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Languages of Laos

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Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Sathanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao. 2,769,000, or 71% speakers of Daic languages, 1,100,000, or 24.1% Austro-Asiatic languages, 175,000, or 4% Miao-Yao languages, 42,500, or 1% Tibeto-Burman languages (Matisoff 1991). National or official language: Lao. Literacy rate: 43%–45%. Immigrant languages: Central Khmer (10,400), Mandarin Chinese, Sedang (790), Tampuan, Vietnamese (76,000). Information mainly from R. Burling 1998; J. Edmondson and D. Solnit 1997; F. Lebar, G. Hickey, J. Musgrave 1964; J. Matisoff, P. Baron and J. Lowe 1996; D. Thomas and R. Headley 1970; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981. Blind population: 10,000 (1982 WCE). The number of individual languages listed for Laos is 84. Of those, all are living languages.
Aheu

[thm] 1,770 in Laos (2000). Pak Sane Province, Khamkeut District, near Lak Sao. Alternate names: Kha Tong Luang, Phon Soung, Phonsung, So, Thavung.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung 
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Akeu

[aeu] 1,000 in Laos (1996). Phongsali Province, Gnot Ou District. Alternate names: Aki, Akui.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Lolo, Southern 
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Akha

[ahk] 66,100 (Bradley 2007). Luang Namtha, Phongsali provinces. Alternate names: Ahka, Aini, Ak’a, Aka, Ekaw, Hka Ko, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Southern 
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Alak

[alk] 4,000 (Bradley 2007). South, mainly Saravan and Sekong provinces. Alternate names: Hrlak.  Dialects: Included under Bahnaric as most similar to Bahnar [bdq], Tampuan [tpu], Lamam [lmm]. Also included under Katuic.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric 
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Arem

[aem] 20 in Laos. Ethnic population: 500 (1995). West central, both sides of the Viet Nam-Laos border, west of Phuc Trach. Alternate names: Chombrau, Chomrau, Umo.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut  Nearly extinct.
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Bit

[bgk] 1,530 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Population total all countries: 1,730. Near the north border with China, northeast of Namtha, Luand Namtha Province, and south of Boun Neua; Phongsali Province, Boun-Tai, Samphan, and Khoa districts, 8 villages. Also in China. Alternate names: Buxinhua, Khabit, Khbit, Phsin, Phsing.  Dialects: Not Khmuic, but Palaungic (1990 J. Svantesson). Related to Khao [xao] in Viet Nam.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao 
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Bo

[bgl] 2,950 (2000). Central, inland from the Mekong River bend, Nhang River, Nape area; Kammouan, Lak Sao, Bolikhamxay provinces, Hinboun District. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong 
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Bru, Eastern

[bru] 69,000 in Laos (1999). Population total all countries: 124,600. East Savannehkhet Province, Sepone District. Also in Viet Nam. Dialects: Leun (Leung, Kaleu), Tri (So Tri, So Trii, Chali). Partially intelligible with Western Bru [brv] of Thailand. Related to Khua [xhv]. The Mangkong dialect in Viet Nam and eastern Laos is a dialect of Eastern Bru, different linguistically from the Mangkong that are the same as So [sss] of Thailand. Mangkong is also an ethnic group.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Chepya

[ycp]  Northwest Phongsaly Province. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Southern 
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Chut

[scb] 450 in Laos (1995 census). Khammouan Province, Bouarapha District, near Viet Nam border. Alternate names: May, Ruc, Sach, Salang.  Dialects: May, Ruc.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut 
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Con

[cno] 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Luang Namtha Province, southwest of Vieng Pou Kha. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic 
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Halang Doan

[hld] 2,350 in Laos (2000). Attopeu Province, Kasseng Plateau, Sanxai District, Kamane and Dak Robay rivers’ left banks, near Viet Nam border. Alternate names: Doan, Duan, Halang Duan.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan 
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Hani

[hni] 1,120 in Laos (1995). Phongsali Province, Yunnan border. Alternate names: Hanhi, Haw.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Southern 
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Hmong Daw

[mww] 170,000 in Laos (1995 census). North. Alternate names: Bai Miao, Hmonng Der, Hmoob Dawb, Meo Kao, White Lum, White Meo, White Hmong, White Miao.  Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Striped Hmong), Mong Leng.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Hmong Njua

