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Languages of Mali

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Republic of Mali, République du Mali. Formerly French Sudan. 11,611,000. National or official languages: French, Bamanankan, Bomu, Tiéyaxo Bozo, Toro So Dogon, Maasina Fulfulde, Hasanya Arabic, Mamara Senoufo, Kita Maninkakan, Soninke, Koyraboro Senni Songhay, Syenara Senoufo, Tamasheq, Xaasongaxango. Literacy rate: 19%. Immigrant languages: Matya Samo, North Levantine Spoken Arabic (550), Siamou (20,000), Wolof. Information mainly from J. Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989; J. Capron 1973; G. Manessy 1961, 1975, 1981; R. Nicolai 1979, 1981, 1983. Blind population: 110,000 (1982 WCE). The number of individual languages listed for Mali is 57. Of those, 56 are living languages and 1 is a second language without mother-tongue speakers.
Arabic, Hasanya

[mey] 106,000 in Mali (1991). Nioro and Nara. Alternate names: Hassani, Hassaniyya, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Suraka, Suraxxé.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Bamako Sign Language

[bog]  Bamako school for deaf children, separated into 3 grade classes. Not known if it is widely used elsewhere or not. Dialects: Not related to other sign languages.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Bamanankan

[bam] 2,700,000 in Mali (1995). 75,000 Ganadugu (Vanderaa 1991), 41,200 Wasulu. Population total all countries: 2,772,340. Also in Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Mauritania, Senegal. Alternate names: Bamanakan, Bambara.  Dialects: Standard Bambara, Somono, Segou, San, Beledugu, Ganadugu, Wasulu (Wasuu, Wassulunka, Wassulunke), Sikasso. There are many local dialects. The main division is Standard Bambara, influenced heavily by Western Maninkakan [mlq], and rural dialects. Bamanankan dialects are spoken in varying degrees by 80% of the population. Wasulu is a dialect of Bamanankan in Mali and of Western Maninkakan [mlq] in Guinea.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana 
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Bangi Me

[dba] 2,000 (Blench 2005). Extreme northwest plateau. 7 villages. Alternate names: Bangeri Me, Bangeri Me Dogon, Numadaw.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Bankagooma

[bxw] 6,000 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 6,000. Danderesso Administrative District, north of Sikasso, Nougoussouala (Nonko), Fourouma, Mamarasso (Mora), Famsara, and Zantiguila towns. Alternate names: Banka, Bankagoma, Bankagoroma, Bankaje.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo 
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Bobo Madaré, Northern

[bbo] 25,000 in Mali (2007 SIL). A rectangle-like area around Bura and Mafune. Alternate names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Da, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fign, Bobo Fing, Finng.  Dialects: San, Yaba, Tankire.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo 
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Bomu

[bmq] 102,000 in Mali (1976 census). Population total all countries: 158,000. A triangle between San and Sofara on Bani River. Mao is separate from other dialects and straddles Mali-Burkina Faso border on main San to Bobo-Dioulasso road. Also in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Bobo, Bobo Wule, Boomu, Bore, Western Bobo Oule, Western Bwamu, Western Red.  Dialects: Dwemu, Dahanmu, Mao. Dwemu subdialects are Terekongo (Terekoungo), Wahu (between Téné and the Bani River), Togo. Dahanmu subdialects are Koniko, Mandiakuy, Bomborokuy, and Mao (Mahou).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu 
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Bozo, Hainyaxo

[bzx] 118,000 (1987 census). Population may include Tiemacèwè Bozo [boo] and Tiéyaxo Bozo [boz]. Miérou (near Ke-Maacina) to Tamani on Niger River. Alternate names: Boso, Hain, Hanyaxo, Kelenga, Kélinga, Kéllingua, Xan, Xanyaxo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 48% with Tiéyaxo Boso [boz] (most similar).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern 
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Bozo, Jenaama

