallat, So, Mejme, and Djaushaqan.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Koresh-e Rostam

[okh]  East Azerbaijan Province, Koresh-e Rostam District. Dialects: Related to Shahrudi [shm], Kajali [xkj].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Koroshi

[ktl] 180 (Mohamedi). 40 to 50 families. Fars Province. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi 
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Kurdish, Central

[ckb] 3,250,000 in Iran. Northwest Iran, primarily Kordestan, west Azerbaijani provinces, areas north of Kermanshah. Mukri in Mahabad area, Sineyi (Sine’i) in Sanandaj (Sine) area. Alternate names: Kordi, Korkora, Kurdi, Kurdy, Mokri, Mukri, Sine’i, Sorani, Wawa.  Dialects: Mukri (Mokri, Kordi), Sanandaji (Sine’i, Sina’i, Sineyi), Southern Jafi, Pijdari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish 
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Kurdish, Northern

[kmr] 350,000 in Iran (Stanzer 1988). North and west of Lake Urmia. Some in Kalardast region, Mazandaran Province. Northern Kurdish variety of Khorasani Kurmanji is east of the Caspian Sea, in north Khorassan Province, Quchan and Bojnurd towns. Alternate names: Eastern Kurmanji, Kordi, Kurdi, Kurmancî, Kurmanji.  Dialects: Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji), Khorassani Kurmanji.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish 
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Kurdish, Southern

[sdh] 3,000,000 in Iran (Fattah 2000). Western Iran, Kermanshah, Ilam provinces; Eastern Iraq border with those provinces including Xanaqin. Also in Iraq. Dialects: Kolyai, Kermanshahi (Kermanshani), Kalhori, Garrusi (Bijari) Sanjabi, Malekshahi (Maleksh ay), Bayray, Kordali, Feyli, Luri.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish 
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Laki

[lki] 1,000,000 (Fattah 2000). 150,000 monolinguals. 10,000 Nahavand Lurs. Western Iran, Ilam, Lorestan provinces, cities of Aleshtar, Kuhdesht, Nurabad-e Dolfan, Khorramabad. Alternate names: Alaki, Leki.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Western Farsi [pes], 78% with Luristani (Khorramabadi), 69% with Northern Luri [lrc] (central rural dialects).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish 
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Lari

[lrl] 80,000, increasing. Ethnic population: 100,000. South Fars Province, Lar District; Shiraz; United Arab Emirates. Alternate names: Larestani.  Dialects: Lari. Verbal system is quite distinct from Western Farsi [pes].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars 
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Lasgerdi

[lsa] 1,000 (2006 census). Semnan Province, southwest of Semnan, In Lasjerd. Alternate names: Lasjerdi, Läsgerdi, Läsjerdi.  Dialects: Related to Sorkhei [sqo].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani 
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Luri, Northern

[lrc] 1,500,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 1,700,000 (2001). Western Iran: central and south Lorestan, north Khuzestan, south Hamadan Province, south edge of Markazi Province, some regions of Ilam; Khorramabad, Borujerd, Andimeshk; possibly eastern Iraq. Alternate names: Lori, Luristani.  Dialects: Khorramabadi, Borujerdi, Nahavandi, Andimeshki, Bala-Gariva’i, Mahali (Rural), Cagani. Major Northern Luri dialects (Khorramabadi, Borujerdi) are found in Lorestan and Khuzestan. Some areas in Ilam Province (Posht-e Kuh) reportedly speak Northern Luri dialects. South Kurdish dialects mainly in Ilam Province (Fattah 2000). A few villages in Iraq, using a dialect of Northern Luri (Fattah 2000). Similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: of Mahali dialect 80% with Western Farsi [pes], 69% with Laki [lki], and 73% with Bakhtiari [bqi] (Haflang); Khorramabadi dialect 85% with Western Farsi [pes], 78% with Laki [lkh], and 75% with Bakhtiari [bqi] (Haflang). Similarity to Western Farsi [pes] is due to lexical borrowing and language shift.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri 
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Luri, Southern

