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Languages of Mexico

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Estados Unidos Mexicanos. 104,959,594. Speakers of American Indian languages 8%. National or official language: Spanish. Literacy rate: 87%–88%. Immigrant languages: Basque, Catalan-Valencian-Balear, English (350,000), Japanese (35,000), Tohono O’odham, Vlax Romani (5,000). Also includes Arabic (400,000), Chinese (31,000). Information mainly from D. Bartholomew 1965; C. H. Bradley 1968; E. Casad 1974; S. Egland, D. Bartholomew, and S. Ramos 1983; S. Gudschinsky 1953, 1959; P. Kirk 1970; R. Longacre 1957; W. Miller 1984, 1992; C. Rensch 1966, 1968; A. Wares 1965; SIL 1951–2007. Blind population: 200,000. Deaf population: 1,300,000 to 5,590,207 (1998). Deaf institutions: 30. The number of individual languages listed for Mexico is 298. Of those, 291 are living languages and 7 have no known speakers.
Afro-Seminole Creole

[afs] 200 in Mexico (1990). Coahuila, Nacimiento de los Negros. Alternate names: Afro-Seminol Criollo, Afro-Seminole.  Dialects: Mexico Afro-Seminole.  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern 
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Amuzgo, Guerrero

[amu] 23,000 (1990 census). 10,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Southeast Guerrero, Xochistlahuaca municipality, Zacoalpan, Cochoapa, Huehuetonoc, Tlacoachistlahuaca, Guadalupe Victoria, Cozoyoapan, Huistepec, and Rancho del Cura. Santa Catarina River separates Guerrero variety from Oaxaca varieties. Alternate names: Nomndaa, Ñomndaa.  Dialects: Most towns in Guerrero undertand the Amuzgo spoken in Xochistlahuaca.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Amuzgoan 
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Amuzgo, Ipalapa

[azm] 940 (2000 census). 19 monolinguals ( 2000 census). Oaxaca, Putla District: Santa María Ipalapa, 5–8 km northeast of San Pedro Amuzgos, 5km off Highway 125 Tlaxiaco to coast, La Ciénaga. Alternate names: Jnunda.  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with other Amuzgo.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Amuzgoan 
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Amuzgo, San Pedro Amuzgos

[azg] 4,000 (1990 census). Southwest Oaxaca, Putla District, San Pedro Amuzgos; outlying settlements. Alternate names: Amuzgo de San Pedro Amuzgos, Oaxaca Amuzgo.  Dialects: 76% comprehension with Amuzgo of Guerrero [amu].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Amuzgoan 
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Chatino, Eastern Highland

[cly] 2,000 (1993 SIL). Southeast Oaxaca, Lachao Pueblo Nuevo, Santa María Yolotepec villages. Alternate names: Chatino de la Zona Alta Oriental, Lachao-Yolotepec Chatino, Sierra Oriental Chatino.  Dialects: One dialect. Uses lengthened word forms similar to Zenzontepec Chatino [czn]. Similar to Zacatepec [ctz], but geographically and socioeconomically separated. 87% intelligibility of Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 83% of Nopala [cya], 77% of the Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 21% of Tataltepec [cta].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chatino, Nopala

[cya] 11,000 (1990 census). 2,300 monolinguals. Southeast Oaxaca, Juquila District, Santos Reyes Nopala, Santa María Texmaxcaltepec, San María Magdalena Tiltepec, Teotepec, Cerro el Aire, Santiago Cuixtla, Atotonilco, San Gabriel Mixtepec. Dialects: 59% intelligibility with Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 73% with Yaitepec dialect with Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 13% with Tataltepec Chatino [cta].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chatino, Tataltepec

[cta] 4,000 (1990 census). 470 monolinguals. Southeast Oaxaca, Juquila District, extreme west lowland Chatino area, Tataltepec de Valdez and San Pedro Tututepec towns; a few in nearby Spanish centers. Alternate names: Lowland Chatino.  Dialects: 38% intelligibility with Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 35% with Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 33% with Nopala [cya], 27% with Zacatepec [ctz].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chatino, Western Highland

[ctp] 12,000 (2000 SIL). 6,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Southwest Oaxaca, Juquila District, Panixtlahuaca, San Juan Quiahije, Yaitepec towns; Ixtapan, Tepenixtelahuaca, Ixpantepec, Amialtepec villages; some rancherías. Alternate names: Cha’t-An, Chatino de la Zona Alta Occidental, Sierra Occidental Chatino.  Dialects: Panixtlahuaca Chatino, San Juan Quiahije Chatino, Yaitepec Chatino. 71% intelligibility with Yaitepec dialect, 66% with Nopala [cya], 46% with Zacatepec [ctz], 32% with Tataltepec [cta]; Yaitepec dialect has 80% intelligibility with Nopala, 78% with Panixtlahuaca dialect, 20% with Tataltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chatino, Zacatepec

[ctz] 1,000 (1990 census). Southeast Oaxaca, San Marcos Zacatepec and Juquila villages. Alternate names: Chatino de San Marcos Zacatepec.  Dialects: 66% intelligibility with Nopala [cya], 61% with Panixtlahuaca dialect of Western Highland Chatino [ctp], 57% with Yaitepec dialect of Western Highland Chatino, 6% with Tataltepec [cta]. Lengthened word forms are like Zenzontepec Chatino [czn]. Similar to Eastern Highland Chatino [cly] in some respects, but geographically and socioeconomically separated.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chatino, Zenzontepec

[czn] 8,000 (1990 census). 2,000 monolinguals. Southeast Oaxaca, Juquila District, Santa Cruz Zenzontepec and San Jacinto Tlacotepec municipalities, former Santa María Tlapanalquiahuitl municipality. Alternate names: Northern Chatino.  Dialects: Some dialect difference in Santa María Tlapanalquiahuitl area. One of the most isolated and conservative groups in Oaxaca.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chiapanec

[cip] 17 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 32. State of Chiapas, El Bosque (2), Las Margaritas (2), Ocosingo (4), Palenque (2), Sabanilla (7). Alternate names: Chiapaneco.  Dialects: Reportedly quite similar to Chorotega [cjr] of Costa Rica.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chiapanec-Mangue  Nearly extinct.
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Chichimeca-Jonaz

[pei] 200 (1993 K. Olson Instituto Betania). State of Guanajuato, San Luís de la Paz, Jonáz village. Alternate names: Meco, Pame de Chichimeca-Jonaz.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Chichimec 
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Chicomuceltec

[cob] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,500 in Mexico. Chiapas, Mazapa de Madero, Amatenango, and Chicomuselo towns. Also in Guatemala. Alternate names: Cac’chiquel Mam, Cakchiquel Mam, Chicomulcelteco.  Classification: Mayan, Huastecan 
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Chinantec, Chiltepec

[csa] 1,000 (1994). 4,000 in Chiltepec municipio with 250 monolinguals (1990 census). Oaxaca, San José Chiltepec. Dialects: 76% intelligibility with Tlacoatzintepec [ctl] (most similar), 20% with Usila [cuc] and Ojitlán [chj], 13% with Valle Nacional [cvn].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Comaltepec

[cco] 2,000 (1990 census). 145 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000. North Oaxaca, Santiago Comaltepec, Soledad Tectitlán, La Esperanza, San Martín Soyolapan, Vista Hermosa (Quiotepec), San Pedro Yolox, Rosario Temextitlán, Maninaltepec. Alternate names: Jmii’.  Dialects: 69% intelligibility of Quiotepec [chq] (most similar), 7% of Tepetotutla [cnt].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Lalana

[cnl] 10,500 (1998). 2,500 monolinguals. Oaxaca-Veracruz border, 25 towns in Lalana Minicipio, Jocotepec Minicipio, and Petlapa Municipio districts. Alternate names: Chinanteco de San Juan Lalana.  Dialects: 87% intelligibility with Tepinapa [cte] (most similar, but less similar in outlying areas), 43% with Ozumacín [chz], 24% with Lealao [cle].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Lealao

[cle] 2,000 (1990 census). 500 monolinguals. Northeast Oaxaca, San Juan Lealao, Latani, Tres Arroyos, and La Hondura. Alternate names: Chinanteco de San Juan Lealao.  Dialects: Considered most divergent Chinantec language.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Ojitlán

[chj] 22,000 (1990 census). 2,800 monolinguals. North Oaxaca, San Lucas Ojitlán, including 4 towns and 15 rancherías, and Veracruz, Hidalgotitlán and Minatitlán municipalities. Most relocated because a dam flooded their land in 1991. Dialects: 49% intelligibility with Sochiapan [cso] (most similar), 43% with Usila [cuc], 39% with Palantla [cpa], 31% with Chiltepec [csa].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Ozumacín

[chz] 5,000 (2000 SIL). 260 monolinguals (1990 census). Northeast Oaxaca, 3 towns: San Pedro Ozumacín, Ayotzintepec, Santiago Progreso. Alternate names: Chinanteco de Ayotzintepec, Juujmii.  Dialects: Ayotzintepec. Ozumacín town has slight dialect difference from others. 63% intelligibility with Palantla [cpa] (most similar), 22% with Lalana [cnl] and Valle Nacional [cvn].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Palantla

[cpa] 25,000. 1,500 monolinguals. Oaxaca, San Juan Palantla plus more than 21 towns. Alternate names: Chinanteco de San Pedro Tlatepuzco.  Dialects: 78% intelligibility with Tepetotutla [cnt] (most similar), 72% with Valle Nacional [cvn], 69% with Usila [cuc], 54% with Ozumacín [chz].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Quiotepec

[chq] 8,000 (1998). 1,750 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Ixtlán District: San Juan Quiotepec, Reforma, Maninaltepec, San Pedro Yolox, Rosario Temextitlán; Oaxaca, Etla District: San Juan Bautista Atatlah. Alternate names: Highland Chinantec.  Dialects: Yolox Chinanteco. 87% intelligibility with Comaltepec [cco] (most similar, less similar in outlying areas), 7% with Tepetotutla [cnt]. The highland Chinantec languages share a complexity of vowel length and tone extensions that Tepetotutla [cnt] and Palantla [cpa] do not have.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Sochiapam

[cso] 5,800. 725 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 6,300. North Oaxaca, Cuicatlán: San Pedro Sochiapan, Retumbadero, San Juan Zautla, Santiago Quetzalapa, San Juan Zapotitlán. Alternate names: Sochiapan Chinantec.  Dialects: 66% intelligibility of Tlacoatzintepec [ctl] (most similar), 56% of Chiltepec [csa], 45% of Usila [cuc], 11% of Tepetotutla [cnt].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Tepetotutla

[cnt] 2,000 (1990 census). North Oaxaca, Santa Cruz Tepetotutla, San Antonio del Barrio, San Pedro Tlatepusco, Santo Tomás Texas, Vega del Sol, El Naranjal. Dialects: 60% intelligibility with Quiotepec [chq], 59% with Palantla [cpa], 48% with Yolox dialect of Quiotepec Chinantec [chq].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Tepinapa

[cte] 3,000. 1,500 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Choapan District, Santiago Jocotepec Municipio: San Pedro Tepinapa Ejidal, San Pedro Tepinapa Comunal (locally known as Monte de Oro), Linda Vista; San Juan Petlapa Municipio: Santa María Lovani, San Juan Toavela, and Santa Isabel Cajonos. Very remote. Dialects: 87%–68% intelligibility with Lalana [cnl], 24% with Lealao [cle], 23% with Ozumacín [chz].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Tlacoatzintepec

[ctl] 2,000 (1990 census). 550 monolinguals. Oaxaca, San Juan Bautista Tlacoatzintepec, San Pedro Alianza, Santiago Quetzalapa, San Juan Zapotitlán. Dialects: 85% intelligibility with Chiltepec [csa] (most similar, lower in outlying areas), 84% with Usila [cuc], 74% with Sochiapan [cso], 15% with Tepetotutla [cnt].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Usila

[cuc] 9,000 (1990 census). 2,200 monolinguals. Oaxaca, San Felipe Usila plus 12 towns; 1 in Veracruz (Pueblo Doce). Dialects: 48% intelligibility with Tlacoatzintepec [ctl] (most similar), 33% with Palantla [cpa], 32% with Sochiapan [cso], 31% with Ojitlán [chj].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Valle Nacional

[cvn] 1,500 (1990 census). North Oaxaca, San Juan Bautista Valle Nacional; mainly San Mateo Yetla. Dialects: 71% intelligibility with Chiltepec [csa] (most similar), 70% with Palantla [cpa], 53% with Ozumacín [chz], 40% with Tepetotutla [cnt].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chocholtec

[coz] 770 (1998). Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District, Santa María Nativitas, San Juan Bautista Coixtlahuaca, San Miguel Tulancingo. Alternate names: Chocho, Chocholteco, Chochon, Chochonteco, Chochotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Chocho 
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Chol, Tila

[cti] 43,900 (2000). 10,000 monolinguals. Chiapas, Tila, Vicente Guerrero, Chivalito, Limar. Dialects: 86% intelligibility with Sabanilla dialect of Tumbala Chol [ctu], 82% with Tumbalá [ctu].  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chol-Chontal 
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Chol, Tumbalá

[ctu] 90,000 (1992). 30,000 monolinguals. 10,000 in Sabanilla. North central Chiapas, Tumbalá, Sabanilla, Misijá, Limar, Chivalita, Vicente Guerrero. Alternate names: Ch’ol de Sabanilla.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chol-Chontal 
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Chontal, Highland Oaxaca

[chd] 3,600 (1990 census). Southernmost part of Oaxaca, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, San José Chiltepec, San Lucas Ixcatepec, plus 15 towns. Alternate names: Chontal de la Sierra de Oaxaca, Tequistlatec.  Classification: Tequistlatecan 
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Chontal, Lowland Oaxaca

[clo] 950 (1990 census). South Oaxaca, Tehuantepec District, San Pedro Huamelula and Santiago Astata. Alternate names: Chontal de la Costa de Oaxaca, Huamelula Chontal, Huamelulteco.  Classification: Tequistlatecan 
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Chontal, Tabasco

[chf] 38,000 (2000 census). North central and south Tabasco. 21 towns. Alternate names: Yocot’an.  Dialects: Tamulté de las Sábanas Chontal, Buena Vista Chontal, Miramar Chontal. Dialect speakers understand San Carlos Macuspana 80%–94%.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chol-Chontal 
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Chuj, Ixtatán