[bze] 197,000 in Mali (2003 SIL), increasing. Administrative circles of Djenné, Mopti, Youwarou, Tenenkou and Bandiagara. Between Bani and Niger rivers (Pondori dialect); between Diaka and Niger rivers (Kotya dialect); Niger River from Mopti to Lake Débo (Korondougou dialect), north of Kotya and around Lake Debo (Debo dialect). Some in Côte d’Ivoire around the Kosson and Ayamé dams. Also in Nigeria. Alternate names: Boso, Corogaama, Djenaama, Nononke, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Sorko, Sorogaama.  Dialects: Pondori, Kotya (Kotyaxo), Korondougou, Débo. Lexical similarity: 53% with Tiéyaxo Bozo [boz] (most similar).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama 
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Bozo, Tiemacèwè

[boo] 2,500 (1991). 831 in Enguem, 1,315 in Aouré. Administrative circle of Youwarou, Arrondissement Guidio Saré; Enghem (Enguem), Aouré (Aoré), and Kamago Sébi villages, where Niger River leaves Lake Debo. Alternate names: Boso, Tié, Tiema Ciewe, Tièma Cièwè, Tiemacewe, Tièmacèwè.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Tiéyaxo Bozo [boz].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern 
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Bozo, Tiéyaxo

[boz] 118,000 (1987 census). Population may include Tiemacèwè Bozo [boo] and Hainyaxo Boso [bzx]. Koa to Miérou on Niger River; Diafarabié to Sendédaga on Diaka River. Alternate names: Boso, Tégué, Tie, Tiemaxo, Tiéyakho, Tigemaxo, Tiguémakho, Tyeyaxo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 53% with Jenaama Boso [bze] (most similar), 30% with Soninke [snk].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern 
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Dogon, Ana Tinga

[dti] 500 (Douyon and Blench 2005). Mopti region, Koro Circle, Diankabou District. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Bondum Dom

[dbu] 24,700 (1998 J. Durieux). Plateau area north border, separated from Tommo So area south by a mainly uninhabited plain east of Dia, and a deep ravine running westward from Dia to the cliff that ends the plateau. Borko village language area center. Alternate names: Bondum-Dom.  Dialects: Kindjim, Nadjamba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Bunoge

[dgb] 1,000 (Douyon and Blench 2005). Mopti region, Bandiagara Circle, Goundaka District. Alternate names: Budu-Tagu, Korandabo.  Dialects: Nominal plural suffix aligns it with Kolum So [dkl], but lexically quite different (Blench 2005).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Dogul Dom

[dbg] 15,700 (1998 J. Durieux). Northeast of Bandiagara, Nandoli as center. 14 villages. Alternate names: Dogul-Dom.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Donno So

[dds] 45,300 (1998 J. Durieux). Donno So in Bandiagara area; Kamba So in Kamba area. Alternate names: Kamba So.  Dialects: Kamma So, Donno So.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Jamsay

[djm] 130,000 in Mali (1998 J. Durieux). Large sparsely populated area east of Dogon cliffs, into Burkina Faso. Also in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Dyamsay Tegu.  Dialects: Domno, Gono, Bama, Guru. Degree of comprehension between dialects uncertain.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Kolum So

[dkl] 24,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Pinia administrative area, between Sevare and Bandiagara. Alternate names: Edyenge Dom, Idyoli Donge, Piniari.  Dialects: Mombo (Helabo, Miambo), Ambange (Ampari).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Tebul Ure

[dtu] 3,000 (Douyon and Blench 2005). Mopti region, Koro Circle, Diankabou District. Alternate names: Oru Yille.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Tene Kan

[dtk] 127,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Bankass nearly to Koro. Alternate names: Tene Kan, Tene Tingi.  Dialects: Tengu Tingi, Togo Kan, Sagara, Guimini Kan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Tomo Kan

[dtm] 133,000 in Mali (1998 J. Durieux). Large area southwest of Bankass. Also in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Tomo-Kan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Toro So