[hnj] 100,000 in Laos (Hattaway 2000). Population total all countries: 310,000. North. Also in Australia, Canada, China, France, French Guiana, Myanmar, Thailand, United States, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Hmong Lens, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Miao, Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Hung

[hnu] 2,000 in Laos (Ferlus 1996). Population total all countries: 2,700. Bolikhamsay, Khammouan provinces. Toum dialect northeast of Nape and south of the Phong. Also in Viet Nam. Dialects: Toum (Tum), Phong (Pong, Poong, Pong 1, Pong 2).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi 
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Ir

[irr] 4,420 (2000). Saravan Province, east of Saravan town. Alternate names: In, Yir.  Dialects: Most similar to Ong [oog].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih 
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Iu Mien

[ium] 20,300 in Laos (2000).  Alternate names: Highland Yao, Man, Mien, Myen, Yao.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
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Jeh

[jeh] 8,010 in Laos (1995 census). South, Xekong Province, Dakchung District; Attopeu Province, Sanxai District, basin of Poko, Kamane, and Dak Main rivers. Alternate names: Die, Gie, Yeh.  Dialects: Jeh Bri La, Jeh Mang Ram.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang 
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Jeng

[jeg] 7,320 (2000). Attopeu Province, Samakkhixai and Sanamxai districts. 6 villages north of Attopeu town. Alternate names: Cheng, Chiengceng.  Dialects: Related to Oy [oyb], Sapuan [spu], Sok [skk].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The 
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Kaduo

[ktp] 5,000 in Laos (Wurm and Hattori 1981). North central on China border, north of Mong Ou Tay. Alternate names: Khatu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Southern 
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Kang

[kyp] 47,600 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 81,700. Houaphan Province, Xam-Tai District; Xiangkhoang Province, Nonghet District. Also in China. Alternate names: Tai Khang.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
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Kasseng

[kgc] 1,200 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2000). South near Viet Nam border, Boloven Plateau area north of Attopeu, and between Jeh [jeg], Alak [alk], Laven [lbo], and Tareng [tgr]. Alternate names: Kaseng, Koseng, Kraseng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Kaseng 
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Kataang

[kgd] 107,000 (2000). South, Saravan, Savannakhet, Sekong, and Champassak provinces, Toumlahn District area, Muong Nong area, near Ta’oih [tto] [tth] and Bru [bru]; 2 villages in Khong Chiem, Ubon Ratachatani District, Thailand. Alternate names: Katang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih 
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Katu, Western

[kuf] 14,700 (1998). Sekong, Saravan, Champassak provinces, Upper Xe Kong River, high basin of Song Boung River watershed along the border. Dialects: A different language variety and orthography from Viet Nam.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
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Khlor

[llo] 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Saravan Province, Laongam District, south of Ir and Ong. Alternate names: Klor, Lor.  Dialects: Most similar to Ngeq [ngt].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang 
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Khmu

[kjg] 390,000 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Population total all countries: 480,100. Scattered in north. Also in China, France, Myanmar, Thailand, United States, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Khomu, Kmhmu, Lao Terng, Mou, Pouteng, Pu Thenh, Tenh, Theng.  Dialects: Yuan, Khroong (Krong), Luang Prabang, Sayabury, Lyy, Rok, U, Hat.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ 
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Khua

[xhv] 2,000 in Laos (1981). Khammouan Province, Bouarapha District, northwest of Boualapha. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Khuen

[khf] 8,000 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Population total all countries: 9,000. Luang Namtha Province, Nale, Sing, and Viangphoukha districts. Near Lamet [lbn]. Also in China, United States. Alternate names: Khouen, Khween, Kween.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ 
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Kim Mun

[mji] 4,500 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Northwest, Luang Namtha Province, Long, Namtha districts; Huay Sai Province; Nam Moh District, Udom Sai Province, Nam Moh District; Bokeo Province. Alternate names: Jim Mun, Lan Tin, Lanten, Lowland Yao, Man Lan-Tien, Mun.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
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Kiorr

[xko] 2,360 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Louang Nam Tha, Bokeo provinces. 6 villages. Also in Myanmar. Alternate names: Col, Con, Saamtaav, Samtao, Samtao 2.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic 
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Kuan