[cnm] 9,500 in Mexico (1991 O. Schumann). 8,000 refugees. Trinitaria Municipio, Chiapas; Tziscau, Cuauhtémoc villages. Alternate names: Chapai, Chuj de San Mateo Ixtatán.  Classification: Mayan, Kanjobalan-Chujean, Chujean 
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Cochimi

[coj] Extinct. Baja California Norte, north of Loreto to the northern part of the peninsula. Alternate names: Cadegomeño, Cadegomo, Cochetimi, Cochima, Cochimtee, Didiu, Joaquín, Laimon, Laymon-Cochimi, Laymonem, San, San Francesco Saverio Mission, San Francisco Xavier de, San Javier, San Xavier, Viggé-Biaundo Mission.  Dialects: Troike (1970) regards it as 2 distinct languages.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Cochimi 
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Cocopa

[coc] 200 in Mexico (1998 P. Larson). Population total all countries: 350. Ethnic population: 200 in Mexico (1998). Baja California, El Mayor, San Poza de Aroizú (to the south of Río San Luis Colorado). Also in United States. Alternate names: Cocopá, Cocopah, Cucapá, Cucupá, Kikimá, Kwikapá.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-Californian 
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Cora, El Nayar

[crn] 8,000 in Mexico (1993 SIL). North central Nayarit. Also in United States. Alternate names: Cora de el Nayar.  Dialects: Jesús María Cora (El Nayar), La Mesa del Nayar Cora (Mesa del Nayar), San Francisco Cora, Presidio de los Reyes Cora. Santa Teresa Cora [cok] is distinct enough to need separate literature.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Corachol 
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Cora, Santa Teresa

[cok] 7,000 (1993 SIL). North central Nayarit, Santa Teresa, Dolores, San Blasito. Dialects: Santa Teresa Cora, Dolores Cora, San Blasito Cora, San Juan Corapan Cora, Rosarito Cora. Difficult intelligibility with other Cora varieties.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Corachol 
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Cuicatec, Tepeuxila

[cux] 8,500 (1990 census). 850 monolinguals. Northwest Oaxaca. 16 towns. Dialects: Santa María Pápalo. 88% intelligibility with Teutila Cuicatec [cut].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Cuicatec 
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Cuicatec, Teutila

[cut] 3,690 (2005). 260 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Teutila. 8 towns. Dialects: 79% intelligibility with Tepeuxila [cux].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Cuicatec 
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Huarijío

[var] 2,840 (2005 SIL). 1,574 in Chihuahua, 1,207 in Sonora. West central Chihuahua, Western Sierra Madre Mountains, from Río Chinipas east to Sonora border, from San Bernardo, to headwaters of Río Mayo. 17 or more villages or hamlets. Alternate names: Guarijío, Macurái, Maculái, Macurawe, Varihío, Varijío, Vorijío, Warihío.  Dialects: Highland Guarijío, Lowland Huarijío. Intelligibility with Tarahumara languages is less than 50%. ‘Maculai’ (Macurawe, Macuyawe) used by upriver Huarijio to refer to downriver Huarijio, who previously may have intermarried with Mayo. Old town ruins called Macoyawi, now under Lake Mocutzari, also refer to them.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Guarijio 
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Huastec, San Luís Potosí

[hva] 70,000 (1990 census). San Luís Potosí. 12 villages. Alternate names: Potosino Huastec.  Dialects: Intelligibility tests indicate one Huasteco language, but sociological factors require literature in Veracruz variety.  Classification: Mayan, Huastecan 
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Huastec, Southeastern

[hsf] 1,750 (1990 census). North Veracruz, east of Huasteco Veracruz, Cerro Azul on southeast edge, Tepetzintla on south edge, Tantima on north edge, Santa María Ixcatepec on west edge, San Francisco Chontla, Tancoco, Amatlán Tuxpan, Galeana y Zaragoza Vieja, Tamiahua. Alternate names: Huasteco de San Francisco Chontla.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility with Veracruz Huastec [hus].  Classification: Mayan, Huastecan 
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Huastec, Veracruz

[hus] 50,000 (1990 census). Northern Veracruz. 60 villages. Alternate names: Huasteco de Tantoyuca.  Dialects: 84% intelligibility with San Luís Potosí Huastec [hva].  Classification: Mayan, Huastecan 
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Huave, San Dionisio del Mar

[hve] 4,940 (2000). Southeast coast, Oaxaca, Juchitán District, San Dionisio del Mar. Dialects: 98% intelligibility with Santa María del Mar Huave [hvv], 88% with San Mateo del Mar Huave [huv].  Classification: Huavean 
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Huave, San Francisco del Mar

[hue] 900 (1990 census). 30%–40% monolingual in old village. Ethnic population: 3,900 (1990 census). Southeast coast, Oaxaca, Juchitán District, San Francisco del Mar, old and new town. Dialects: 38% intelligibility with San Mateo del Mar Huave [huv]. Most divergent variety of Huave. Only fishermen tested, who were familiar with other varieties.  Classification: Huavean 
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Huave, San Mateo del Mar

[huv] 12,000 (1990 census). 1,800 monolinguals. Southeast coast, Oaxaca, San Mateo del Mar. Dialects: Very limited intelligibility of other Huave varieties; 88% with San Dionisio del Mar [hve].  Classification: Huavean 
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Huave, Santa María del Mar

[hvv] 500 (1993 SIL). Southeast coast, Oaxaca, Santa María del Mar. Dialects: Very limited intelligibility of other Huave, although most similar to San Dionisio [hve].  Classification: Huavean 
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Huichol

[hch] 20,000 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 20,000. Northeast Nayarit and northwest Jalisco. Main centers: Guadalupe Ocotán, Nayarit, San Andrés Cohamiata, Jal., San Sebastián, Jal., Santa Catarina, Jal., Tuxpan de Bolaños, Jal. Alternate names: Vixaritari Vaniuqui, Vizaritari Vaniuki.  Dialects: San Andrés Cohamiata (Western Huichol), San Sebastián-Santa Catarina (Eastern Huichol), Coyultita. 58% cognate with El Nayar Cora [crn], (most similar) (Miller 1984).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Corachol 
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Ixcatec

[ixc] 120 (1983 J. Suárez). Santa María Ixcatlán. Dialects: Different from San Pedro Ixcatlán Mazatec [mzi].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Ixcatecan 
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Jacaltec, Western

[jai] 10,300 in Mexico (1991 O. Schumann). 1,300 long-term residents (1990 census) and 10,000 refugees. Concepción Saravia near Comalapa de la Frontera municipality and Chiapas, Amatenango de la Frontera municipality. Alternate names: Jacalteco del Oeste.  Classification: Mayan, Kanjobalan-Chujean, Kanjobalan, Kanjobal-Jacaltec 
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Kanjobal, Western

[knj] 10,100 in Mexico (1991 O. Schumann). 100 Western Kanjobal native to Mexico; 10,000 refugees. Trinitaria, Comalapa, and Mazapa de Madero, Chiapas, and Quintana Roo. Alternate names: Acatec, Acateco, Conob, Kanjobal de San Miguel Acatán.  Classification: Mayan, Kanjobalan-Chujean, Kanjobalan, Kanjobal-Jacaltec 
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Kickapoo

[kic] 300 in Mexico (1992 SIL). Coahuila, Nacimiento de Kikapú, 40 kms. northeast of Muzquiz. Alternate names: Kicapoux, Kicapus, Kikabeeux, Kikapaux, Kikapú, Quicapause.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
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Kiliwa

[klb] 28 (1994 SIL). Baja California Norte, Arroyo León, Agua Escondida, La Parra southeast of Ensenada, south of the Paipai, Tipai, and Cocopa. Alternate names: Kiliwi, Quiligua.  Dialects: Linguistically distinct from Paipai, Tipai, Cocopa (Wares 1965).  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Kiliwa  Nearly extinct.
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Kumiai

[dih] 220 in Mexico (Cuarón and Lastra 1991). Population total all countries: 330. Baja California, Rancho Nejí, in mountains southeast of Tecate, 60 km east of Ensenada, in La Huerta de los Indios, San Antonio Nécua, San José de la Zorra, Cañon de los Encinos, and Ja’áa. Also in United States. Alternate names: Campo, Cochimí, Comeya, Cuchimí, Diegueño, Kamia, Kamiai, Kamiyahi, Kamiyai, Ki-Miai, Ko’al, Ku’ahl, Kumeyaai, Kumeyaay, Kumia, Kw’aal, Quemayá, Tipái, Tipai’, Tipéi.  Dialects: Not clear how names above group into dialects.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-Californian 
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Lacandon

[lac] 1,000 (2000 SIL). 178 monolinguals (1942). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000). Southeast Chiapas, Najá, Lacanjá San Quintín, Metzaboc, Betel, Lake Metzaboc. Dialects: Lacanjá, Najá.  Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Lacandon 
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Mam, Northern

[mam] 1,000 in Mexico (1980 census). Total: 28,000. Chiapas, outside Pacayal near La Mesilla border; Ojo de Agua near Guadalupe. Classification: Mayan, Quichean-Mamean, Greater Mamean, Mamean 
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Mam, Todos Santos

[mvj] 10,000 in Mexico (1991 SIL). Chiapas, Cacahuatán and Tapachula. Alternate names: Mam de Todos Santos Cuchumatán.  Classification: Mayan, Quichean-Mamean, Greater Mamean, Mamean 
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Matlatzinca, Atzingo

[ocu] 75 (1993 SIL). Ethnic population: 642 (1990 census). State of Mexico, Ocuilan municipality, San Juan Atzingo, Santa Lucía del Progreso. Alternate names: Atzinteco, Ocuiltec, Ocuilteco, Tlahuica, Tlahura.  Dialects: Similar to San Francisco Matlatzinca [mat], but not inherently intelligible.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Matlatzincan  Nearly extinct.
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Matlatzinca, San Francisco

[mat] Ethnic population: 1,167 (2000 WCD). State of Mexico. San Francisco de los Ranchos. Alternate names: Matlatzinca, Matlatzinca de San Francisco de los Ranchos.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Matlatzincan  Nearly extinct.
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Maya, Chan Santa Cruz

[yus] 40,000 (1990 census). East central Quintana Roo. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Lacandon 
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Maya, Yucatán

[yua] 700,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Population total all countries: 706,000. Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán. Also in Belize. Alternate names: Peninsular Maya.  Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Lacandon 
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Mayo

[mfy] 40,000 (1995 census). 113 monolinguals (1995 census). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1983). Coastal south Sonora around Navojoa (Huatabampo); north Sinaloa (Los Mochis, Guasave, San José Ríos, north of Guamuchil). 100 villages or more. Dialects: 90% intelligibility with Yaqui [yaq].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Cahita 
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Mazahua, Central

[maz] 350,000 (1993 SIL). West and northwest state of Mexico. Dialects: Atlacomulco-Temascalcingo, Santa María Citendejé-Banos, San Miguel Tenoxtitlán. The Atlacomulco-Temascalcingo dialect uses different kinship terms, has phonological differences, grammatical variation among towns. 85%–100% intelligibility among dialects.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Mazahua 
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Mazahua, Michoacán

[mmc] 17,500 (1993 SIL). East Michoacán. Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Mazahua 
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Mazatec, Ayautla

[vmy] 3,700 (2005 census). 2,800 monolinguals. Oaxaca, southeast Teotitlán District, San Bartolomé Ayautla. Dialects: 80% intelligibility with Huautla [mau], 79% with San Miguel Hualtepec, 40% with Soyaltepec [vmp], 37% with Jalapa [maj], 24% with Ixcatlán [mzi].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Chiquihuitlán

[maq] 2,500 (1990 census). 340 monolinguals. Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mazateco de San Juan Chiquihuitlán.  Dialects: 47% intelligibility with Huautla [mau] (most similar), 37% with Ayautla [vmy], 29% with Soyaltepec [vmp], 20% with Ixcatlán [mzi].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Huautla

[mau] 82,200 (2005). 27,000 monolinguals. North Oaxaca, Huautla and vicinity. Alternate names: Highland Mazatec, Mazateco de Huautla de Jimenez, Mazateco de la Sierra.  Dialects: San Mateo, San Miguel. 90% intelligibility with San Jerónimo Tecóatl [maa] (most similar, less similar in outlying areas), 60% with Mazatlán, 35% with Jalapa [maj]. Lexical similarity: 94% with San Miguel, 93% with San Mateo, 80% with Soyaltepec, 78% with San Pedro Ixcatlán, 74% with Jalapa de Díaz.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Ixcatlán

[mzi] 10,600 (2005). 23% monolinguals. Oaxaca, Chichicazapa, Nuevo Ixcatlán, San Pedro Ixcatlán towns. Alternate names: Mazateco de San Pedro Ixcatlán.  Dialects: 76% intelligibility with Huautla (most similar). Different from Ixcatec. Lexical similarity 78% with Huautla [mau], 86% with San Mateo Eloxochitlán [mau], 85% with San Miguel Hualtepec and Soyaltepec [vmp], 82% with Jalapa de Díaz [maj].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Jalapa de Díaz

[maj] 24,200 (2005). 23% monolinguals. North Oaxaca and Veracruz. 13 towns. Alternate names: Lowland Mazatec, Mazateco de San Felipe Jalapa de Díaz.  Dialects: 73% intelligibility with Huautla [mau] (most similar), 62% with Ixcatlán [mzi], 51% with Soyaltepec [vmp], 46% with San Jerónimo Tecóatl [maa], 35% with Mazatlán [vmz]. Lexical similarity 82% with Ixcatlán, San Mateo Eloxochitlán [mau], and San Miguel Hualtepec; 80% with Soyaltepec, 74% with Huautla [mau].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Mazatlán

[vmz] 12,900 (2005). 25% monolinguals. Oaxaca, south Teotitlán District, Mazatlán Villa de Flores. 32 towns and villages, also in Distrito Federal. Alternate names: Mazateco de Mazatlán Villa de Flores.  Dialects: San Jerónimo Tecóatl Mazatec, San Antonio Eloxochitlán Mazatec, San Lucas Zoquiapan Mazatec, Santa Cruz Acatepec Mazatec, San Pedro Ocopetatillo Mazatec, San Lorenzo Cuanecuiltitla Mazatec, Santa Ana Ateixtlahuaca Mazatec, San Francisco Huehuetlán Mazatec. 80% intelligibility with San Jerónimo Tecóatl [maa], 78% with Huautla [mau], 16% with Jalapa de Díaz [maj], 8% with Chiquihuitlán [maq].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, San Jerónimo Tecóatl