[dts] 50,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Cliff from Yendoumman to Idyeli. Alternate names: Bomu Tegu, Dogoso, Toro So.  Dialects: Different from Dogoso [dgs], Dogosé [dos] in Burkina Faso.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Toro Tegu

[dtt] 2,900 (1998 J. Durieux). East of Douentza 80km along a paved road. Approximately 15 villages. Alternate names: Tandam.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Walo Kumbe

[dwl] 2,000 (Douyon and Blench 2005). Mopti region, Douentza Circle, Douentza District. Alternate names: Oualo.  Dialects: Similar to Nanga-Dama with which it shares both lexicon and a final -m on many nouns.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Yanda Dom

[dym] 2,000 (2005 Douyon and Blench). Mopti region, Koro Circle, Diankabou District. Dialects: Similar to Nanga-Dama with which it shares both lexicon and a final -m on many nouns.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Duungooma

[dux] 70,000 (Vanderaa 1991). Sikasso region (3rd), Kadiolo and Sikasso prefectures. Kai is largest town. Alternate names: Du, Duungo, Mali Duun, Samogho, Samogo, Samoro, Western Duun.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo 
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French

[fra] 9,000 in Mali (Johnstone 1993).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Fulfulde, Maasina

[ffm] 1,000,000 in Mali (2007 S. Crickmore). Population total all countries: 1,008,500. Central. Western in Segou and Macina areas; Eastern from north of Mopti to Boni east. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana. Alternate names: Macina, Peul.  Dialects: Western Macina, Eastern Macina. There are some dialect differences, but all dialects in Mali are perceived inherently intelligible. Substantial Bamanankan [bam] influence. There is skewing between the ethnic and linguistic relationships.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central 
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Jahanka

[jad] 500 in Mali (2001). Kotema and Niebore villages, near Guinea border. Possibly more east. Alternate names: Diakhanke, Diakkanke, Dyakanke, Jahanque, Jahonque.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding 
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Jalunga

[yal] 9,000 in Mali (2002 SIL). Extreme southwest corner, Faleya region, to where Baafing River reaches Mali-Guinea border. Alternate names: Dialonke, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Jalonke, Yalunka, Yalunke.  Dialects: Fontofa, Sangalaa, Sankaa, Tonxu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka 
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Jowulu

[jow] 10,000 in Mali (2002), increasing. Population total all countries: 11,000. 3rd region, Kadiolo Prefecture, Loulouni Subprefecture. Also in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Jo, Samogho.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo 
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Jula

[dyu] 50,000 in Mali (1991).  Alternate names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana 
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Kagoro

[xkg] 15,000 (1998 V. Vydrine). Ethnic population: 21,500 (1991 Vanderaa). Kaarta-Bine and Gumbu regions, about 70 ethnic villages (1998 V. Vydrine). Alternate names: Kakolo.  Dialects: Similar to Xaasongaxango [kao]. Bamanankan [bam] have poor comprehension of Kagoro. Lexical similarity: 86% with Kita Maninkakan [mwk].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West 
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Koromfé

[kfz] 2,000 in Mali. Southeast of Dinangourou, east of Sangha, near Burkina Faso border, Yoro, Kindi, Bougal, Nassouwele, Youmnetao, Ouri, Boutou, Lou, Tidore, Boulagadji, Kalalgaobe villages. Alternate names: Foula, Foulse, Kurum-Korey.  Dialects: Eastern Koromfe, Western Koromfe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe 
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Maninkakan, Kita

[mwk] 600,000 (Vanderaa 1991). 50,000 Fulanke (based on Vanderaa 1991). Kita west to Tambaoura cliff range. Alternate names: Central Malinke, Kita Maninka, Malinke.  Dialects: Fulanke. Kita have 64% intelligibility of Bamanankan [bam].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West 
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Maninkakan, Western

[mlq] 100,000 in Mali (Vanderaa 1991). West of Tambaoura cliff range at Mali-Guinea border. Alternate names: Malinka, Malinke, Northwestern Maninka, Western Malinke.  Dialects: Kenieba Maninka, Nyoxolonkan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West 
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Marka

