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Languages of Malaysia (Sarawak)

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Malaysia (Sarawak). 2,185,500 (2004). Information mainly from R. Blust 1974; A. Hudson 1978; C. Rensch 2006; P. Sercombe 1997; A. Soriente 2003, 2005; E. Uhlenbeck 1958. The number of individual languages listed for Malaysia (Sarawak) is 46. Of those, 44 are living languages and 2 have no known speakers.
Bakati’, Rara

[lra] 11,300 in Malaysia (2000). Population total all countries: 23,300. 1st Division, Lundu, Pasir River, 2 small villages. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Luru.  Dialects: Most closely related to other Bakati’ languages spoken in Kalimantan. Lexical similarity: 46%–50% with Bidayuh languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’ 
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Balau

[blg] 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Southwest Sarawak, southeast of Simunjan. Alternate names: Bala’u.  Dialects: May be a dialect of Iban [iba].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Ibanic 
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Belait

[beg]   Alternate names: Lemeting, Meting.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A 
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Berawan, Central

[zbc] 710 (2007). Sarawak. Dialects: Batu Belah Berawan, Long Teru Berawan. Similar to East Berawan [zbe], West Berawan [zbw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan 
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Berawan, East

[zbe] 1,100 (2007). Sarawak. Alternate names: Long Jegan Berawan.  Dialects: Similar to Central Berawan [zbc], West Berawan [zbw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan 
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Berawan, West

[zbw] 720 (2007). Sarawak. Alternate names: Berawan, Long Terawan.  Dialects: Similar to Central Berawan [zbc], East Berawan [zbe].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan 
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Bidayuh, Bau

[sne] 29,200 (2000 census). Bau, 1st Division, Sadong, Samarahan, and Lundu rivers. About 50 villages. Alternate names: Bau-Jagoi, Jagoi, Jaggoi, Sarawak Dayak.  Dialects: Grogo (Grogoh), Stenggang Jagoi, Krokong, Gumbang, Serambau (Serambu, Serambo), Empawa, Assem, Singai (Singgai, Singgi, Singgie, Singhi, Bisingai), Suti, Tengoh, Dongay, Taup (Tahup). Gumbang may be more closely related to Tringgus-Sembaan [trx]. Lexical similarity: 69% with Bukar Sadung [sdo], 53% between Bukar Sadung and Singai dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Western 
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Bidayuh, Biatah

[bth] 63,900 in Malaysia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 72,380. Sarawak, 1st Division, Kuching District. 10 villages. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Bikuab, Kuap, Quop, Sentah.  Dialects: Siburan, Stang (Sitaang, Bisitaang), Tibia. Cannot understand Bukar-Sadung Bidayuh [sdo] Salako [ knx], or other Bidayuh varieties from Indonesia. Lexical similarity: 71% with Singa [sne].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Central 
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Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong

[sdo] 49,100 in Malaysia (2000 census). Sarawak, Serian 1st Division. 30 or more villages. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Buka, Bukar, Bukar Sadung Bidayah, Sadung, Serian, Tebakang.  Dialects: Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayuh, Bidayah, Bideyu), Bukar Sadong, Bukar Sadung Bidayuh, Mentuh Tapuh. Lexical similarity: 57% with Malay [zsm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Eastern 
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Bidayuh, Tringgus-Sembaan

[trx] 850 in Malaysia (2007 Z. Akter). Southwest of Kuching, south of the Bau Bidayuh [sne], on Kalimantan border. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Tringus.  Dialects: Tringgus, Mbaan (Sembaan, Bimbaan). Each dialect has a few villages. More similar to Biatah Bidayuh [bth] than to Bau Bidayuh [sne]. Gumbang [sne] may be a Tringgus-Sembaan Bidayuh [trx] dialect rather than a Bau Bidayuh [sne] dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Sembaan 
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Bintulu

[bny] 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northeast coast, Sibuti area, west of Niah, around Bintulu, and 2 enclaves west. Dialects: Could also be classified as a Baram-Tinjar subgroup or as an isolate within the Rejang-Baram subgroup. Blust (1974) classifies as isolate with North Sarawakan. Not similar to other languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Bintulu 
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Bisaya, Brunei

[bsb] 20,000 in Malaysia. Limbang and Lawas districts. Alternate names: Bekiau, Bisaya Bukit, Bisayah, Lorang Bukit, Visayak.  Dialects: Sarawak Bisaya (Bisaya’), Tutong 1.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya, Southern 
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Bukitan