[maa] 21,100 (2005). 4,000 in state of Puebla. Oaxaca, San Jerónimo Tecóatl, San Lucas Zoquiapan, Santa Cruz Acatepec, San Antonio Eloxochitlán, San Pedro Ocopetatillo, San Lorenzo, Santa Ana municipalities, and a few in Puebla. 12 towns. Alternate names: Mazateco de San Antonio Eloxochitlán, Mazateco de San Jerónimo Tecóatl, Northern Highland Mazatec.  Dialects: San Jerónimo Tecóatl Mazatec, San Antonio Eloxochitlán Mazatec, San Lucas Zoquiapan Mazatec, Santa Cruz Acatepec Mazatec, San Pedro Ocopetatillo Mazatec, San Lorenzo Cuanecuiltitla Mazatec, Santa Ana Ateixtlahuaca Mazatec, San Francisco Huehuetlán Mazatec. 76% intelligibility with Huautla [mau] (most similar), 26% with Jalapa [maj].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Soyaltepec

[vmp] 27,600 (2005). 7% monolinguals. Original Soyaltepec variety may only be 900, mostly monolingual. Oaxaca, northwest Tuxtepec District, part of Soyaltepec Municipio, Santa María Jacatepec and San Miguel Soyaltepec towns, Soyaltepec Island. Alternate names: Mazateco de San Miguel Soyaltepec, Mazateco de Temascal.  Dialects: 5% intelligibility with Chiquihuitlán [maq]. Separate language from other Mazatec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Me’phaa, Acatepec

[tpx] 54,000 (2007 SIL). 15,000 monolinguals. Guerrero, southwest of Tlapa de Comonfort. Larger towns include Acatepec Municipality: Acatepec, Apetzuca, Barranca Pobre, Llano Grande, Mezcaltepec, Tres Cruces, Caxitepec, Xilotlancingo, El Fuereño, Escalería Zapata; Ayutla Municipality: El Salto, El Timbre, Barranca Tecoani, Acalmani. Alternate names: Me’pa, Me’pa Wí’ìn, Me’phaa, Western Tlapanec.  Dialects: Acatepec, Zapotitlán Tablas, Platanillo. 83% intelligibility with Malinaltepec [tcf], 79% with Tlacoapa [tpl].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Subtiaba-Tlapanecan 
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Me’phaa, Azoyú

[tpc] 680. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 17,000 in the Municipio. Guerrero, Azoyú, east of Ometepec, Azoyú municipality: Macahuite, Maxmadí, Toxnene, Zapotitlán de la Fuente. Alternate names: Me’phaa, Azoyú Tlapanec, tlapaneco de Azoyú, Mè’phàà, Tsíndíí.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Subtiaba-Tlapanecan 
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Me’phaa, Malinaltepec

[tcf] 48,000 (2007 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals (1994 SIL). East Guerrero, Malinaltepec, south of Tlapa de Comonfort, Malinaltepec Municipio: Malinaltepec, El Tejocote, Moyotepec, Ojo de Agua, Paraje Montero, San Miguel el Progreso, Colombia de Guadalupe, Tilapa, Tierra Colorada, El Rincón; Iliatenco Municipio: Iliatenco, Cruztomáhuac, San José Vista Hermosa, Alchipahua, El Aserradero; San Luís Acatlán Municipio: Pueblo Hidalgo, Pascala del Oro. Alternate names: Malinaltepec Tlapanec, Eastern Tlapanec, Mè’phàà Mañuwìín, Me’phaa, tlapaneco de Malinaltepec.  Dialects: Malinaltepec; Huehuetepec, Zilacayotitlán; San Juan Puerto Montaña, Francisco I. Madero, Juanacatlán. Malinaltepec has 50% intelligibility with Tlacoapa [tpl]. Speakers define 8 varieties of Me’phaa. Most similar to Subtiaba [sut] of Nicaragua (no remaining speakers).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Subtiaba-Tlapanecan 
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Me’phaa, Tlacoapa

[tpl] 18,000 (2005 SIL). East Guerrero, Tlacoapa, southwest of Tlapa de Comonfort, Tlacoapa Municipio: Tlacoapa, Sabana, Tlacotepec, Laguna Seca, Tenamazapa, Totomixtlahuaca. Alternate names: Mi’phàà Minuíí Mi’pa, Tlacoapa Tlapanec, Tlapaneco de Tlacoapa.  Dialects: Malinaltepec [tcf] has 50% intelligibility with Tlacoapa.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Subtiaba-Tlapanecan 
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Mexican Sign Language

[mfs] 87,000 to 100,000 mainly monolingual users (1986 T. C. Smith-Stark), out of 1,300,000 deaf persons in Mexico (VanCleve 1986). Widespread, except in some American Indian areas (see Yucatec Mayan Sign Language [msd]): Mexico D.F. Guadalajara, Monterrey, Hermosillo, Morelia, Veracruz, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Puebla, Cuernavaca, Torreón, Saltillo, Toluca. Alternate names: Lengua de Señas Mexicana, Lenguaje de Señas de México, Lenguaje de Señas Mexicano, Lenguaje de Signos Mexicano, Lenguaje Manual Mexicana, Lenguaje de las Manos, LSM.  Dialects: Influence from French Sign Language [fsl]. Users of ASL [ase] have 14% intelligibility of LSM. Lexical similarity 85% to– 100% among regional dialects, nearly all above 90% (1989 A. Bickford).  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Mixe, Coatlán

[mco] 5,000 (1993 SIL). All Mixe languages: 90,000 (1993 SIL). East central Oaxaca, including Coatlán, Camotlán, San José, Santa Isabel, Ixcuintepec. Alternate names: Southeastern Mixe.  Dialects: Coatlán Mixe, Camotlán Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, Isthmus

[mir] 20,000 (1990 SIL). Northeast Oaxaca, throughout San Juan Guichicovi Municipality, near Veracruz border, Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 3 towns. Alternate names: Eastern Mixe, Guichicovi Mixe, Mixe del Istmo.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, Juquila

[mxq] 8,000 (2002 SIL). East central Oaxaca, Juquila, Quetzaltepec, Ocotepec municipality, 1 or 2 other towns. Alternate names: South Central Mixe.  Dialects: Juquila Mixe, Ocotepec Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, Mazatlán

[mzl] 19,200 (2000). East Oaxaca. 7 towns. Alternate names: East Central Mixe, Tutla Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, North Central

[neq] 13,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 13,000 (2002 SIL). Northeast Oaxaca, northeast part of the Mixe District, several towns, including those listed as dialects. Alternate names: Atitlán Mixe, Mixe de Atitlán, Northeastern Mixe.  Dialects: Mixe de San Juan Cotzocón, Zacatepec, Puxmetecán, Olotepec, Mixistlan, Cotzocón Mixe, Atitlán Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, Quetzaltepec

[pxm] 6,700 (2000 census). Northeast Oaxaca, northeastern part of the Mixe District, several towns including those listed as dialects. Alternate names: Central Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, Tlahuitoltepec

[mxp] 5,000 (1991 SIL). Northeast Oaxaca; central Oaxaca, around Albarradas Zapoteco. 3 towns. Alternate names: West Central Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Western Mixe 
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Mixe, Totontepec

[mto] 5,200 (1990 census). 870 monolinguals. Northeast Oaxaca, north of Zacatepec. 10 towns. Alternate names: Ayuk, Northwestern Mixe.  Dialects: Most distinct Mixe variety. 89% intelligibility with Acatepec Tlapanec [tpx], 79% with Alotepec, 72% with Tlahuitoltepec [mxp], 70% with Mixistlán dialect of North Central Mixe [neq].  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Western Mixe 
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Mixtec, Alacatlatzala

[mim] 22,200 (2000). 60% monolingual. East Guerrero, southwest to south of Tlapa in Alacatlatzala, Cahuatache, Tenaztalcingo, Jilotepec, Zacatipa, Tototepec, Cuba Libre, San Isidro Labrador, Quiahuitlatlatzala, Xonacatlán, Tepecocatlán, Cuautipa, Ocuapa, Potoichan towns. Tiny communities in Acapulco, Guerrero; Cuautla, Morelos; Culiacán, Sinaloa, also near San Quintín, Baja California. Some emigration to USA, especially New York. Alternate names: Highland Guerrero Mixtec, Mixteco de Alacatlatzala, To’on Savi.  Dialects: Potoichan (Ocuapa), Atlamajalcingo del Monte, Cahuatache Tototepec, Cuatzoquitengo, Plan de Guadalupe. 65%–85% intelligibility with Metlatónoc [mxv]. Some had 70% intelligibility of Silacayoapan [mks].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Alcozauca

[xta] 10,000 (1994 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. East Guerrero, near Metlatonoc. 14 villages. Alternate names: Mixteco de Alocozauca, Mixteco de Xochapa.  Dialects: Xochapa Mixtec, Petlacalancingo Mixtec. 92% intelligibility with Metlatónoc [mxv]; Metlatónoc has 70% intelligibility with Xochapa dialect. Separate language from Metlatónoc.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Amoltepec

[mbz] 10,000 (2007 SIL). 1,400 monolinguals (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000. Oaxaca, west edge of Sola de Vega District, Santiago Amoltepec Municipio, and settlements (Las Cuevas, La Mesilla, El Armadillo, El Mamey, El Zapote, Colonia de Jesús, Barranca Oscura, Llano Tigre, Llano Conejo, El Cocal, El Laurel, La Tortuga). 20 villages in southern part of Santiago Amoltepec Municipio. Alternate names: Mixteco de Amoltepec, Western Sola de Vega Mixtec.  Dialects: 63% intelligibility with Ixtayutla [vmj], 52% with Pinotepa Nacional [mio], 46% with Yosondúa [mpm], 42% with Southwestern Tlaxiaco Mixtec [meh], 32% with Zacatepec [mza], 25% with San Juan Colorado [mjc], 20% with Jamiltepec [mxt], 15% with Chayuco [mih]. People manage to communicate with Ixtayutla, but not Yosondúa, Zacatepec, or Jamiltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Apasco-Apoala

[mip] 7,870 (1990 census). 6,728 monolinguals. Oaxaca, north northwest of Nochixtlán, San Miguel Chicahua, Jocotipac, Santa María Apasco, San Miguel Huautla, Nduayaco, and other towns. Alternate names: Apasco Mixtec, Apoala Mixtec, Mixteco de Santiago Apoala, Northern Nochixtlán Mixtec.  Dialects: 26% intelligibility with Southern Puebla Mixtec [mit].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Atatláhuca

[mib] 8,300 (1995 census). 435 monolinguals. West central Oaxaca, San Esteban Atatláhuca, and Santa Catarina Yosonotú towns. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Esteban Atatláhuca, South Central Tlaxiaco Mixtec.  Dialects: 68% intelligibility with Yosondúa [mpm].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Ayutla

[miy] 8,500 (1990 census). 3,000 monolinguals. Guerrero, Ayutla. Alternate names: Coastal Guerrero Mixtec, Mixteco de Ayutla.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Cacaloxtepec

[miu] 850 (1990 census). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,254. Oaxaca, Santiago Cacaloxtepec town. Alternate names: Huajuapan Mixtec, Mixteco de Cacaloxtepec.  Dialects: 59% intelligibility with Silacayoapan [mks] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Chayuco

[mih] 30,000 (1977 SIL). Southwest Oaxaca. Alternate names: Eastern Jamiltepec-Chayuco Mixtec, Mixteco de Chayucu.  Dialects: 69% intelligibility with Western Jamiltepec [jmx].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Chazumba

[xtb] 2,480 (1995 census). 32 monolinguals. Oaxaca, near to Puebla border. Santiago Chazumba has largest group. Some in San Pedro y San Pablo Tequixtepec (in Oaxaca), Zapotitlán, Petlalcingo, and Totoltepec de Guerrero (in Puebla) villages. Alternate names: Mixteco de Chazumba, Northern Oaxaca Mixtec.  Dialects: 65% inherent intelligibility with Xayacatlán, 53% with Cacaloxtepec [miu], 24% with Chigmecatitlán [mii], 19% with Cuyamecalco [xtu] (Coatzospan).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Chigmecatitlán

[mii] 1,600 (1990 census). 273 monolinguals (1990). Puebla, due south of Puebla City, halfway to Oaxaca border, Santa Catarina Tlaltemplan. Alternate names: Central Puebla Mixtec, Mixteco de Santa María Chigmecatitlán.  Dialects: 23% intelligibility with Chazumba [mit] (Southern Puebla is most similar). An ‘island’ of Mixtec surrounded by Popoloca and Nahuatl varieties. Low intelligibility with all Mixtec; very different.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Coatzospan

[miz] 5,000 (1994 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Juan Coatzospan, Teotitlán Mixtec.  Dialects: 25% intelligibility with Chazumba [xtb]. Cuyamecalco [xtu] similar, but inherent intelligibility inadequate.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Cuyamecalco

[xtu] 2,600 (1994 SIL). 72 monolinguals in San Miguel. Oaxaca, Cuicatlán District, Cuyamecalco, San Miguel Santa Flor, Santa Ana Cuauhtémoc. Alternate names: Cuicatlán Mixtec, Mixteco de Cuyamecalco.  Dialects: Similar to San Juan Coatzospan [miz].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Diuxi-Tilantongo

[xtd] 4,220 (2000), decreasing. In rapid decline due to migration to USA. Oaxaca, 20 towns and villages in the Diuxi and Tilantongo area, Oaxaca City, Puebla City, Mexico City. Alternate names: Central Nochistlán Mixtec, Mixteco de Diuxi-Tilantongo.  Dialects: 37% intelligibility with Peñoles [mil] (Eastern); more similar to Nuxaá [mxy].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Huitepec

[mxs] 4,000 (1990 census). 200 monolinguals. 2,000 in Huitepec town. Oaxaca, west of Zaachila, southwest of Peñoles, Huitepec Municipio, San Antonio Huitepec, Santiago Huajolotipac, and San Francisco Yucucundo towns. Some near Ensenada, Baja California. Alternate names: Mixteco de Huitepec, Mixteco de San Antonio Huitepec, Mixteco de Zaachila.  Dialects: 77% intelligibility with Estetla (Eastern), 75% with Chalcatongo, 52% with Peñoles [mil], 20% with Yosondúa [mpm], 8% with Tilantongo.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Itundujia