[uan] 2,500 (1995 census). Bolikhamxay Province, Viangthong District, near Mouan River. Dialects: Not easily classified, possibly because of migration.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Unclassified 
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Kuy

[kdt] 51,200 in Laos (2000). 80% monolingual. South, Savannakhet, Saravan, Sedone provinces; both sides of the Mekong. Alternate names: Aouei, Cuoi, Dui, Khamen-Boran, Kui, Kuoy, Old Khmer, Soai, Suai, Suay, Suei, Sui, Suoi.  Dialects: Antra, Na Nhyang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Nheu 
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Lahu

[lhu] 8,700 in Laos (1995 census). Bokeo Province, Peung, Tonpheung, Houayxay districts. Alternate names: Muhso, Museu, Musso, Mussuh.  Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu, Loheirn), Nyi (Red Lahu, Southern Lahu, Musseh Daeng, Luhishi, Luhushi), Shehleh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Central 
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Lahu Shi

[lhi] 3,000 in Laos (2007). Bokeo Province, Kentung District. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Central 
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Lamet

[lbn] 16,700 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 16,832. Northwest, Luang Namtha, Bokeo provinces. Also in Thailand, United States. Alternate names: Kha Lamet, Khamed, Khamet, Lemet, Rmeet.  Dialects: Upper Lamet, Lower Lamet.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic 
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Lao

[lao] 3,000,000 in Laos (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 3,184,500. Mekong River Valley, Luang Prabang south to Cambodia border. Lao-Khrang in Nakhonsawan and Nakhon Pathom area. Possibly in Viet Nam. Also in Australia, Cambodia, Canada, France, Thailand, United States. Alternate names: Eastern Thai, Lào, Lao Kao, Lao Wiang, Lao-Lum, Lao-Noi, Lao-Tai, Laotian, Laotian Tai, Lum Lao, Phou Lao, Rong Kong, Tai Lao.  Dialects: Luang Prabang, Vientiane (Wiang Jan), Savannakhet (Suwannakhet), Pakse, Lao-Kao, Lao-Khrang. Dialect subgroup with Northeastern Tai of Thailand.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Laos Sign Language

[lso]   Dialects: Related to sign languages in Viet Nam and earlier ones in Thailand.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Lave

[brb] 12,800 in Laos (1984). Population total all countries: 21,175. Attopeu Province, Laos-Cambodia border. Also in Cambodia, France, United States, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Brao, Braou, Brau, Brou, Laveh, Love, Proue, Rawe.  Dialects: Palau. Similar to Kru’ng 2 [krr], Kavet [krv], Sou [sqq].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet 
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Laven

[lbo] 40,500 in Laos (1995 census). Southwest, Champassak, Attopeu provinces, Boloven Plateau, near the Alak [alk]. Also in United States. Alternate names: Boloven, Boriwen, Jaru, Jru’, Jruq, Laweenjru, Loven.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Laven 
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[khb] 134,000 in Laos (2000). West Phongsali, Luang Namtha, Bokeo, Udomxay, Xanyabouli, Luang Prabang provinces. Alternate names: Lu, Lue, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Mal

[mlf] 23,200 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 26,700. Xaignabouli Province, Phiang District, west of Mekong River. Also in Thailand, United States. Alternate names: Htin, Khatin, T’in, Thin, Tin.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Lua [prb], Prai [prt], or Pray 3 [pry].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai 
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Maleng

[pkt] 800 in Laos (Ferlus 1996). Population total all countries: 1,000. Khammouan Province, Nakay District, Nam Theun Valley, near Theun River banks. Also in Viet Nam. Alternate names: Malang, Malieng.  Dialects: Maleng, Pakatan (Kha Pakatan), Malang, Hareme.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut 
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Mlabri

[mra] 24 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Xaignabouli Province, Phiang District, near Thailand border. Alternate names: Ma Ku, Mabri, Mla, Mla-Bri, Mrabri, Yellow Leaf, Yumbri.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri 
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Ngeq

[ngt] 12,200 (1995 census). 70% monolingual. South, Sekong, Saravan, Champassak provinces. 25 villages. Alternate names: Kriang, Ngae, Nge’, Ngeh, Nkriang.  Dialects: Most similar to Khlor [llo].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang 
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Nung