[luz] 875,000 (1999), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 900,000. Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province (Yasuj is center of Boyerahmadi, Dehdasht is center of Kohgiluyeh), east Khuzestan Province (Kohgiluyeh), northwest Fars Province (Nurabad is center of Mamasani, Shul is center of Shuli), Shiraz. Alternate names: Lor, Lori, Lori-ye Jonubi, Lur.  Dialects: Boyerahmadi, Yasuji (Yasichi), Kohgiluyeh, Mamasani, Shuli. Southern Luri is on a continuum between Bakhtiari [bqi] and Western Farsi [pes] dialects such as Bushehri and Fars Province varieties. A non-Lur tribe in Fars Province called Kurdshuli reportedly speaks a Southern Luri dialect. Their winter quarters are at Qasr-e Dasht near Sivand, 70 km from Sharaz on Shiraz-Esfahan road. Similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Western Farsi, 80% with Bushehri dialect of Western Farsi; Mamasani dialect 75% with Bakhtiari, Boyerahmadi dialect 86% with Bakhtiari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri 
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Mandaic

[mid] 500 in Iran (2001). Ethnic population: 23,000. Khuzestan, Hoveiseh, other towns. Alternate names: Mandaean, Mandi, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabe’in, Sabean, Subbi.  Dialects: Ahwaz (Ahvaz), Shushtar, Iraqi Neo-Mandaic.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic 
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Mandaic, Classical

[myz] Extinct. Also used liturgically in Iraq (Basrah) and small communities in the USA (New York) and Australia (300 Mandaeans in Sydney in 1995). Alternate names: Classical Mandaean.  Dialects: Appears the direct ancestor of Modern Mandaic [mid].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic 
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Maraghei

[vmh]  Upper Rudbar area (Rudbar-e Alamut). Dialects: Dikini. Various other dialects. Similar to Gozarkhani [goz].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Mazanderani

[mzn] 3,270,000 (1993). North near Caspian Sea, south half of Mazanderan Province. Alternate names: Gilaki, Mazandarani, Tabri.  Dialects: Mazanderani, Gorgani. Related to Gilaki [glk]. Qadikolahi (Ghadikolahi) and Paliyan [pcf] may be dialects.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian 
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Natanzi

[ntz] 7,030 (2000). Esfahan Province: Natanz, on Esfahan-Kashan Road. Dialects: Natanzi, Yarani (Yarandi), Farizandi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Nayini

[nyq] 7,030 (2000). Esfahan Province, Nayin and Anarak, east of Esfahan; Khuri in Khur (Khvor) and Mehrjan, northeast of Esfahan. Alternate names: Biyabanak.  Dialects: Nayini, Anarak, Khuri. Dialects listed may be separate languages. Khuri distinct from other dialects. Related to Zoroastrian Dari [gbz].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Parsi-Dari

[prd] 350,000 in Iran. Population total all countries: 700,000. Also in Afghanistan. Alternate names: Parsee, Parsee-Dari, Parsi.  Dialects: Reportedly not inherently intelligible with Parsi [prp] of India, Pakistan, and other countries, but linguistically and ethnically related. They diverged 600 to 700 years ago or more. Related to Dari [gbz].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Pashto, Southern

[pbt] 113,000 in Iran (1993). Population does not include refugees. Khorasan on Afghanistan border east of Qa’en. Alternate names: “Afghani” , Paktu, Pashtu.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto 
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Persian

[fas] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 31,381,206. 
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Persian Sign Language

[psc]   Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Razajerdi

[rat]  Qazvin and Kuhpayeh area, Razajerd. Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Takestani [tks].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Romani, Balkan

[rmn]   Dialects: Zargari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan 
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Rudbari

[rdb]  Sefid Rud Valley. Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional to Caspian languages. Related to Vafsi [vaf].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Salchuq