[mce] 1,080 (1990 census). 33 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Putla District, southwest of Yosondúa, southeast of Putla. Most in Morelos and Guerrero villages. Alternate names: Eastern Putla Mixtec, Mixteco de Santa Cruz Itundujia.  Dialects: 60% intelligibility with Yosondúa [mpm], 59% with Chalcatongo, 25% with San Martín Peras, 15% with Amoltepec [mbz], 12% with Zacatepec [mza], 10% with San Esteban Atatláhuca [mib], Nuyoo, 0% with Ixtayutla [vmj].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Ixtayutla

[vmj] 5,500 (2005). 2,800 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Jamiltepec District, Santiago Ixtayutla, Ixtayutla, El Carasol El Huamuche, La Humedad, Llano Escondido, Llano Verde, El Mosco, Pueblo Viejo, San Lucas, Xiniyuba, Yucuyá, Las Limas, Macahuite, Nuyuku, Olintepec, Yomuche, Carasul, Frutillo. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santiago Ixtayutla, Northeastern Jamiltepec Mixtec.  Dialects: 79% intelligibility with Amoltepec [mbz], 59% with Chayuco [mih], 49% with Jamiltepec [mxt], 40% with San Juan Colorado [mjc], 30% with Zacatepec [mza].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Jamiltepec

[mxt] 10,000 (1983 SIL). Southwest Oaxaca. Alternate names: Eastern Jamiltepec-San Cristobal Mixtec, Mixteco de Jamiltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Juxtlahuaca

[vmc] 16,000 (1990 census). 5,500 monolinguals. Oaxaca, central Santiago Juxtlahuaca, San Sebastián Tecomaxtlahuaca, San Miguel Tlacotepec, Santos Reyes Tepejillo, Santa María Tindú, San Martin Durazons, Santa María Yucunicoco towns; San Quintín valley, Baja California. Alternate names: Central Juxtlahuaca Mixtec, Mixteco de Juxtlahuaca.  Dialects: 84% intelligibility with Silacayoapan [mks], 80% with Yucuane [mvg] and San Miguel Piedras [xtp], 63% with Santa Cruz Mixtepec [mix], 48% with Coicoyán [vmc] (Western Juxtlahuaca), 37% with Tezoatlán [mxb], 18% with Zacatepec [mza], 10% with Ñumí.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Magdalena Peñasco

[xtm] 7,350 (2005 census). 1,170 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, Santa María Magdalena Peñasco, San Cristobal Amoltepec, San Mateo Peñasco, and San Agustín Tlacotepec municipalities. Dialects: San Agustín Tlacotepec Mixtec, San Cristóbal Amoltepec Mixtec, San Mateo Peñasco Mixtec. 89% intelligibility with San Cristóbal Amoltepec (not the same as Santiago Amoltepec [mbz], in the District of Sola de Vega), 76% with Tijaltepec [xtl] and Sinicahua [xti], 73% with San Miguel el Grande [mig], 72% with Tlacotepec [xtm], 68% with Ocotepec [mie], 64% with Nduaxico, 58% with Yucuañe [mvg].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Metlatónoc

[mxv] 46,600 (2000). East Guerrero, Metlatónoc, San Rafael, towns further south; Municipalities: Tlacoachistlahuaca and Cochoapa. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Rafael.  Dialects: 90% or higher intelligibility among nearby towns, but only 50% with most Alacatlatzala [mim]. Alcozauca Mixtec [xta] is separate language.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Mitlatongo

[vmm] 1,800 (1994 SIL). Oaxaca, Nochixtlán, Santiago Mitlatongo, Santa Cruz Mitlatongo. Alternate names: Mixteco de Mitlatongo.  Dialects: 70% intelligibility with Yutanduchi [mab], 56% with Peñoles [mil], 54% with San Juan Tamazola, 43% with Teita, 10% with Nuxaá, 8% with Diuxi [xtd].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Mixtepec

[mix] 9,000 in Mexico (2000 census). 2,600 monolinguals (1990 census). About 2,500–3000 located in Tlaxiaco (district head). Oaxaca, San Juan Mixtepec, Tlaxiaco (district head), San Quintín valley, Baja California; Arby, Lamont, California; Santa María, California; and Oregon, USA. Also in United States. Alternate names: Eastern Juxtlahuaca Mixtec, Mixteco de San Juan Mixtepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Northern Tlaxiaco

[xtn] 14,000 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, San Juan Ñumí and Santiago Nundichi municipalities; Teposcolula District, San Antonino Monte Verde and San Sebastián Nicananduta municipalities. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Juan Ñumí, Ñumí Mixtec.  Dialects: Monte Verde Mixtec, Yosoñama, Nicananduta, Nundichi, San Antonio Nduaxico.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Northwest Oaxaca

[mxa] 2,500 (1990 census). 2,195 monolinguals. Northwest Oaxaca, Santos Reyes Yucuná, Guadalupe Portezuelo, and San Simón Zahuatlán towns. Alternate names: Mixteco de Yucuná, Mixteco del Noroeste de Oaxaca.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Ocotepec

[mie] 6,500 (1982 SIL). West central Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santo Tomás Ocotepec, Ocotepec Mixtec.  Dialects: Santa Catarina Yosonotu. 80% intelligibility with Ñumí [xtn] (Northwestern Tlaxiaco).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Peñoles

[mil] 13,400 in Mexico (2000). 2,000 monolinguals (1990 census). West central Oaxaca. Santa María Peñoles municipalities, Monteflor, San Mateo Tepantepec, Estetla, and Cholula agencias; Santiago Tlazoyaltepec municipalities; Huitepec municipalities, Huazolotipac agencia. Also in United States. Alternate names: Eastern Mixtec, Mixteco de San Mateo Tepantepec.  Dialects: Santa María Peñoles (Peñoles), Santiago Tlazoyaltepec (Tlazoyaltepec), San Mateo Tepantepec (Tepantepec). 14% intelligibility with Chalcatongo. Nuxaá has 30% intelligibility with Peñoles [mil].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Pinotepa Nacional

[mio] 20,000 (1990 census). 10,000 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Jamiltepec District. Alternate names: Coastal Mixtec, Lowland Jicaltepec Mixtec, Mixteco de Pinotepa Nacional, Western Jamiltepec Mixtec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, San Juan Colorado

[mjc] 13,500 (1990 census). 3,100 monolinguals. Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Juan Colorado.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, San Juan Teita

[xtj] 570 (2002). Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, southeast of Tlaxiaco, San Juan Teita town. Alternate names: Teita Mixtec.  Dialects: Santa Maria Tataltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, San Miguel el Grande

[mig] 14,500 (1990 census). 4,453 in Chalcatongo. West central Oaxaca. Dialects: 86% intelligibility with Yosondúa [mpm] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, San Miguel Piedras

[xtp] 450 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,123 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District. Dialects: 49% intelligibility with Estetla (Eastern), 29% with Soyaltepec [vmq], Yosondúa [mpm], 18% with Peñoles [mil], 15% with Chalcatongo, 13% with Tilantongo, 11% with Chicahua.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Santa Lucía Monteverde

[mdv] 4,000 (2001 J. Williams). 203 monolinguals (1995 census) mostly in Agua del Toro and Ocotlán. Ethnic population: 6,000 (1995 census). West central Oaxaca, northeast Putla District, Santa Lucía Monteverde town. Dialects: Intelligibility 83% with San Esteban Atatláhuca [mib]; people had difficulty understanding written materials in it. Santa Catarina Yosonotú Mixtec may be more similar to this than to Atatláhuca.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Santa María Zacatepec

[mza] 6,000 (1992 SIL). Less than 20% monolingual. 3,000 in Zacatepec and 3,000 in surrounding rancherías and villages. Oaxaca, south of Putla, Tapanco, Nejapa, Atotonilco, San Miguel, San Juan Viejo, Rancho de la Virgen, Las Palmas towns. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santa María Zacatepec, Southern Putla Mixtec, “Tacuate” , Tu’un Va’a, Zacatepec Mixtec.  Dialects: 64% intelligibility with Ixtayutla [vmj], 63% with Jicaltepec [mio] (Pinotepa Nacional Mixtec), 40%–50% with Metlatónoc [mxv], 25%–30% with Yoloxochitl [xty].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Silacayoapan

[mks] 18,700 in Mexico (2000). 1,500 monolinguals (1990 census). Oaxaca, Santo Domingo Tonala, San Jorge Nuchita, Tijuana towns. Also in United States. Dialects: 70% intelligibility with Metlatónoc [mxv], 68% with Santa María Peras Cuatzoquitengo; testing incomplete; also Guadalupe Portezuelo (65% intelligibility with Silacayoapan).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Sindihui

[xts] 140 (1990 census). West central Oaxaca. Dialects: Distinct from Yutanduchi [mab].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Sinicahua

[xti] 1,300 (1990 census). 400 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, San Antonio Sinicahua, Siniyucu, Sinicahua Municipio. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Antonio Sinicahua.  Dialects: 75% intelligibility with Yosoyúa, 73% with Ocotepec [mie], 72% with San Miguel el Grande [mig], and 51% with Nduaxico [xtn] (Northern Tlaxiaco Mixtec).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Southeastern Nochixtlán

[mxy] 7,000 (1990 census). 4,075 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District, southeast of Nochixtlán. Santo Domingo Nuxaá, San Andrés Nuxiño, Santa Inés de Zaragoza, Ojo de Agua Nuxaá, El Oro, La Herradura, La Unión Zaragoza, Reforma, La Paz. Alternate names: Mixteco de Nuxaá, Mixteco de Santo Domingo Nuxaá, Mixteco del Sureste de Nochixtlán.  Dialects: 60%–70% intelligibility with Peñoles Mixtec [mil]. Understand little of San Miguel Piedras [xtp] or San Pedro Tidaá Mixtec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Southern Puebla

[mit] 1,330 (1990 census). 386 monolinguals. Oaxaca, southwest Puebla, Zapotitlán Palmas town. Alternate names: Acatlán Mixtec, Mixteco del Sur de Puebla.  Dialects: 53% intelligibility with Cacaloxtepec [miu] (Huajuapan; most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Southwestern Tlaxiaco

[meh] 7,340 (2000 census). 1,000 monolinguals. Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santiago Nuyoo, Nuyoo Mixtec, Southeastern Ocotepec Mixtec.  Dialects: Nuyoo, Yucuhiti. 54% intelligibility with Atatláhuca [mib] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Soyaltepec

[vmq] 320 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 926 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Teposcolula District, San Bartolo Soyaltepec, Guadalupe Gabilera villages. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Bartolo Soyaltepec.  Dialects: 28% intelligibility with Tilantongo [xtd], 25% with Ñumí [xtn], 23% with Apoala [mip].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tacahua

[xtt] 580 (1990 census). 78 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, east of Yosondúa, southeast of San Miguel el Grande. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santa Cruz Tacahua.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tamazola

[vmx] 2,500 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Nochixtlán, San Juan Tamazola. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Juan Tamazola.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tezoatlán

[mxb] 6,200 (1990 census). 850 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Tezoatlán area, southwest of Huajuapan, south of Cacaloxtepec; Yucuquimi de Ocampo, San Andrés Yutatío, Yucuñuti de Benito Juárez, San Juan Diquiyú, San Marcos de Garzón, San Martín del Río, Santa Catarina Yotandú, San Isidro de Zaragoza, San Valentín de Gomez towns. Alternate names: Mixteco de Tezoatlán de Segura y Luna.  Dialects: Those in each town speak a bit differently. 70% to 80% intelligibility with Silacayoapan [mks] and Atenango.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tidaá

[mtx] 550 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 900 (1990 census). Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de Tidaá, North Central Nochixtlán Mixtec.  Dialects: 60% intelligibility with Peñoles [mil] (Eastern) (most similar); Nuxaá is similar.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tijaltepec

[xtl] 3,560 (2000). 800 monolinguals. Oaxaca, southeast Tlaxiaco District, San Pablo Tijaltepec, Santa María Yosoyúa towns. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Pablo Tijaltepec.  Dialects: 89% intelligibility with San Miguel el Grande [mig] and Yosondúa [mpm], 82% with San Mateo Peñasco, 81% with Sinicahua [xti] and 66% with Teita [xtj].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tlazoyaltepec

[mqh]  West central Oaxaca, Santiago Tlazoyaltepec municipality. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santiago Tlazoyaltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tututepec

[mtu] 820 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 30,046 (1990 census). Oaxaca. San Pedro Tututepec, Santa María Acatepec, Santa Cruz Tututepec, other towns. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Pedro Tututepec.  Dialects: Santa María Acatepec. 61% intelligibility with Ixtayutla [vmj] (most similar), 50% with Pinotepa [mio].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Western Juxtlahuaca

[jmx] 25,000 (1992 SIL). 7,000 monolinguals (1990 census). 7,000 in San Martín Peras, 2,000 in Santa Cruz Yucucani, 2,000 in San José Yoxocaño. Oaxaca-Guerrero border due west of Juxtlahuaca. In Oaxaca: San Martín Peras; Río Frijol, Santa Cruz Yucucani, San José Yoxocaño municipalities and all towns in them. In Guerrero: Malvabisco, Rancho Limón, Río Aguacate, Boca de Mamey. Alternate names: Coicoyán Mixtec, Mixteco del Oeste de Juxtlahuaca.  Dialects: San Martín Peras, Coicoyán, San Juan Piñas. 82% intelligibility with Metlatónoc [mxv], 80% with Silacayoapan [mks], 65% with Juxtlahuaca [vmc], 19% with Cuatzoquitengo, 16% with Zacatepec [mza].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Yoloxóchitl

[xty] 2,540 (1994 SIL). Southeast Guerrero, San Luís Acatlán Municipio, south of Tlapa, halfway between Metlatónoc and Ayutla Mixtec, Yoloxóchitl, and Cuanacastitlán. Dialects: Metlatónoc [mxv] has 35% intelligibility with Yoloxóchitl, and Ayutla [miy] has 30%.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Yosondúa

[mpm] 5,000 (1990 census). 240 monolinguals. Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santiago Yosondúa, Southern Tlaxiaco Mixtec.  Dialects: 70% intelligibility with San Miguel el Grande [mig] and Chalcatongo (most similar). San Mateo Sindihui has 19% intelligibility with Yosondúa.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Yucuañe