[bkn] 290 in Malaysia (2000). Kapit, 7th Division. Alternate names: Bakatan, Bakitan, Beketan, Mangkettan, Manketa, Pakatan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang 
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Iban

[iba] 658,000 in Malaysia (2004). Population total all countries: 694,400. Sadong River north to Bintulu, Sibu; Sabah, Tawau District, 1 village. Also in Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Sea Dayak.  Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau, Skrang, Dau, Lemanak, Ulu Ai, Undup. Second Division dialect is norm for literature.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Ibanic 
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Kajaman

[kag] 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Central Sarawak, 7th Division, near Belaga on Baloi River. Alternate names: Kayaman, Kejaman.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang 
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Kayan, Baram

[kys] 4,150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northern Sarawak, Baram River area. Alternate names: Baram Kajan.  Dialects: Long Atip, Long Akahsemuka.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper 
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Kayan, Rejang

[ree] 3,030 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Rejang, Balui River areas. Alternate names: Rejang Kajan.  Dialects: Ma’aging, Long Badan, Uma Daro, Long Kehobo (Uma Poh), Uma Juman, Long Murun, Long Geng, Lemena, Lisum. Limited comprehension of Baram Kayan [kys].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper 
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Kelabit

[kzi] 1,500 in Malaysia. Population total all countries: 2,140. Northern Sarawak, remotest and highest Borneo mountains. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Kalabit, Kerabit.  Dialects: Pa’ Umor (spoken in Bario), Pa’ Dalih, Long Peluan, Long Lellang, Brung, Libbung, Lepu Potong.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic 
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Kenyah, Mainstream

[xkl] 20,000 in Malaysia (2008). South central, near Kalimantan border. Alternate names: Bakong, Bakung, Bakung Kenya, Bakung Kenyah.  Dialects: Oga Bakung.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah 
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Kiput

[kyi] 2,460 (Wurm and Hattori 1983). Northeast around Marudi. Dialects: Long Kiput, Long Tutoh (Kuala Tutoh). Related to Narom [nrm], Lelak [llk], Tutong [ttg], Belait [beg], Berawan languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A 
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Lahanan

[lhn] 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Central, east of Belaga, southwest of Long Murum. Alternate names: Lanan, Lanun.  Dialects: Most similar to Kajaman [kag].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang 
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Lelak

[llk] Extinct. Long Teru and Sungai Bunen (at Loagan Bunut Lake) on Tinjar River. Dialects: Related to Narom [nrm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B 
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Long Wat

[ttw] 600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northeast, Tutoh River. Alternate names: Tutoh Kenya, Tutoh Kenyah.  Dialects: Long Wat, Long Labid, Lugat. Not closely related to other languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah 
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Lun Bawang

[lnd] 24,000 in Malaysia. Sarawak 21,000, Sabah 3,000–4,000. Population for Brunei estimated at 500. Southwest border of Sabah and Sarawak. Alternate names: Lun-Bawang, Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayeh, Lun Dayoh, Lun Lod, Lundaya, Southern Murut.  Dialects: Lun Bawang (Sarawak Murut), Lun Dayah, Kolur, Padas, Trusan (Lawas, Limbang), Lepu Potong.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic 
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Malay

[msa] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 39,144,949. 
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Melanau, Central

[mel] 113,000 in Malaysia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 113,280. 3rd Division, Rejang delta coastal area to Balingian River. Also in Brunei. Alternate names: Belana’u, Milanau, Milano.  Dialects: Mukah-Oya (Mukah, Muka, Oya, Oya’, Oga), Balingian, Bruit, Dalat (Dalad), Igan, Sarikei, Segahan, Prehan, Segalang, Siteng. Balingian dialect is linguistically quite distinct from others.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau 
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Melanau, Daro-Matu

[dro] 7,600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 4,800 Matu, 2,800 Daro. Matu River from north channel of Rejang River to the sea, Daro and Matu areas. Dialects: Daro, Matu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau 
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Melanau, Kanowit-Tanjong

[kxn] 200 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 500. 3rd Division, Middle Rejang River, below Tanjong. Dialects: Kanowit, Tanjong.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau 
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Melanau, Sibu

