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Languages of Madagascar

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Democratic Republic of Madagascar, Repoblika Demokratika Malagasy. 18,643,000. National or official languages: Standard Malagasy, French, English. Literacy rate: 46%. Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Morisyen (4,000), Réunion Creole French (45,000). Also includes Arabic (20,000), Chinese (16,000). Information mainly from A. Ramer 1995; P. Verin, Kottak, and Gorlin 1969. Blind population: 40,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 2. The number of individual languages listed for Madagascar is 17. Of those, all are living languages.
Comorian, Mwali

[wlc] 1,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001).  Alternate names: Comores Swahili, Comoro, Komoro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40) 
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Comorian, Ndzwani

[wni] 8,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001).  Alternate names: Comores Swahili, Comoro, Komoro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40) 
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Comorian, Ngazidja

[zdj] 8,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001).  Alternate names: Comores Swahili, Comoro, Komoro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40) 
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English

[eng]   Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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French

[fra] 18,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone 1993).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Madagascar Sign Language

[mzc] 180,000 (2006 SIL).  Dialects: Similar to Norwegian Sign Language.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Malagasy

[mlg] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 14,736,900. 
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Malagasy, Antankarana

[xmv] 330,000 (2006). North tip, Antsiranana Province. Alternate names: Tankarana.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy 
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Malagasy, Bara

[bhr] 600,000 (2006 SIL). South central, Ibara, south of Betsileo, west of Tesaka, east of Masikoro, Anosy area and north, Mahafaly. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy 
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Malagasy, Masikoro

[msh] 550,000 (2006 SIL). Southwest, Toliara Province, Toliara and Morombe districts. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy 
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Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka

[bmm] 1,000,000 (2006 SIL). East coast, Toamasina Province, Mananara Avaratra, Soanierana-Ivongo, Fenoarivo Antsinana, Vavatenina, Toamasina districts. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy 
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Malagasy, Plateau

[plt] 7,520,000 in Madagascar (2006 SIL). Population total all countries: 7,528,900. Central. Also in Comoros, Réunion, United States. Alternate names: Malagasy, Official Malagasy, Standard Malagasy.  Dialects: Merina, Betsileo, Sihanaka, Bezanozano, Tanala. The most similar language outside of Madagascar is Ma’anyan [mhy] in south Borneo (Kalimantan, Indonesia).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy 
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Malagasy, Sakalava

[skg] 350,000 (2001 SIL). Northwest, Mahajanga Province, Maintirano, Morafenobe, Besalampy, Soalala, Mitsinjo, Ambato Boina, Marovoay, Mahajanga, Analalava districts; Antsiranana Province, Ambanja District. Dialects: Northern Sakalava, Vezo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy 
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Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka

[bjq] 1,830,000 (2006 SIL). East coast, Toamasina Province, Mahanoro District; Fianarantsoa Province, Nosy Varika, Mananjary, Manakara Atsimo districts. Alternate names: Antesaka.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy 
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Malagasy, Tandroy-Mahafaly

[tdx] 1,000,000 (2006 SIL). South, Toliara Province, Beloha, Tsihombe, Ambovombe, Bekily districts. Alternate names: Tandroy.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy 
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Malagasy, Tanosy

[txy] 510,000 (2006 SIL). Southeast coast; south of Onilahy River, south of Ibara and north of Androy, Mahafaly area and northeast. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy 
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Malagasy, Tsimihety

[xmw] 1,280,000 (2006 SIL). North central. Alternate names: Tsimihety.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy 
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Maore

[swb] 3,000 in Madagascar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001).  Alternate names: Comores Swahili, Comoro, Komoro, Maore Comorian.  Dialects: Shinzwani (Anjouan), Shimaore (Mayotte), Shimwali (Moheli), Shingazidja (Grand Comores).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40) 
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