[mvg] 520 (2000 census). 88 monolinguals. Oaxaca, northeast Tlaxiaco District, San Bartolomé Yucuañe. Many work in D.F. and USA. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Bartolomé Yucuañe.  Dialects: 87% intelligibility with San Cristóbal Amoltepec [mbz], 86% with Yosoyúa, 85% of Magdalena Peñasco [xtm], 64% of Teita [xtj], 60% of Nduaxico [xtn] (Northern Tlaxiaco Mixtec), 56% of Tlacotepec [xtm]. 2 dialects in San Agustín Tlacotepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Yutanduchi

[mab] 1,800 (1990 census). 38 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District, Yutanduchi de Guerrero. Alternate names: Mixteco de Yutanduchi, Southern Nochixtlan Mixtec.  Dialects: 49% intelligibility with Estetla (Eastern), 48% with San Juan Tamazola [vmx], 20% with Yosondúa [mpm] and Soyaltepec [vmq], 36%–18% with Peñoles [mil], 15% with Chalcatongo, 13% with Tilantongo [xtd].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mocho

[mhc] 170 (1990 census). Chiapas, on Guatemala Mexico border, Tuzantán and Motozintla. Alternate names: Motozintleco.  Dialects: Motozintleco, Tuzanteco. Not intelligible with Mam varieties (1973 SIL). Tuzanteco and Mocho are 2 distinct dialects of the same language (Kaufman 1967).  Classification: Mayan, Kanjobalan-Chujean, Kanjobalan, Mocho 
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Nahuatl, Central

[nhn] 40,000 (1980 census). 1,000 monolinguals (1990 census). All Nahuatl variety speakers: 1,376,898. Ethnic population: 63,000 (1986). Tlaxcala and Puebla States. Alternate names: Central Aztec, Náhuatl del Centro, Tlaxcala-Puebla Nahuatl.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Central Huasteca

[nch] 200,000 (2000 census). Hidalgo, Veracruz, and San Louis Potosi states. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Central Puebla

[ncx] 16,000 (1998 SIL). 1,430 monolinguals. 800 in Teopantlán, 600 in Huatlatlauca. South of Puebla City in Teopantlán, Tepatlaxco de Hidalgo, Tochimilco, Atoyatempan, Huatlathauca, Huehuetlán near Molcaxac. Alternate names: Central Puebla Aztec, Náhuatl del Suroeste de Puebla, Southwestern Puebla Nahuatl.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Classical

[nci] Extinct. Central Mexico, Tenochtitlán, Aztec Empire. Alternate names: Classical Aztec.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Coatepec

[naz] 1,400 (1990 census). 15 monolinguals. Mexico state, Coatepec Costales, Tlacultlapa, Texcalco, Tonalapa, Maxela, Machito de las Flores, Chilacachapa, Miacacsingo, Los Sabinos, and Acapetlahuaya, all west of Iguala, Guerrero. Strongest usage in Coatepec Costales and Chilacachapa. Alternate names: Coatepec Aztec, Náhuatl de Coatepec.  Dialects: 54% intelligibility with Santa Catarina [nhm] (Morelos), 48% with Atliaca [ngu] (Guerrero), 35% with Copalillo Guerrero, 28% with Zongolica [nlv] (Orizaba).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Durango

[nln] 1,300. About 1,000 in Durango, 300 in Nayarit. South Durango, Mezquital Municipio, San Pedro Jícoras, Agua Fria, Agua Caliente, La Tinaja; San Agustín de Buenaventura, Curachitos de Buenavista, Alacranes, Tepetates II, Tepalcates; Nayarit state, Acaponeta Municipio, Santa Cruz, Duraznito, La Laguna, Mesa las Arpas. Alternate names: Durango Aztec, Meshikan, Mexicanero, Náhuat, Náhuat de Durango.  Dialects: Vocabulary and phonological differences between the area in Durango comprised of San Pedro Jícoras, Agua Fria, Agua Caliente, and La Tinaja and the area comprised of San Agustín Buenaventuram Curachitos de Buenavista, Alacranes, Tepetates II, Tepalcates, and Nayarit. Most similar to Michoacán Nahuatl [ncl] with 76% intelligibility.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Eastern Huasteca

[nhe] 410,000 (1991 SIL). Huautla, Hidalgo the center; Puebla, Veracruz. 1,500 villages. Alternate names: Eastern Huasteca Aztec, Náhuatl de Hidalgo, Náhuatl de la Huasteca Oriental.  Dialects: Southeastern Huasteca Nahuatl. 85% intelligibility between Eastern and Western Huasteca Nahuatl [nhv]. Survey of other dialects needed.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Guerrero

[ngu] 150,000 (1998 SIL). Balsas River: Tepecoacuilco de Trujano, Huitzuco de los figueroa, Atenango del Río, Copalillo, Mártir de Cuilapan, Zitlala, Tixtla de Guerrero, Mochitlán, Quechultenango, Chiulapa de Álvarez, Ahuacuotzingo, Olinalá, Atlixtac, Zapotitlan Tablas, Ayutla de los Libres, Cualác, Huamuxtitlán, Xochihuehuetlán, Tlapa de Comonfort, Alpoyeca, Xalpatláhuac, and Alcozauca de Guerrero municipalities. Alternate names: Guerrero Aztec, Náhuatl de Guerrero.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Highland Puebla

[azz] 125,000 (1983). Northeast Puebla. Alternate names: Mejicano de Zacapoaxtla, Náhuat de la Sierra de Puebla, Sierra Aztec, Sierra Puebla Náhuatl, Zacapoaxtla Náhuat.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Huaxcaleca

[nhq] 7,000 (1990 census). 55 monolinguals. Puebla in Chichiquila and Chilchotla towns. Alternate names: Huaxcaleca Aztec, Náhuatl de Chichiquila.  Dialects: 87% intelligibility with Highland Puebla Nahuatl [azz], 85% with Orizaba Nahuatl [nlv].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Cosoleacaque

[nhk] 5,140 (1990 census). 12 monolinguals. Veracruz, Cosoleacaque, Oteapan, Jáltipan de Morelos, Hidalgotitlán, Soconusco. Alternate names: Cosoleacaque Aztec, Náhuatl del Istmo-Cosoleacaque.  Dialects: 84% intelligibility with Pajapan [nhp], 83% with Mecayapan [nhx], 46% with Xoteapan. Not intelligible with Pipil [ppl] of El Salvador.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Mecayapan

[nhx] 20,000 (1994 SIL). South Veracruz, Mecayapan Municipio, Mecayapan and Tatahuicapan towns. Alternate names: Isthmus Aztec-Mecayapan, Náhuat de Mecayapan.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Pipil [ppl] of El Salvador.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Pajapan

[nhp] 7,000 (1990 census). 500 monolinguals. Veracruz, Pajapan, San Juan Volador, Santanón, Sayultepec, Jicacal towns. Alternate names: Náhuat de Pajapan.  Dialects: 83% intelligibility with Mecayapan (Isthmus Nahuatl), 94% with Oteapan (Cosoleacaque).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Michoacán

[ncl] 3,000 (1990 census). Michoacán, Maruata Pómaro coastal settlement. Alternate names: Mexicano, Michoacan Aztec, Nahual de Michoacán.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Morelos

[nhm] 18,700 (2000 census). 300 monolinguals. Morelos state, municipality Temixco, Cuentepec; municipality Miacatlán, Coatetelco; municipality Tepoztlán, Santa Catarina; municipality Tetela del Volcán, Hueyapan, Alpanocan; municipality Puente de Ixtla, Xoxocotla. state of Puebla (on the border to Morelos): municipality Acteopan, San Marcos Acteopan, San Felipe Toctla. Alternate names: Náhuatl de Cuentepec.  Dialects: 72% inherent intelligibility with Cuaohueyalta [ncj] (Northern Puebla), 69% with Atliaca [ngu] (Guerrero), 54% with Macuilocatl [nhv] (Western Huasteca), 40% with Yahualica [nhe] (Eastern Huasteca), 36% with Pómaro [ncl] (Michoacán), 34% with Tetelcingo [nhg], 27% with Chilac [npl] (Southeast Puebla), 19% with Tatóscac [azz] (Highland Puebla), 0% with Mecayapan [nhx] (Isthmus).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Northern Oaxaca

[nhy] 9,000 (1990 census). 1,400 monolinguals. Northwest Oaxaca, near Southeast Puebla Náhuatl, Santa María Teopoxco, San Antonio Nanahuatipan, San Gabriel Casa Blanca, Teotitlán del Camino, San Martín Toxpalan, Ignacio Zaragosa, Apixtepec, El Manzano de Mazatlán, Cosolapa, Tesonapa (one of the last 2 towns in Veracruz). In Puebla: Coxcatlán. Alternate names: Náhuatl del Norte de Oaxaca.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility with Orizaba Nahuatl [nlv], 76% with Southeast Puebla [npl] and Canoa, 75% with North Puebla [ncj], 48% with Tatóscac [azz].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Northern Puebla

[ncj] 60,000 (1990 census). North Puebla, Naupan. Alternate names: Náhuatl del Norte de Puebla, North Puebla Aztec.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Ometepec

[nht] 430 (1990 census). South Guerrero, Arcelia, Acatepec, Quetzalapa de Azoyú, Rancho de Cuananchinicha, and El Carmen; Oaxaca, Juxtlahuaca District, Cruz Alta and San Vicente Piñas towns; and Putla District, Concepción Guerrero. Alternate names: Ometepec Aztec.  Dialects: May be 3 languages.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Orizaba

[nlv] 120,000 (1991 SIL). Veracruz, Orizaba area. Alternate names: Náhuatl de la Sierra de Zongolica, Orizaba Aztec.  Dialects: Ixhuatlancillo Nahuatl. 79% intelligibility with Nahuatl [nhm] (Morelos) (most similar).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Santa María la Alta

[nhz] 2,470 (2000). 9 monolinguals. Puebla, Santa María la Alta, Atenayuca. A pocket northwest of Tehuacán, off Puebla-Tehuacán highway. Alternate names: Náhuatl de Santa María la Alta.  Dialects: 60% intelligibility with Pómaro [ncl] (Michoacán), 53% with Huatlatlauca, Puebla; 50% with Zautla [azz] (Highland Puebla), Chilac [npl] (Southeastern Puebla); 40% with Zongolica [nlv] (Orizaba); 33% with Mecayapan [nhx], Veracruz (Isthmus); 30% with Canoa, Puebla.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Sierra Negra

[nsu] 38,000 (2000 census). 16,000 monolinguals. South Puebla. 13 towns. Alternate names: Náhuatl de la Sierra Negra.  Dialects: Coyomeapan, Zoquitlan. Most similar to Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl [npl]; next most similar to Nahuatl [nhm] (Morelos).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Southeastern Puebla

[npl] 92,000 (1991 SIL). Southeast Puebla, Tehuacán region, Chilac and San Sebastián Zinacatepec area. Alternate names: Náhuatl del Sureste de Puebla, Tehuacán Náhuatl.  Dialects: Most similar to Sierra Negra Nahuatl [nsu]. Approximately 60% intelligibility of Morelos Nahuatl [nhm].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Tabasco

[nhc] Extinct. Tabasco, Cupilco and Tecominoacan. Alternate names: Tabasco Aztec.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Temascaltepec

[nhv] 310 (1990 census). State of Mexico, San Mateo Almomoloa, Santa Ana, La Comunidad, and Potrero de San José, southwest of Toluca. Alternate names: Almomoloya Náhuatl, Temascaltepec Aztec.  Dialects: 53% intelligibility with Coatepec, Guerrero [ngu]; 45% with Pómaro, Michoacán [ncl]; 40% with Santa Catarina, Morelos [nhm]; 10% with Tlaxpanaloya, Puebla [ncj].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Tetelcingo

[nhg] 3,500 (1990 census). Morelos, Tetelcingo. Alternate names: Tetelcingo Aztec.  Dialects: Distinct from Morelos Nahuatl [nhm].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Tlamacazapa

[nuz] 1,550 (1990 census). 12 monolinguals. Tlamacazapa, 1 hour from Taxco. Dialects: Different from Morelos Nahuatl [nhm], Guerrero Nahuatl [ngu]. 79% inherent intelligibility with Guerrero.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Western Huasteca

[nhw] 400,000 (1991 SIL). Tamazunchale, San Luis Potosí is center; Hidalgo. 1,500 villages. Alternate names: Náhuatl de la Huasteca Occidental, Náhuatl de Tamazunchale, Western Huasteca Aztec.  Dialects: Western Huasteca Náhuatl. 85% intelligibility between Eastern [nhe] and Western Huasteca Nahuatl. Separate literature needed for 100,000 in a Central dialect.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Zacatlán-Ahuacatlán-Tepetzintla

[nhi] 17,100 (2007 SIL). North of Puebla City, Zacatlán: San Miguel Tenango, Xonotla, Zoquitla, Yehuala, Cuacuilco, Cuacuila, Tetelatzingo, Tlalitzlipa; Ahuacatlán: Cualtepec, Ixquihuacán; Tepetzintla: Xochitlasco, Tenantitla, Chachayohquila, Santa Catarina Omitlán. Alternate names: Ahuacatlán and Tepetzintla, Ahuacatlán y Tepetzintla, Aztec of Zacatlán, Náhuatl de Zacatlán, Tenango Nahuatl.  Dialects: Zacatlán-Ahuacatlán-Tepetzintla Nahuatl, Tlalitzlipa Nahuatl. Most similar to Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl [npl], 50%–60% intelligibility with Sierra Nahuatl and Northern Puebla Nahuatl [ncj], 80%–90% with Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl [npl], 80% with Orizaba Nahuatl [nlv]. The Tlalitzlipa dialect 77% inherent intelligibility of Tlaxpanaloya [ncj] (Northern Puebla), 58% of Macuilocatl [nhw] (Western Huasteca Nahuatl), 41% of Tatóscac [azz] (Highland Puebla).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Opata

[opt] 15. 11 in Distrito Federal, 4 in State of Mexico (1993 Instituto Nacional Indigenista). Sonora: Nacori, Bacahora, Suaqui, Sahuaripa, Arivechi, Onavas. Tecoripa is traditional area. Alternate names: Eudeve.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Cahita  Nearly extinct.
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Otomi, Eastern Highland