[nut] A few in Laos.  Alternate names: Nong.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
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Nyaheun

[nev] 5,150 (1995 census). East Boloven Plateau near Sekong and Paksong. Alternate names: Hin, Hoen, Hun, Nha Heun, Nia Hoen, Niahon, Nyah Heuny, Nyahön, Yaheun.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Nyaheun 
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O’du

[tyh] 190 in Laos (Proschan 1996). Xiang Khoang Province, Nonghet District. Alternate names: ’Iduh, “Haat” , “Hat” , Iduh, “Tay Hat”.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ 
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Ong

[oog] 10,300 (2000). Saravan Province, north of Saravan town. Alternate names: Hantong, Tong.  Dialects: Most similar to Ir [irr].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih 
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Oy

[oyb] 14,900 (1995 census). 80% monolingual. Attopeu Province, at the foot of Bolaven Plateau near Pakse. Alternate names: Huei, Oi.  Dialects: Riyao, Tamal Euy, Inn Tea, Kranyeu. Related to Jeng [jeg], Sapuan [spu], Sok [skk], The [thx].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The 
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Pacoh

[pac] 13,200 in Laos (1995 census). 70% monolingual. Saravan Province, Samouay District; Savannakhet Province, Nong District. Alternate names: Bo River Van Kieu, Pokoh.  Dialects: Pahi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
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Phana’

[phq] 350 (1995 census). Luang Namtha Province and District, Bopiet and Namtoung villages; Bokeo Province, Houayxay District, one village. Alternate names: Bana’, Pana’.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha 
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Phong-Kniang

[pnx] 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). South Houaphan Province, Viangthong and Houamuang districts, near Neun River; north Xieng Khouang Province. Alternate names: Keneng, Kenieng, Khaniang, Lao Phong, Pong 3.  Dialects: Related to Puoc [puo], Kháng [kjm].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul 
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Phu Thai

[pht] 154,000 in Laos (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Khammouan, Savannakhet, Saravan, Champassak provinces; some in Oudomxai, Luang Prabang provinces. Alternate names: Phutai, Putai, Puthay.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Phuan

[phu] 106,000 in Laos (2000). Bolikhamxai, Vientiane, Xiangkhoang, and Houaphan. Alternate names: Lao Phuan, Phu Un.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Phunoi

[pho] 35,600 in Laos (1995 census). North central, Phony Saly area. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Phounoy, Phu Noi, Punoi.  Dialects: Black Khoany, White Khoany, Mung, Hwethom, Khaskhong. Similar to Bisu [bzi], Pyen [pyy], and Mpi [mpz]. Listed dialects may be separate languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
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Prai

[prt] 15,000 in Laos (1995 census). Xaignabouli Province, Hongsa, Xaignabouli, Xiang Hon, and Phiang districts. Alternate names: Lao Mai.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Prai 
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Pu Ko

[puk]  2 villages. Alternate names: Poko.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
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Puoc

[puo] 2,160 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Northeast, Houaphan Province, Xiangkho District; Xieng Khouang Province, Het River, along Viet Nam border. Alternate names: Kha Niang, Kha Puhoc, Ksing Mul, Lao Muh, Pou Hok, Puhoc, Puok, Xin Mul, Xing Mun, Xinh Mul.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul 
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Rien

[rie] 5,280 (2000).  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai 
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Saek

[skb] 14,000 in Laos (Diller 1990). Population total all countries: 25,000. Central, near Viet Nam border; Khammouan Province, Upper Nam Noy and Nam Pheo areas; Borikhamxay Province, Khamkeut District, Na Kadok village. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Sek, Set, Tai Sek.  Dialects: Na Kadok, Khammouan. Similar to Tai Mène.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Sek 
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Salang

[hal] 4,000 in Laos. South, Attopeu Province. Alternate names: Halang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang 
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Samtao

[stu]   Alternate names: Samtau, Samtuan.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic 
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Sapuan

[spu] 2,400 (1981). South, Attopeu Province, Se Kong and Se Kamane rivers’ banks. Alternate names: Sapouan.  Dialects: Related to Oy [oyb], Sok [skk], Jeng [jeg].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The 
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Sila

