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Languages of Mongolia

Mongolian People’s Republic, Bügd Nayramdakh Mongol Ard Uls. 2,581,000. National or official language: Halh Mongolian. Literacy rate: 89%–90%. Immigrant languages: Japanese, Korean. Information mainly from N. Poppe 1970; T. Sebeok 1967. Blind population: 10,000 to 40,000 visually handicapped (1997). Deaf population: 10,000 to 147,330. The number of individual languages listed for Mongolia is 13. Of those, all are living languages.
Buriat, Mongolia

[bxm] 64,900 (1995). Northeast, especially former Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic border. Alternate names: Burraad, Buriat-Mongolian, Buryat, Mongolian Buriat, Northern Mongolian.  Dialects: Khori, Aga. Buriat in Mongolia is a variety of Khori and differs considerably from Buriat [bxu] of China and the Russian Federation. Influenced by Standard (Halh) Mongolian [khk].  Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat 
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Chinese, Mandarin

[cmn] 35,000 in Mongolia (Johnstone 1993). 2,000 Qotong. Northwestern Mongolia, Uvs Aimag. Alternate names: Hoton, Hui, Hui-Zu, Hytad, Mandarin, Northern Chinese, Qotong, Xui.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Darkhat

[drh] 20,400 (2000). North Mongolia, around Lake Khubsugul, Hövsgöl Aimag. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat 
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Daur

[dta]   Alternate names: Daguor, Dagur, Dawar, Dawo’er, Tahuerh, Tahur.  Dialects: Buteha (Bataxan), Haila’er (Hailar), Qiqiha’er (Qiqihar, Tsitsikhar).  Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Dagur 
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Evenki

[evn] 1,000 in Mongolia (Krauss 1995). North Mongolia, Selenge Aimag. Alternate names: Khamnigan, Solon, Tungus.  Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Northern, Evenki 
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Kalmyk-Oirat

[xal] 206,000 in Mongolia. 139,000 Oirat, 55,100 Dorbot, 11,400 Torgut.  Alternate names: Oirat, Western Mongol.  Dialects: Jakhachin, Bayit, Mingat, Olot (Ööld, Elyut, Eleuth), Khoshut (Khoshuud), Uriankhai, Khoton (Hoton).  Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat 
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Kazakh

[kaz] 182,000 in Mongolia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Northwest Mongolia, Bayan-Olgiy Aimag, mining communities east of the capital; far east Choibalsan area. Alternate names: Kaisak, Kazakhi, Kazax, Kosach, Qazaq, Qazaqi.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian 
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Mongolian

[mon] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 5,720,670. 
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Mongolian Sign Language

[msr] Unknown number of users out of 10,000 to 147,330 deaf (1998).  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Mongolian, Halh

[khk] 2,330,000 in Mongolia (1995). 32,300 Dariganga. Population total all countries: 2,341,240. Former Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian Federation and Issyk-Kul Oblast of Kyrgyzstan. Also in Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation (Asia), Taiwan, United States. Alternate names: Central Mongolian, Halh, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol.  Dialects: Halh (Khalkha), Dariganga, Khotogoit, Sartul, Tsongol.  Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper 
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Mongolian, Peripheral

[mvf]   Alternate names: Southern-Eastern Mongolian.  Dialects: Ujumchin (Uzemchin, Ujumuchin), Jostu (Kharchin, Kharachin), Tumut (Tumet), Jirim (Khorchin), Urat, Ordos.  Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper 
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Russian

[rus] 4,000 in Mongolia (Johnstone 1993).  Alternate names: Russki.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East 
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Tuva

[tyv] 27,000 in Mongolia (Johnstone 1993). North and west Monolia, Hövsgöl and Hovd Aimags. Alternate names: Diba, Kök, Mungak, Soyod, Soyon, Soyot, Tannu-Tuva, Tuba, Tuva-Uriankhai, Tuvan, Tuvia, Tuvin, Tuvinian, Tuwa-Uriankhai, Uriankhai, Uryankhai-Monchak.  Dialects: Kokchulutan, Khöwsögöl Uigur.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern 
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Uyghur

[uig] 1,000 in Mongolia (1982). North Mongolia, Hövsgöl Aimag. Alternate names: Uighuir, Uighur, Uiguir, Uigur, Uygur.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern 
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