[otm] 49,300 (2007). 4,700 monolinguals. Hidalgo, Huehuetla and San Bartolo; Veracruz, Tlachichilco and Ixhuatlán. Alternate names: Eastern Otomi, Otomí de Huehuetla, Otomí de la Sierra, Otomí del Oriente, Sierra Oriental Otomi, Yuhu.  Dialects: 81% intelligibility with Tenango [otn] (most similar), 50% of Mezquital [ote].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Estado de México

[ots] 10,000 (1990 census). 300 monolinguals. State of Mexico. Alternate names: Hñatho, Otomí de San Felipe Santiago, Otomí del Estado de México, State of Mexico Otomi.  Dialects: San Felipe Santiago Otomí. 73% intelligibility with Mezquital Otomi [ote] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Ixtenco

[otz] 740 (1990 census). 4 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 5,356 (1990 census). Tlaxcala, San Juan Bautista Ixtenco. Alternate names: Southeastern Otomí.  Dialects: 41% intelligibility with Estado De México Otomi [ots] (most similar), 23% with Mezquital [ote] and Eastern Highland Otomi [otm], 22% with Tenango Otomi [otn].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Mezquital

[ote] 100,000 in Mexico (1990 census). 100 in North Carolina, USA. Hidalgo, Mezquital Valley; Florida, USA. Also in United States. Alternate names: Hñahñu, Otomí del Valle del Mezquital.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Querétaro

[otq] 33,000 (1990 census). Amealco Municipio: San Ildefonso, Santiago Mexquititlán; Acambay Municipio; Tolimán Municipio. Alternate names: Hñohño, Northwestern Otomi, Otomí de Querétaro, Western Otomi.  Dialects: 78% intelligibility with Mezquital [ote] (most similar), lower in outlying areas.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Temoaya

[ott] 37,000 (1990 census). 850 monolinguals. State of Mexico, Temoyaya Municipio, San Pedro Arriba, San Pedro Abajo, Enthavi, Solalpan, Jiquipilco el Viejo. 16 barrios. Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Tenango

[otn] 10,000 (1990 census). Hidalgo, Puebla, San Nicolás. Alternate names: Otomí de Tenango.  Dialects: 53% intelligibility with Eastern Highland Otomi [otm] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Texcatepec

[otx] 12,000 (1990 census). 3,000 monolinguals. Northwest Veracruz, Texcatepec Municipio: Texcatepec, Ayotuxtla, Tzicatlán; Zontecomatlán Municipio: Hueytepec, Amajac. Alternate names: Northeastern Otomí, Otomí de Texcatepec.  Dialects: 70%–79% intelligibility with Eastern Otomi [otm], 57% of Ixmiquilpan, 44% of Tolimán, 40% of San Felipe [pow], 20% of Ixtenco [otz].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Tilapa

[otl] 400 (1990 census). State of Mexico, Santiago Tilapa, between Mexico, D.F. and Toluca. Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Paipai

[ppi] 300 (1990 census). Santa Catarina, Los Pocitos in Valle de la Trinidad, Estado Valle de la Trinidad, Rancho Aguascalientes or La Palmita; Baja California Norte, Ensenada, south of the Diegueño. Alternate names: Akwa’ala.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Pai 
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Pame, Central

[pbs] 4,350 (1990 census). San Luis Potosí, Santa María Acapulco. Alternate names: Chichimeca, Pame de Santa María Acapulco, Pame del Centro.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Pamean 
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Pame, Northern

[pmq] 5,620 (2000). San Luis Potosí, Ciudad del Maíz, Alaquines, Tamasopo, Rayón Municipalities. Alternate names: Pame del Norte, Xi’iuy.  Dialects: 10%–15% intelligibility with Santa María Acapulco; 87% intelligibility with Alaquines by La Palma.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Pamean 
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Pame, Southern

[pmz] Extinct. Jiliapan. Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Pamean 
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Pima Bajo

[pia] 1,000 (1989 SIL). Central Sonora-Chihuahua border, scattered. Alternate names: Lower Piman, Mountain Pima, Névome.  Dialects: Chihuahua Pima Bajo (Lower Piman), Sonora Pima Bajo. The Sonora dialect, Pima Bajo and Pima [ood] of USA are similar. Lexical similarity: 85% with Pima [ood] (Tohono O’odham) of USA and Northern Tepehuan [ntp].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman 
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Plautdietsch

[pdt] 40,000 in Mexico (1996). Chihuahua (Cuauhtemoc, Virginias, Buenos Aires, Capulín), Durango (Nuevo Ideal, Canatlán), Campeche (Chávez, Progreso, Yalnon), Zacatecas (La Honda, La Batea). Alternate names: Low German, Mennonite German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
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Popoloca, Coyotepec

[pbf] 500 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 7,000. Puebla, west of Tehuacán City, east of Ahuatempan, Coyotepec, and San Mateo. Dialects: San Vicente Coyotepec Popoloca, San Mateo Zoyamazalco Popoloca. 41% intelligibility with Otlaltepec [pow], 23% with Atzingo [poe], 15% with Tlacoyalco Northern Popoloca [pls]. San Mateo dialect may be intelligible with Coyotepec or San Felipe dialects or may be a separate language.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, Mezontla

[pbe] 2,000 (1993 SIL). Puebla. 1 town. Alternate names: Los Reyes Metzontla Popoloca, Southern Popoloca.  Dialects: 52% intelligibility with Atzingo Popoloca [poe], 35% with Tlacoyalco (Northern Popoloca) [pls], 11% with Otlaltepec [pow].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, San Felipe Otlaltepec

[pow] 3,000 (2000 SIL). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,585. Puebla. 3 towns: San Felipe Otlaltepec, Santa María Nativitas, Huejonapan. Alternate names: Popoloca de San Felipe Otlaltepec, Popoloca del Poniente, Western Popoloca.  Dialects: Santa María Nativitas, Huejonapan.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, San Juan Atzingo

[poe] 5,000 (1991 SIL). Puebla, San Juan Atzingo. Alternate names: Atzingo Popoloca, Eastern Popoloca, Ngigua, Popoloca de San Juan Atzingo, Popoloca del Oriente, Southern Popoloca.  Dialects: 76% intelligibility with Metzontla Popoloca [pbe] (most simlar), 26% of San Felipe Popoloca [pow].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, San Luís Temalacayuca

[pps] 4,730 (1994 SIL). Puebla, San Luís Temalacayuca. Alternate names: Popoloca de San Luis Temalacayuca.  Dialects: San Luís has 84% intelligibility with San Marcos [pls], 22% with Atzingo [poe], 8% with Otlaltepec [pow].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, San Marcos Tlalcoyalco

[pls] 5,000 (1993 SIL). Puebla, San Marcos Tlacoyalco. Alternate names: Northern Popoloca, Popoloca de San Marcos Tlalcoyalco.  Dialects: San Luis [pps] has 90% intelligibility with San Marcos.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, Santa Inés Ahuatempan

[pca] 4,000 (2000 SIL). Few monolinguals. Puebla, west of Coyotepec and Tehuacán. 2 towns. Alternate names: Ngigua, Popoloca de Santa Inés Ahuatempan.  Dialects: Ahuatempan Popoloca, Todos Santos Almolonga Popoloca. 75% intelligibility with San Felipe Popoloca [pow](most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoluca, Highland

[poi] 30,000 (1991 SIL). Veracruz, Soteapan. Alternate names: Highland Popoluca, Popoluca de la Sierra.  Dialects: More similar to Zoque than to Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Veracruz Zoque 
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Popoluca, Oluta

[plo] 100 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1990 census). Southeast Veracruz, Oluta, inland, west of Texistepec. Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Veracruz Mixe 
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Popoluca, Sayula

[pos] 4,000 (1990 census). 14 monolinguals. Veracruz, Sayula. Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Veracruz Mixe 
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Popoluca, Texistepec

[poq] 430 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 15,779 (1990 census). Southeast Veracruz, Texistepec, east of Oluta. Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Veracruz Zoque 
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Purepecha

[tsz] 40,000 in Mexico (2005 census). Population total all countries: 40,850. Michoacán. Also in United States. Alternate names: Phorhépecha, Porhé, Tarascan, Tarasco.  Dialects: Cuanajo, Ihuatzio, Isla Janitzio, San Jeronimo, Puacuaro, Cienega de Zacapu. All Purépecha varieties have functional intelligibility with other Purépecha varieties; Eastern varieties have 60%–80% intelligibility with the Western. A standard variety is emerging through radio and literature.  Classification: Tarascan 
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Purepecha, Western Highland

[pua] 135,000 in Mexico (2005 census). Michoacán, western mountains, Zamora on north edge, Los Reyes de Salgado on southwest corner, Paracho on east edge, including Pamatácuaro. Also in United States. Alternate names: las Sierras, Purépecha, Purépecha del Oeste de, Sierra Occidental, Tarascan, Tarasco, Western Highland Purépecha.  Dialects: Cañada de los Once Pueblos, Cantera, Pamatacuaro, Angahuán, Nurío, Arantepacua, Cheran. All Purépecha varieties have functional intelligibility with other Purépecha varieties: the Western varieties have 60%–80% intelligibility with the Eastern. A standard variety is emerging through radio and literature.  Classification: Tarascan 
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Seri

[sei] 900 (2007 SIL). Sonora coast. 2 villages. Dialects: A few linguists have posited a relationship to Hokan.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Spanish

[spa] 86,200,000 in Mexico (1995).  Alternate names: Castellano, Español.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Tacanec

[mtz] 1,200 in Mexico (1990 census). Buenos Aires, hills above Motozintla, and eastern Chiapas, Mazapa. Alternate names: Mame, Tacana Mam, Tacaneco.  Classification: Mayan, Quichean-Mamean, Greater Mamean, Mamean 
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Tarahumara, Central

[tar] 55,000 (2000 SIL). 10,000 monolingual. Southwest Chihuahua, from Cuautemoc, southwest to Creel, down Urique River, east up Sinforosa Canyon, southeast to Chinantu, north to Balleza. Alternate names: Samachique Tarahumara, Tarahumara del Centro, Alta Tarahumara, Ralámuli de la Tarahumara Alta.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara 
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Tarahumara, Northern

[thh] 300 (1993 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1993 SIL). Chihuahua, Santa Rosa Ariseachi, Agua Caliente Ariseachi, Bilaguchi, Tomochi, La Nopalera towns. Alternate names: Ariseachi Tarahumara, Tarahumara del Norte.  Dialects: 45% intelligibility with Central Tarahumara [tar], 25% with Tarahumara Baja.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara 
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Tarahumara, Southeastern

[tcu]  Chihuahua, Chinatú. Alternate names: Tarahumara de Chinatú, Tarahumara del Sureste, Chinatú, Balleza, Turuachi.  Dialects: Chinatú Tarahumara.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara 
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Tarahumara, Southwestern

[twr] 100 (1983 SIL). Chihuahua, Tubare. Alternate names: Tarahumara del Suroeste, Tubare.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara 
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Tarahumara, Western

[tac] 39,800 (1996 census). Chihuahua, Guazapares, Urique, and Uruachi towns. Alternate names: Baja Tarahumara, Ralámuli de la Baja Tarahumara, Rarámuri, Rocoroibo, Tarahumara del Poniente, Lowland Tarahumara.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara 
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Tectitec

[ttc] 1,000 in Mexico. Chiapas, Amatenango de la Frontera and Mazapa de Madero. Alternate names: Teco, Tectitán Mame.  Classification: Mayan, Quichean-Mamean, Greater Mamean, Mamean 
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Tepecano

[tep] Extinct. Northwest Jalisco near Bolaños. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman, Southern Tepehuan 
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Tepehua, Huehuetla

[tee] 3,000 (1982 SIL). Northeast Hidalgo, Huehuetla; Puebla, half the town of Mecapalapa. Alternate names: Tepehua de Hidalgo, Tepehua de Huehuetla.  Dialects: 70% intelligibility with Pisa Flores [tpp] (most similar).  Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua 
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Tepehua, Pisaflores

[tpp] 4,000 (1990 census). Veracruz, Pisaflores, Ixhuatlán de Madero, one other town. Dialects: 59% intelligibility with Huehuetla [tee] (most similar), 40% or less with Tlachichilco [tpt].  Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua 
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Tepehua, Tlachichilco

[tpt] 3,000 (1990 SIL). Veracruz, Tlachichilco. Dialects: 37% intelligibility with Pisa Flores [tpp] (most similar).  Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua 
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Tepehuan, Northern

[ntp] 6,200 (2005 census). South Chihuahua, Baborigame area. Alternate names: Tepehuán del Norte.  Dialects: Related to Pima Bajo [pia], Tohono O’odham [ood], Southeastern Tepehuan [stp], Southwestern Tepehuan [twr].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman 
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Tepehuan, Southeastern

[stp] 10,600 (2005 census). Southeast Durango, Mezquital Municipality. Santa María Ocotán is cultural and religious center. Alternate names: Tepehuán del Sureste, Tepehuano.  Dialects: 78% intelligibility with Southwestern Tepehuan [tla].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman, Southern Tepehuan 
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Tepehuan, Southwestern

[tla] 8,700 (2005 census). Southwest Durango, Lajas, Taxicaringa, Teneraca. Alternate names: Tepehuán del Suroeste.  Dialects: 55% intelligibility with Southeastern Tepehuan [stp].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman, Southern Tepehuan 
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Tojolabal

[toj] 36,000 (1990 census). 7,700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 36,000. Chiapas, Margaritas, Altamirano. Alternate names: Chañabal, Comiteco.  Classification: Mayan, Kanjobalan-Chujean, Chujean 
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Totonac, Coyutla

[toc] 48,100 (2000). All Totonac languages: 196,003 (1980 census). Puebla, foot of mountains north of ‘Sierra Totonaca’ and Olintla River. Alternate names: Totonaco de Coyutla.  Dialects: Cerro Grande Totonac. Most similar to Highland Totonac [tos] with many similarities to Papantla [top].  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán

[tlp] 15,100 (2000). Veracruz, highlands, middle of main highlands dialect. Alternate names: Santo Domingo Totonac, Totonaco de Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán.  Dialects: 93% intelligibility in Nonacatlán. Linguistically between Highland and Northern Totonac.  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Highland

[tos] 120,000 (1982 SIL). Zacatlán, Puebla, Veracruz. Alternate names: Sierra Totonac, Totonaco de la Sierra.  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Papantla