[slq]   Dialects: Probably a dialect of Azerbaijani [azb].  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani 
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Sangisari

[sgr] 36,000 (2006 census). Semnân Province. Alternate names: Mahdi Shahri, Mehdishahri, Sangesari, Sängesäri, Sangsari, Sängsari, Sängsäri, Sengiseri, Sengsari.  Dialects: Shahmirzadi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani 
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Semnani

[smy] 60,000 (2007). Semnan Province. Alternate names: Simnani.  Dialects: Biyabunaki might be a dialect of Semnani.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani 
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Senaya

[syn] 60 in Iran (1997 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 460. Tehran and Qazvin. Originally in Sanandaj, Kordestan Province. Also in Australia, United States. Alternate names: Christian Neo-Aramaic, Lshan Sray, Senaaya, Shan Gyanan, Shan Sray, Soray, Sray.  Dialects: Qazvin variety slightly different from that spoken by Sanandaj-born people.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern 
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Shahmirzadi

[srz]  Shahmirzad, Semnan Province. Dialects: Similar to Mazanderani [mzn], Gilaki [glk].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian 
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Shahrudi

[shm]  East Azerbaijan Province, Khalkhal District, Shahrud District, Shal, Kolur, Lerd. Dialects: Similar to Kajali [kjf], Koresh-e Rostam [okh]. Different from Sharudi, a Western Farsi [pes] dialect.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Sivandi

[siy] 7,030 (2000). Fars Province, Sivand, northwest of Shiraz on Shiraz-Esfahan Road. Dialects: Related to Northwestern Fars [faz] varieties.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Soi

[soj] 7,030 (2000).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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Sorkhei

[sqo] 10,000 (2006 census). Semnan Province, Sorkheh, southwest of Semnan. Dialects: Aftari. Related to Lasgerdi [lsa].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani 
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Takestani

[tks] 220,000. Zanjan, Qazvin and Markazi provinces, from Khalkhal to Saveh, Takestan, south and southeast. Alternate names: Takistani.  Dialects: Khalkhal, Tarom, Zanjan, Kharaqan, Ramand (Takestan). Khalkhal dialect is similar to Talysh [tly]. Transitional between Talysh and Semnani [smy] languages. Similar to Eshtehardi [esh].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Talysh

[tly] 112,000 in Iran (1993). Northwest Gilan Province, Caspian coastal plain and adjacent mountainous areas from Masuleh, Masal, and Kapur-Chal (Kepri-Chal) to Azerbaijan border. Northern Talyshi in Azerbaijan, Astara and the Caspian littoral areas; Central Talyshi in Gilan Province, Asalem-Hashtpar area along Caspian littoral; Southern Talyshi in Gilan Province, Shandermen, Masal, Masuleh, and surrounding mountainous areas. Alternate names: Talesh, Taleshi, Talish, Talishi, Talyshi.  Dialects: Northern Talyshi, Central Talyshi, Southern Talyshi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Taromi, Upper

[tov]  Zanjan Province, upper Tarom, Hazarrud, Siavarud. Dialects: Various dialects. Similar to Kabatei [xkp].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh 
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Tat, Muslim

[ttt] 8,000 in Iran.  Alternate names: Mussulman Tati.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat 
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Turkmen

[tuk] 2,000,000 in Iran (1997). Northeast, Mazanderan Province, Turkmenistan border area, Gonbad-e Kavus and Pahlavi Dezh. Alternate names: Torkomani.  Dialects: Anauli, Khasarli, Nerezim, Nokhurli (Nohur), Chavdur, Esari (Esary), Goklen (Goklan), Salyr, Saryq, Teke (Tekke), Yomud (Yomut), Trukmen.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian 
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Vafsi

[vaf] 18,000 (2003). Markazi Province, Arak District, Vafs, near Tafresh. Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh [tly]; very similar to Ashtiani [atn].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran 
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