[rkm] 25,000 in Mali (1991). Koula, Diarani, Yelené, Kuna, Dialassagou, Ouenkoro, Bai village areas. Alternate names: Dafing, Marka-Dafin, Meka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Marka-Dafin 
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Mòoré

[mos] 17,000 in Mali (1980). Dogon area, near Burkina Faso border; elsewhere. Alternate names: Mole, More, Moshi, Mossi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest 
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N’ko

[nqo]   Classification: Mixed language 
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Pana

[pnq] 2,800 in Mali (1982 SIL). South of Bandiagara, straddling Mali-Burkina Faso border east of Sourou River, due north of Kassoum in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Sama.  Dialects: Pana North, Pana South.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern 
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Pulaar

[fuc] 175,000 in Mali (1995). 40,000 Fulbe Jeeri. Settled primarily in northwestern Mali around Nioro and Kayes. Pockets found in Segou and Bandiagara, which are remnants of Umar Tal’s conquest in the middle 1800s. Alternate names: Peuhl, Peul, Pulaar Fulfulde.  Dialects: Toucouleur (Tukolor, Tukulor, Pulaar, Halpulaar, Haalpulaar, Fulbe Jeeri).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Western 
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Pular

[fuf] 50,000 in Mali (1991). Western Mali from Guinea up to about Keniéba, especially in the administrative districts of Faléa and Faraba. Alternate names: Foula Fouta, Fouta Dyalon, Fulfulde Jalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central 
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Sàmòmá

[knz]  Lògrèmmá dialect spoken in at least 6 villages in Mali: Dian, Sougou, Zon, Ponghon, Gako, and Soyma. Alternate names: Kalamsé, Kalemsé, Kalenga.  Dialects: Logremma (Logma, West Kalamsé).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern 
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Senoufo, Mamara

[myk] 738,000 (2000).  Alternate names: Mamara, Mianka, Minianka, Miniyanka, Minya, Minyanka, Tupiire.  Dialects: Sõghoo, Bàjii, Nafãã, Mìjuu, Kle Noehmõ, Nejuu, Koloo, Kujaa, Suõõ. Similar to Supyire Senoufo [spp], but intercomprehension is difficult.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara 
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Sénoufo, Sìcìté

[sep] 3,000 in Mali (2007 SIL). Villages of Bakoronidougou, Gouaniéresso, Finkolo-Zanso, and Missidougou, east of Sikasso near the Burkina Faso border. Alternate names: Sìcìré, Sìcìté, Sìpììté, Sucite, Tagba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara 
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Senoufo, Supyire

[spp] 350,000 (2007 SIL). 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500,000. At Sikasso. Alternate names: Sup’ide, Suppire, Supyire.  Dialects: Kampwo, Kadi, Nyana nyuni, Fanywohoshin.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara 
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Senoufo, Syenara

[shz] 137,000 (Vanderaa 1991), decreasing. Ethnic population: 103,000. South of the Duun language area around Kadiolo. Alternate names: Senare, Senari, Shenara, Syenara.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari 
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Songhay, Humburi Senni

[hmb] 15,000 in Mali (1999 J. Heath). Hombori area, halfway between Gao and Mopti. Alternate names: Central Songai, Hombori Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songhay, Songhoy, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern 
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Songhay, Koyra Chiini

[khq] 200,000 (1999 SIL), increasing. Niger River from Djenné to east of Timbuktu. Alternate names: Songai, Songay, Songhai, Songhay, Songhoy, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai, Timbuktu Songhoy, West Songhoy.  Dialects: Koyra Chiini, Djenné Chiini. The main dialect division is between Timbuktu and the upriver towns from Diré to Niafunké. A very distinct dialect is in Djenné City. Closely related languages: Koyraboro Senni Songhay, Humburi Senni Songhay, Zarma, Dendi. Lexical similarity: 77% between Gao and Timbuktu dialects, 50% lexical similarity with Tadaksahak.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern 
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Songhay, Koyraboro Senni