[top] 80,000 (1982 SIL). Veracruz. Alternate names: Lowland Totonaca, Totonaco de Papantla.  Dialects: 40% intelligibility with Highland Totonac [tos] (most similar).  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Tecpatlán

[tcw] 540 (2000 INEGI). 20%–30% monolingual. The 600 member community of Tecpatlán has 540 who identify themselves as local language speakers. Northeast Puebla state, Tecpatlán village, 2 communities NW on tributary of Necaxa River. Dialects: Most similar to Upper Necaxa Totonac [tku]. The 600 member community of Tecpatlán, has 540 who identify themselves as local language speakers. High levels of bilingualism in Nahuatl. Many may be primarily Nahuatl speakers. Northern Totonac materials are difficult to understand.  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Upper Necaxa

[tku] 3,400 (2000 INEGI). 20%–30% monolingual. Ethnic population: 5,800. Northeast Puebla, Necaxa River Valley, Chicontla, Patla, Cacahuatlán, and San Pedro Tlalontongo towns. Dialects: Most similar to Tecpatlan Totonac [tcw]. Northern Totonac materials are difficult to understand.  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Ozumatlán

[tqt] 1,800 (1990 census), decreasing. Puebla, Ozomatlán, Tepetzintla de Galeana, Cuahueyatla. Alternate names: Totonaco de Ozomatlán, Xinulajgsipij tutunaku, Totonaco norte de Huauchinango.  Dialects: 79% intelligibility with Highland Totonac [tos], 75% with Northern Totonac, 67% with Zihuateutla, Puebla, 43% with Papantla [top].  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Xicotepec de Juárez

[too] 3,000 (2000 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 13,733 (2000 WCD). Northeast Puebla, Xicotepec de Juárez, and Veracruz. 30 towns. Alternate names: Northern Totonac, Totonaco de Villa Juárez.  Dialects: Zihuateutla Totonac. 87% intelligibility with Ozumatlán (most similar).  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Yecuatla

[tlc] 500 (1994 SIL). Near south coast, Veracruz, Yecuatla, Misantla. Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Triqui, Chicahuaxtla

[trs] 6,000 (1982). Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, San José Xochistlán; Putla District, Santo Domingo del Estado. Alternate names: Chicahuaxtla Trique, Triqui de San Andrés Chicahuaxtla.  Dialects: Laguna. 74% intelligibility with Copala [trc]. Lexical similarity: 100% with Laguna dialect, 87% with Itunyoso [trq], 78% with Sabana.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Trique 
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Triqui, Copala

[trc] 25,000 in Mexico (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 30,000. Oaxaca, Juxtlahuaca, San Juan Copala. Over 1,000 speakers: Sonora, including Miguel Alemán (both settled and seasonal); Baja California, San Quintín valley (mostly settled); Coastal California, including Greenfield; Mexico City. Smaller colonies in most tourist centers of Mexico. Also in United States. Alternate names: Copala Trique, Triqui Bajo, Triqui de San Juan Copala.  Dialects: 56% intelligibility with Chicahuaxtla [trs].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Trique 
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Triqui, San Martín Itunyoso

[trq] 2,000 (1983). Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco. Alternate names: San Martín Itunyoso Trique, Triqui de San Martín Itunyoso.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 87% with Laguna, Chicahuaxtla [trs]; 84% with Sabana, San Miguel.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Trique 
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Tubar

[tbu] Extinct. Chihuahua, where Río San Ignacio (Verde) and Río Urique meet in southwest near Sinaloa and Sonora borders. Alternate names: Tubare.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tubar 
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Tzeltal, Bachajón

[tzb] 100,000 (1993 SIL). 50,000 are monolingual. All Tzeltal varieties: 215,145 (1980 census). East central Chiapas, Chilon and Ocosingo municipalities. Alternate names: Lowland Tzeltal, Tzeltal de Ocosingo.  Dialects: Amatenango del Valle.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzeltal, Oxchuc

[tzh] 90,000 (2000 S. Hoffman). 50,000 monolinguals. East central Chiapas, Oxchuc area. Alternate names: Cancuc, Chanal, Highland Tzeltal, Tenango, Tenejapa.  Dialects: Chanal Cancuc, Tenango.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, Chamula

[tzc] 130,000 (1990 census). All Tzotzil languages: 265,000 (1990 census). West central Chiapas, San Juan Chamula, Huitiupan, Simojovel, San Juan del Bosque, San Cristóbal Las Casas, Bochil, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacan, Ocozocoautla, Ixtapa (Nibak), Jitotol, Teopisca, Amatan, Ishuatan. Alternate names: Chamula.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, Chenalhó

[tze] 35,000 (1990 census). Chiapas, Chenalhó region. Alternate names: Chenaló.  Dialects: San Pedro Chenalhó, San Pablo Chalchihuitan, Santa Catarina Pantelho, San Miguel Mitontic. Partially intelligible with San Andrés Larrainzar Chamula [tzs].  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, Huixtán

[tzu] 20,000 (1990 census). Chiapas, Huixtán region. Alternate names: Huixteco, Tzotzil de Huixtán.  Dialects: Huixtán, Angel Albino Corzo, La Concordia, Villa Corzo.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, San Andrés Larrainzar

[tzs] 50,000 (1990 census). West central Chiapas. Alternate names: Tzotzil de San Andrés Larrainzar.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, Venustiano Carranza

[tzo] 4,230 (1990 census). 58 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 60,000 (1990 census). Central Chiapas, Venustiano Carranza Municipio, Venustiano Carranza, El Puerto, and El Paraiso de Grijalva towns. Alternate names: San Bartolomé Venustiano Carranza Tzotzil.  Dialects: 66% intelligibility with Chenalhó Tzotzil [tze], 65% with Zinacantán [tzz], 57% with Chamula [tzc], 56% with Huixtán [tzu].  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, Zinacantán

[tzz] 25,000 (1990 census). West central Chiapas. Alternate names: Zinacanteco Tzotzil.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Yaqui

[yaq] 14,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Population total all countries: 14,620. Sonora. Also in United States. Dialects: Partially intelligible with Mayo [mfy].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Cahita 
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Yucatec Maya Sign Language

[msd] 16 deaf people out of a village of 500 in the primary location (1999 H. Smith). All use sign (Sacks 1989). Concentrated in south central Yucatán, sizeable concentration in northern Quintana Roo (1999 H. Smith). Chican, formerly called ‘Nohya’ (a pseudonym thought necessary at first to protect the deaf population), Yucatán. Isolated villages (at least 2 in Oxkutzcab, 4 in Xyatil, 1 in Carillo Puerto) throughout a wide portion of lowland Mayan region. Kinil is also mentioned (1997 H. Smith). Alternate names: Nohya Sign Language.  Dialects: Dialects of Yucatán and Quintana Roo probably differ, but users have no contact with each other. There is a report of a person in Guatemala who uses related signs. Not intelligible with Mexican Sign Language [mfs] used elsewhere in Mexico (R. Johnson and A. Bickford), and presumably not with any other sign languages.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Zapotec

[zap] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 444,822. 
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Zapotec, Aloápam

[zaq] 3,400 (2000). Northe Oaxaca, San Miguel Aloápam, San Isidro Aloápam. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Aloápam.  Dialects: Distinct from Teococuilco Zapotec [zae].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Amatlán

[zpo] 10,000 (2000 SIL). 20% monolinguals. South Oaxaca, east of Miahuatlán. 2 towns. Alternate names: Dizhze, Zapoteco de San Cristóbal Amatlán, Zapoteco del Noreste de Miahuatlán.  Dialects: San Cristóbal Amatlán, San Francisco Logueche. Most similar to Loxicha [ztp].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Asunción Mixtepec

[zoo] 100 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,476 (1990 census). Central Oaxaca, southwest of Oaxaca City, Asunción Mixtepec and another town. Alternate names: North Central Zimatlan Zapotec, Zapoteco de Asunción Mixtepec.  Dialects: 22% intelligibility with Ayoquesco [zaf] (most similar) 3% with San Pedro el Alto.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec  Nearly extinct.
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Zapotec, Ayoquesco

[zaf] 880 (1990 census). 9 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Santa María Ayoquesco, Santa Cruz Nexila, San Andrés Zabache, San Martín Lachila. Alternate names: Western Ejutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Ayoquesco.  Dialects: Most similar to Ocotlán Zapotec [zac] (23% intelligibility).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Cajonos

[zad] 5,000 in Mexico (1993 SIL). Many monolinguals. North Oaxaca, San Pedro Cajonos, San Francisco Cajonos, San Mateo Cajonos, San Miguel Cajonos, San Pablo Yaganiza, Xagacía towns. Also in United States. Alternate names: Southern Villa Alta Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro Cajonos.  Dialects: Cajonos Zapotec, Yaganiza, Xagacía Zapotec, San Mateo Zapotec. Yaganiza and Xagacía dialects are similar. Major differences between those 2 towns and the other 4 towns; adaptation of literature will probably be needed. 73% intelligibility with San Pedro Cajonos with Zoogocho [zpq] (most similar other Zapotec).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Chichicapan

[zpv] 2,720 (2005 census). Central Oaxaca. Alternate names: Eastern Ocotlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Baltazar Chichicapan.  Dialects: 59% intelligibility with Ocotlán Zapotec [zac] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Choapan

[zpc] 12,000 (2007 SIL). North central Oaxaca and Veracruz, Comaltepec. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Choapan, Zapoteco de San Juan Comaltepec.  Dialects: 60% intelligibility with Zoogocho [zpq] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Coatecas Altas

[zca] 4,880 (2005 census). 100 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Ejutla. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Juan Coatecas Altas.  Dialects: Most similar to San Gregorio Ozolotepec (83% intelligibility) and Miahuatlán [zam] (Cuitla).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Coatlán

[zps] 500 (1992 SIL). Southern Oaxaca near Chatino region, about 7 towns, but mainly Santo Domingo Coatlán. Alternate names: San Miguel Zapotec, Western Miahuatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Coatlán.  Dialects: 54% intelligibility with Loxicha (most similar), 51% with San Gregorio Ozolotepec, 44% with Cuixtla, 29% with Logueche, 16% with San Juan Mixtepec, 1% with Santa Catalina Quierí.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, El Alto

[zpp] 900 (1990 census). 29 monolinguals. West Oaxaca, San Pedro el Alto, San Antonino el Alto, San Andrés el Alto. Alternate names: South Central Zimatlan Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro el Alto.  Dialects: 20% intelligibility with Totomachapan (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Elotepec

[zte] 200 (1990 census). West Oaxaca, west of Zimatlán. 1 village. Alternate names: Papabuco, Zapoteco de San Juan Elotepec.  Dialects: 68% intelligibility with Santa María Zaniza [zpw] (most similar), 10% with Texmelucan [zpz].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Guevea de Humboldt

[zpg] 4,720 (2000 census). East Oaxaca. Alternate names: Northern Isthmus Zapotec, Zapoteco de Guevea de Humboldt.  Dialects: 49% intelligibility with Lachiguiri [zpa] (Northwestern Tehuantepec; most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Güilá

[ztu] 9,500 (1990 census). 2,300 monolinguals. Oaxaca, San Dionisio Ocotepec municipality, San Pablo Güilá, Matatlan agencia. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Dionisio Ocotepec, Zapoteco de San Pablo Güilá.  Dialects: San Dionisio dialect has 80% inherent intelligibility with Mitla [zaw]. Güilá has 83% with San Juan Guelavía [zab], 80% with Chichicapan [zpv], 69% with Tilquiapan [zts], 41% with Mitla, 35% with Ocotlán [zac], 5% with Santa María Albarradas [ztn].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Isthmus

[zai] 85,000 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Tehuantepec, and Juchitán. Alternate names: Zapoteco del Istmo.  Dialects: 18% intelligibility with Santa María Petapa (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Lachiguiri

[zpa] 5,000 (1977 SIL). Oaxaca, north of Isthmus, southwest of Guevea de Humboldt. Neighboring municipalities: Santa María Totolapilla, Jalapa, and Magdalena towns. Alternate names: Northwestern Tehuantepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santiago Lachiguiri.  Dialects: 62% intelligibility in Lachixila (Northeastern Yautepec) and Juchitán [zai] (Isthmus; most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Lachixío

[zpl] 6,500 (1990 census). 50% monolingual. West Oaxaca, east Sola de Vega, Santa Marma María Lachixío, San Vicente Lachixío towns. Alternate names: Dialu, Eastern Sola de Vega Zapotec, Zapoteco de Lachixío.  Dialects: Southwestern Zimatlán dialect most distinct. 73% intelligibility with San Pedro el Alto [zpp], 80% with San Miguel Mixtepec [zpm] and San Mateo Mixtepec, 99% with the San Vicente Lachixío dialect.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Lapaguía-Guivini

[ztl] 4,200 (1983 SIL). Oaxaca, southeast Miahuatlán, Lapaguía, San Felipe Lachillo, La Merced del Potrero, San Juan Guivini towns. Alternate names: Santiago Lapaguia Zapotec, Zapoteco de Lapaguía-Guivini, Zapoteco de Santiago Lapaguía.  Dialects: Lapaguía, Guivini. 43% intelligibility with San Juan Mixtepec Zapotec [zpm]; Lapaguía Dialect 90% intelligibility with Guivini Dialect.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Loxicha

[ztp] 75,000 (2000 census). In many towns perhaps 70% of the men and 90% of the women are monolingual. South Oaxaca, between Miahuatlán, Pochutla, and Puerto Escondido: San Andrés Paxtlán, San Miguel Suchixtepec, San Pedro el Alto, San Agustín Loxicha, San Bartolomé Loxicha, Candelaria Loxicha, San Pedro Pochutla, Santa María Colotepec, San Francisco Cozoaltepec, Santo Domingo Morelos and Santa María Tonameca. Alternate names: Diste, Western Pochutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Loxicha.  Dialects: San Agustín Loxicha, San Bartolomé Loxicha, San Andrés Paxtlán, and San Miguel Suchixtepec. Distinct from San Baltázar Loxicha [zpx] and Santa Catarina Loxicha.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Mazaltepec

[zpy] 2,200 (1990 census). 24 monolinguals. West Oaxaca Valley, Etla District, northwest of Oaxaca City; Santo Tomás Mazaltepec, San Pedro y San Pablo Etla, San Andrés Zautla. Alternate names: Etla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santo Tomás Mazaltepec.  Dialects: 10% intelligibility with San Juan Guelavía [zab], none with other Zapotec varieties.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Miahuatlán