[slt] 1,770 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 2,610. North central, north of Muong Hai. Also in Viet Nam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani 
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[sss] 102,000 in Laos (1993). Population total all countries: 172,000. Khammouan, Thakhek, Savannakhet provinces, both sides of Mekong River. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Bru, Kah So, Makong, Mang Cong, Mang-Koong, Mangkong, Mankoong, So Makon, Thro.  Dialects: So Trong, So Slouy, So Phong. Similar to Bru [bru].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Sok

[skk] 1,600 (1981). Attopeu Province. Alternate names: Sawk, Sork.  Dialects: Related to Oy [oyb], Sapuan [spu], Jeng [jeg].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The 
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Sou

[sqq] 2,360 (2000). South, Attopeu Province, Phouvong and Sanamxai districts. Alternate names: Sawk, Souk, Su, Su’, Suq.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet 
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Tai Daeng

[tyr] 25,000 in Laos (1991). Northeast, near Viet Nam border. Alternate names: Daeng, Red Thai, Tai Deng, Thai Dang, Thai Do.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Dam

[blt] 50,000 in Laos (1995). Khammouan Province. Alternate names: Black Tai, Tai Noir, Thai Den.  Dialects: Tai Muoi (Tai Muei, Tay Mueai, Meuay).  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Dón

[twh] 200,000 in Laos (1995 census). Northeast. Alternate names: Tai Blanc, Tai Kao, Tai Lai, Thái Tráng, White Tai.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Loi

[tlq] 500 in Laos (1995 census). Luang Namtha Province, Long District. Possibly in China. Alternate names: Loi, Monglwe, Tailoi, Wakut.  Dialects: Tai Loi, Doi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic 
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Tai Long

[thi] 4,800 (2004).  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
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Tai Mène

[tmp] 7,200 (1995 census). Borikhamxay Province, Vieng Thong District; Khamkeut District, Lak Xao, Khamkeut, Na Heuang, Nam Sak, Sop Chat, Ka’ane, Phon Thoen, Sop Pone, and Tha Veng. Alternate names: Tai Maen, Tai Man, Tai Men, Tai Mene, Tai-Maen, Tay Mènè.  Dialects: Similar to Saek [skb].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern 
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Tai Nüa

[tdd] 35,000 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Northwest. Possibly in north Viet Nam. Alternate names: Chinese Shan, Tai Neua, Tai Nuea.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Tai Pao

[tpo] 3,300 (1995 census). Bolikhamxay Province, Viangthong, Khamkeut, Pakkading districts. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai 
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Talieng

[tdf] 23,100 (1995 census). Savannakhet Province, Muong Phine-Bung Sai area. Alternate names: Taliang, Tariang.  Dialects: Related to Trieng or Hre [hre] in Viet Nam, and may be the same.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West 
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Ta’oih, Lower

[tto] 15,800 (2000). Saravan Province, northwest of Saravan town. Alternate names: Tong.  Dialects: Tong, Hantong’. Not intelligible with Upper Ta’oih.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih 
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Ta’oih, Upper

[tth] 30,900 in Laos (1995 census). 70% monolingual. Population total all countries: 49,900. Saravan Province, Ta-Oy District. Also in United States, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Kantua, Ta Hoi, Ta-Oi, Ta-Oy, Tau Oi.  Dialects: Pasoom, Kamuan’, Palee’n, Leem, Ha’aang (Sa’ang). Not intelligible with Lower Ta’oih [tto] until speakers have had at least 2 weeks’ contact.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih 
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Tareng

[tgr] 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). West of Viet Nam border, east of Kayong, north of Chavane and Thia. Alternate names: Tariang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
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Tay Khang

[tnu] 200. Khammouan Province. Possibly in Viet Nam. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai 
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Thai, Northern

[nod] 9,400 in Laos (2000). Haut Mekong and Sayaboury provinces. Alternate names: Lan Na, Lanatai, Lanna, Lannatai, Muang, Myang, “Youanne” , “Youon” , “Yuan”.  Dialects: Nan.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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The

[thx] 2,920 (2000). Attopeu Province. Alternate names: Thae.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The 
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Yoy

[yoy] 1,000 in Laos (1995 census).  Alternate names: Dioi, Jui, Yoi, Yooi, Yooy.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern 
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