[ses] 100,000 in Mali (2007 Almaki), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 850,000. Southeast, along Niger River from Gourma Rharous, east of Timbuktu, through Bourem, Goa, and Ansongo to Mali-Niger border. Believed to border Kaado (Zarma) [dje] in Niger. Alternate names: East Songhay, Gao Songhay, Koroboro Senni, Koyra Senni, Koyra Senni Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songhay, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai.  Dialects: Gao, Fulan Kirya. Intelligibility is good with all dialects on Niger River. The Fulan Kirya dialect has more limited intelligibility because of heavy lexical borrowing from Fulfulde [ffm] and Humburi Senni Songhay [hmb]. The Gao dialect is dominant in all respects. Closely related languages: Koyra Chiini Songhay [khq], Humburi Senni Songhay [hmb], Zarmaci [dje], Dendi [ddn]. Lexical similarity: 77% between the Gao dialect and Timbuktu dialects, lexical similarity 50% with Tadaksahak [dsq].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern 
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Soninke

[snk] 700,000 in Mali (1991). 125,000 Diawara (1991 Vanderaa), 374,042 L1 Marka speakers (1987 census). Population total all countries: 1,250,000. Nioro, Nara, Banamba, Yélémané, Kayes principal towns. Possibly in Niger. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal. Alternate names: Aswanik, Maraka, Marka, Sarakole, Sarakule, Serahule.  Dialects: Azer (Adjer, Aser), Kinbakka, Xenqenna.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke 
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Tadaksahak

[dsq] 100,000 in Mali (2007 Almaki), increasing. Population total all countries: 101,800. 7th region, 300 km east-west by 200 km north-south with Ménaka as geographic center. They travel into Niger and Algeria. Also in Algeria. Alternate names: Daosahaq, Daoussahaq, Daoussak, Dausahaq, Dawsahaq.  Dialects: No major dialects. Closely related to Tagdal [tda] (Niger), Tasawaq [twq] (Niger), Korandje [key] (Algeria) Northern Songhay Languages share features from Songhay languages and Tamasheq [taq].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Northern 
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Tamajaq

[ttq] 190,000 in Mali (1991). East Mali, Menaka, and Gao regions. Alternate names: Tahoua, Tajag, Tamajeq, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, “Tourage” , “Tuareg”.  Dialects: Tawallammet Tan Dannag (Ioullemmeden), Tawallammat Tan Ataram.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern 
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Tamashek

[tmh] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 1,233,169. 
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Tamasheq

[taq] 250,000 in Mali (1991). Population total all countries: 281,200. Central, Timbuktu area, and northeast Mali. Also in Algeria, Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Kidal, Kidal Tamasheq, Tamashekin, Timbuktu, Tomacheck, “Tuareg”.  Dialects: Timbuktu (Tombouctou, Tanaslamt), Tadhaq (Kidal). May be 2 separate languages.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern 
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Tebul Sign Language

[tsy] 500 (2007 SIL). Mopti region, Koro Circle, Diankabou District, Uluban village and related hamlets. Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Xaasongaxango

[kao] 120,000 in Mali (1991). Population total all countries: 130,610. Bafoulabé, Kayes principal towns. Also in Gambia, Senegal. Alternate names: Kasonke, Kasso, Kasson, Kassonke, Khasonke, Khassonka, Khassonké, Xaasonga, Xasonga, Xasonke.  Dialects: Highly intelligible with Western Maninkakan [mlq] and a little less with Bamanankan [bam], but for sociolinguistic reasons they are considered separate languages. 90% inherent intelligibility with Malinke [loi] in eastern Senegal. Lexical similarity: 70% with Mandinka [mnk] of Gambia and Senegal.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West 
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Zarmaci

[dje]  South of Menaka at Niger border, Tabankort and Akabar villages. Alternate names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarma.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern 
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