[zam] 1,000 (2007 SIL). South central Oaxaca, Cuixtla. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Miahuatlán.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Mitla

[zaw] 19,500 (1983 SIL). Less than 1% monolingual. 4,500 in Matatlán (1983 SIL). Oaxaca, Mitla Valley. Alternate names: Didxsaj, East Central Tlacolula Zapotec, East Valley Zapotec.  Dialects: Santiago Matatlán Zapotec (Matatlán Zapotec). 75% intelligibility with San Juan Guelavía [zab] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Mixtepec

[zpm] 7,000 (1991 SIL). South Oaxaca. Alternate names: Eastern Miahuatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Juan Mixtepec.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility with Santiago Lapaguía [zti] (most similar). A separate language from San Agustín Mixtepec Zapotec [ztm].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Ocotlán

[zac] 15,000 (1993 SIL). Central Oaxaca around Santiago Apóstol, Ocotlán. Alternate names: Ocotlán Oeste Zapotec, Zapoteco del Poniente de Ocotlán.  Dialects: 67% intelligibility with Tilquiapan [zts] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Ozolotepec

[zao] 6,500 (1990 census). People in the towns of San Marcial, San Gregorio, San Esteban, and Santo Domingo are monolingual. Oaxaca, southeast Miahuatlán, halfway between Miahuatlán and coast. Most towns with ‘Ozolotepec’ in the name are included, but not San Francisco Ozolotepec. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Ozolotepec.  Dialects: San Marcial Ozolotepec Zapotec, San Gregorio Ozolotepec Zapotec. 87% intelligibility with Cuixtla [zam] (Central Miahuatlán), 84% with Candelaria Loxicha (Northeastern Pochutla).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Petapa

[zpe] 8,000 (1990 census). 220 monolinguals. Oaxaca, north of the Isthmus, Juchitán District, Santa María Petapa, Santo Domingo Petapa. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Santa María Petapa.  Dialects: 55% intelligibility with Guevea [zpg] (most similar), 34% with Lachiguiri [zpa].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Quiavicuzas

[zpj] 4,000 (1990 census). 180 monolinguals. Oaxaca, northeast corner of Yautepec District, northeast of Pan American highway, east of Mitla. San Carlos Yautepec Municipio: Santiago Quiavicuzas; Nejapa de Madero Municipio: San Juan Lachixila, Corral de Piedra, Carrizal; Guevea de Humboldt Municipio: Guadalupe Guevea. Alternate names: Northeastern Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Quiavicuzas, Zapoteco de San Juan Lachixila O.  Dialects: 59% intelligibility with Lachiguiri [zpa] (Northwestern Tehuantepec; most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Quioquitani-Quierí

[ztq] 4,000 (1991 SIL). Oaxaca, Yautepec: Santa Catarina Quioquitani, Santa Catalina Quierí, Santo Tomás Quierí, Santo Domingo Lachivitó, San Pedro Leapi, Santiago Lachivía. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Quioquitani y Quierí.  Dialects: Most similar to Eastern Miahuatlán [zam].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Rincón

[zar] 29,200 (2000). North Oaxaca. Alternate names: Northern Villa Alta Zapotec, Zapoteco de Yagallo, Zapoteco del Rincón.  Dialects: 64% intelligibility with Choapan [zpc] (most similar). Temaxcalapan may be a separate language.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, San Agustín Mixtepec

[ztm] 59 (1994 SIL). Oaxaca, Miahuatlán, San Agustín Mixtepec. Dialects: Distinct from San Juan Mixtepec Zapotec [zpm].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec  Nearly extinct.
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Zapotec, San Baltazar Loxicha

[zpx] 1,500 (1990 census). 19 monolinguals. Oaxaca, south of Oaxaca City, San Baltázar Loxicha, Santa Catarina Loxicha. Alternate names: Northwestern Pochutla Zapotec, San Baltázar Loxicha Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Baltázar Loxicha.  Dialects: 71% intelligibility with Santa María Coatlán [zps] (most similar), 63% with Cuixtla [zam] (Central Miahuatlán), 46.5% with San Vicente Coatlán [zpt].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, San Juan Guelavía

[zab] 28,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Population total all countries: 28,550. Central Oaxaca. Also in United States. Alternate names: Guelavía, Western Tlacolula Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Juan.  Dialects: Jalieza Zapotec, Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec, San Martín Tilcajete Zapotec. 20% intelligibility with Zegache (most similar); Jalieza 99% with San Juan Guelavía; Teotitlán del Valle 100% with San Juan Guelavía, but San Juan Guelavía only 59% with Teotitlán del Valle.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, San Pedro Quiatoni

[zpf] 14,800 (2000). Central Oaxaca, San Pedro Quiatoni, Salinas, Unión Juárez, about 20 nearby settlements. Alternate names: Eastern Tlacolula Zapotec, Quiatoni Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro Quiatoni.  Dialects: 76% intelligibility with Mitla [zaw] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, San Vicente Coatlán

[zpt] 3,380 (2005 census). 584 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Ejutla District, south of Oaxaca City, San Vicente Coatlán, a municipality town. Alternate names: Coatlán Zapotec, Southern Ejutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Vicente Coatlán.  Dialects: 75% intelligibility with San Baltázar Loxicha [ztp] (Northwestern Pochutla, most similar), 45% with Santa María Coatlán [zps].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santa Catarina Albarradas

[ztn] 1,000 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Santa Catarina Albarradas (also known as San Antonio Albarradas). Alternate names: Zapoteco de Santa Catarina Albarradas.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility with Santo Domingo Albarradas [zas]; Santo Domingo 52% with Santa Catarina. Differences in phonology and grammar.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santa Inés Yatzechi

[zpn] 2,240 (1990 census). Central Oaxaca, Zimatlán District, south of Oaxaca City, west of Ocotlán de Morelos. Alternate names: Southeastern Zimatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa Inés Yatzechi, Zapoteco de Zegache.  Dialects: Zaachila. 75% intelligibility with San Antonino Ocotlán [zac] (most similar). San Miguel Tilquiapan [zts] may be a dialect.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santa María Quiegolani

[zpi] 3,000 (1990 census). Central Oaxaca. Alternate names: Quiegolani Zapotec, Western Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Quiegolani.  Dialects: 60% intelligibility with San Juan Mixtepec (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santiago Xanica

[zpr] 2,500 (1990 census). Oaxaca, southeast Miahuatlán: Santiago Xanica, Santa María Coixtepec, San Andrés Lovene, San Antonio Ozolotepec. Alternate names: Xanica Zapotec.  Dialects: 72% intelligibility with San Gregorio Ozolotepec [zao], 70% with Cuixtla [zam] (Central Miahuatlán).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santo Domingo Albarradas

[zas] 5,500 (1980 census). Central Oaxaca, Santa María Albarradas, Santo Domingo Albarradas, San Miguel Albarradas. Alternate names: Albarradas Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santo Domingo Albarradas.  Dialects: 39% intelligibility with Mitla [zaw] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Sierra de Juárez

[zaa] 4,000 (1990 census). 150 monolinguals. North Oaxaca. Alternate names: Ixtlán Zapoteco, Zapoteco de Atepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Southeastern Ixtlán

[zpd] 6,000 (1992 SIL). North Oaxaca, Santa María Yavesía (center), Carrizal, Latuvi, Benito Juárez, Ixtlán de Juárez, Santa Catarina Lachatao, Llano Grande, La Trinidad, Nevería, San Miguel Amatlán, Capulalpan de Morelos, Santiago Xiacui, Natividad, Guelatao de Juárez. Alternate names: Latuvi Zapotec, Yavesía Zapotec, Zapoteco del Sureste de Ixtlán.  Dialects: 63% intelligibility with Atepec [zaa] (Sierra de Juárez), 43% with Teococuilco [zae].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Southern Rincon

[zsr] 12,000 (1990 census). Oaxaca. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Rincón Sur.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Tabaa

[zat] 2,000 (1992 SIL). Oaxaca. Alternate names: Central Villa Alta Zapotec, Zapoteco de Tabaa.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Tejalapan

[ztt] 120 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 4,656. Oaxaca, Etla District, San Felipe Tejalapan. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Felipe Tejalapan, Zapoteco de Tejalápam.  Dialects: Distinct from Santo Tomás Mazaltepec Zapotec [zpy].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Texmelucan

[zpz] 4,100 (1992 SIL). West Oaxaca. Alternate names: Central Sola de Vega Zapotec, Papabuco, Zapoteco de San Lorenzo Texmelucan.  Dialects: Most similar to Western Sola de Vega [zpw] (Zaniza).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Tilquiapan

[zts] 7,000 (2007 SIL). 900 monolinguals. Central Oaxaca, Ocotlán, San Miguel Tilquiapan. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiapan.  Dialects: 87% intelligibility with Santa Inés Yatzechi [zpn], 65% with Chichicapan [zpv], 59% with Ocotlán [zac], 45% with San Juan Guelavía [zab].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Tlacolulita

[zpk] 140 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 904 (1990 census). East Oaxaca, Asunción Tlacolulita, San Juan Alotepec. Alternate names: Southeastern Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Asunción Tlacolulita.  Dialects: 15% intelligibility with Lachixila (most similar), 10% with Mitla [zaw] and San Juan Guelavía [zab], 0% with Lachiguiri [zpa], Juchitán, Guevea de Humboldt, Petapa [zpe], San Juan Mixtepec, and Quiegolani [zpi].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Totomachapan

[zph] 260 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,009 (1990 census). West Oaxaca. 2 towns. Alternate names: Western Zimatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro Totomachapan.  Dialects: No intelligibility with other Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Xadani

[zax] 340 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Pochutla District, San Miguel del Puerto Municipio, Santa María Xadani. 16 towns. Alternate names: Eastern Pochutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Xadani.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Xanaguía

[ztg] 2,500 (1990 census). 35% monolingual, mainly older women. Oaxaca, southeast Miahuatlán: Santa Catarina Xanaguía, San Francisco Ozolotepec, and San José Ozolotepec. Alternate names: Diidz Zë, Zapoteco de Santa Catarina Xanaguía.  Dialects: A few phonological and lexical differences between San Francisco and San José areas.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Yalálag

[zpu] 3,500 in Mexico (2005). 2,000 are in Yalálag, others are in D.F., Oaxaca City, Veracruz. Oaxaca. Also in United States. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Yalálag.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Yareni

[zae] 2,900 (2000 census). North Oaxaca. Alternate names: Etla Zapotec, Western Ixtlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa Ana Yareni, Zapoteco de Teococuilco de Marcos Pérez.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility with Sierra de Juárez Zapotec [zaa]. Different from Aloapam Zapotec [zaq].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Yatee

[zty] 5,000 (2004 SIL). 3000 for Yatee and 2000 for Lachirioag. Oaxaca, San Francisco Yatee (4 towns), San Cristóbal Lachiruáj. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Yatee.  Dialects: Yatee Zapotec (Zapoteco de Yatee), Lachirioag Zapotec (Lachiruaj Zapotec, San Cristóbal Lachiruaj Zapotec). Most similar to Villa Alta Zapotec [zav] and Yalálag Zapotec [zpu].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Yatzachi

[zav] 2,500 in Mexico (1990 census). North central Oaxaca, Yatzachi el Bajo, Yatzachi el Alto, Xoochixtepec, Yohueche, Zoochina, Zoochila, Yalina. Also in United States. Alternate names: Villa Alta Zapotec, Zapoteco de Yatzachi.  Dialects: 90% intelligibility with Zoogocho [zpq] on narrative, 85% with Cajonos [zad] (Southern Villa Alta) and Yalálag [zpu]; somewhat with Solaga and Tabaa [zat].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Yautepec

[zpb] 310 (1990 census). East Oaxaca, San Bartolo Yautepec. Alternate names: Northwestern Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Bartolo Yautepec.  Dialects: 10% intelligibility with Tlacolulita [zpk] (most similar), none with other Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Zaachila

[ztx] 550 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 or more (1990 census). Oaxaca, south Oaxaca City, past Xoxo, Zaachila, San Raymundo Jalpan, San Bartolo Coyotepec, San Pablo Cuatro Venados, and Santa María Coyotepec. Alternate names: San Raymundo Jalpan Zapotec.  Dialects: 85% intelligibility with Santa Inés Yatzechi [zpn], 75% with Tilquiapan [zts], 72% with San Juan Guelavía [zab], 10% with Ocotlán [zac].  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Zaniza

[zpw] 770 (1990 census). 4 monolinguals. West Oaxaca, Santa María Zaniza, Santiago Textitlán, Santiago Xochiltepec, El Frijol, Buenavista. Alternate names: Papabuco, Western Sola de Vega Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Zaniza.  Dialects: 10% intelligibility with Texmelucan [zpz] (most similar).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Zoogocho

[zpq] 1,000 in Mexico (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,400. Oaxaca, Zoogocho, Yalina, Tabehua, Oaxaca City, Mexico City. Also in United States. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Bartolomé Zoogocho.  Dialects: Zoogocho, Yalina, Tabehua.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zoque, Chimalapa

[zoh] 4,500 (1990 census). 15 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Santa María Chimalapa and San Miguel Chimalapa. Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Oaxaca Zoque 
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Zoque, Copainalá

[zoc] 10,000 (1990 census). Chiapas, Copainalá. Alternate names: Zoque de Copainalá.  Dialects: Ocotepec, Ostuacán. 83% intelligibility with Francisco León [zos] (most similar).  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Chiapas Zoque 
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Zoque, Francisco León

[zos] 20,000 (1990 census). Chiapas, Mezcalapa. Alternate names: Santa Magdalena Zoque, Zoque de Francisco León.  Dialects: Chapultenango, San Pedro Yaspac. Similar to Copainalá [zoc].  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Chiapas Zoque 
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Zoque, Rayón

[zor] 2,150 (1990 census). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,400 (1990 census). Northwest Chiapas, Rayón and Tapilula. Alternate names: Zoque de Rayón.  Dialects: Distinct from other Zoque.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Chiapas Zoque 
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Zoque, Tabasco

[zoq] 40 (1971 A. García de León). Ethnic population: 367 (1960 census). Tabasco, Jalapa de Méndez Municipality, Ayapa. Alternate names: Zoque de Ayapanec, Zoque de Tabasco.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Veracruz Zoque  Nearly extinct.
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