[sdx] 420 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Sibu, 3rd Division, Rejang River. Alternate names: Seduan-Banyok, Sibu, Siduan, Siduani.  Dialects: Seduan, Banyok. May be intelligible with Central Melanau [mel].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau 
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Murik

[mxr] 1,120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Below Long Miri (Banyuq) and below Lio Mato (Semiang) on Baram River. Dialects: Long Banyuq (Banyuq), Long Semiang (Semiang).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Murik Kayan 
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Narom

[nrm] 2,420 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). South of Baram River mouth, Miri area and south. Alternate names: Narum.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B 
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Okolod

[kqv] 1,580 in Malaysia (2000). 1,000 in Sarawak, 100 to 200 in Sabah. Sabah southwest of Tenom and Sipitang districts on plantation estates; Padas River headwater area. Primarily in Sarawak and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Alternate names: Kolod, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod Murut.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut 
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Penan, Bah-Biau

[pna] 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Central, 7th Division, Merit, Rejang River areas. Alternate names: Punan, Bah-Biau.  Dialects: Punan Bah (Punan Ba), Punan Biau.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau 
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Penan, Eastern

[pez] 6,400 in Malaysia (2007). Population total all countries: 6,455. Apoh River District, east of Baram River. Also in Brunei. Alternate names: “Punan”.  Dialects: Penan Apoh. Related to Western Penan [pne], Uma Lasan [xky], but not mutually inherently intelligible.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan 
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Penan, Western

[pne] 3,400 (2007). 4th to 7th divisions, upper Baram and Balui rivers, Mt. Dulit area, 3 villages; Nibong branch of Lobong River, a tributary of Tinjar River. Alternate names: Nibon, Nibong, “Punan”.  Dialects: Nibong, Bok Penan (Bok), Penan Silat, Penan Gang (Gang), Penan Lusong (Lusong), Penan Apo, Sipeng (Speng), Penan Lanying, Jelalong Penan. Not closely related to other languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan 
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Punan Batu 1

[pnm] 30 (2000 S. Wurm). Central, west of Long Geng, southeast of Belaga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo  Nearly extinct.
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Remun

[lkj] 3,500 (SIL). Serian District, Kuching Division,southeast of Serian to Balai Ringin. 13 villages. Alternate names: Milikin, Millikin.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Ibanic 
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Sa’ban

[snv] 1,110 in Malaysia (2000). Population total all countries: 1,960. Northeast on Kalimantan border, 4th Division, south of Ramudu, Upper Baram, Long Banga’, Long Puak, Long Peluan. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Merau, used in Kalimantan.  Dialects: Apparently there was a dialect chain in Bahau area (Kalimantan); now a Long Banga’ dialect is developing. In Kalimantan, those living in Tang La’an are influenced by Krayan (Kelabit) [kzi] dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic 
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Salako

[knx] 10,700 in Malaysia (2000 census), increasing. Sarawak census data for Lundu Bidayuhs; Salako are not linguistically Bidayuh, but are referred to as Bidayuh. 1st Division, Saak, Lundu. 22 villages. Alternate names: Selako, Salakau, Selakau, Silakau, Kendayan, Kenayatn.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Kendayan 
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Sebop

[sib] 1,730 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northern Sarawak, 4th Division, upper Tinjar River, between Rejang and Baram rivers. Alternate names: Sabup, Sebob, Cebop, Sibop.  Dialects: Tinjar Sibop, Lirong, Long Pokun, Bah Malei (Ba Mali), Long Atun, Long Ekang (Long Ikang), Long Luyang. Cebop used on the Indonesian side of the border, Sebop in Sarawak.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah 
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Sebuyau

[snb] 9,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Lundu, 1st Division, Lupa River mouth, west bank around Sebuyau. Alternate names: Sabuyan, Sabuyau, Sibuian, Sibuyan, Sibuyau.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Ibanic 
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Sekapan

[skp] 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Belaga, 7th Division. Alternate names: Sekepan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang 
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Seru

[szd] Extinct. Kabong, 2nd Division. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau 
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Sian

[spg] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Belaga, 7th Division. Alternate names: Sihan.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Bukitan [bkn], Ukit [umi], Punan Batu 1 [pnm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang  Nearly extinct.
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Tring

[tgq] 550 (2000). Lower Tutoh River, Long Terawan village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic 
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Ukit

[umi] 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 7th Division, upper Rajom and Tatau rivers, Baleh. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang 
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Uma’ Lasan

[xky] 1,250 in Malaysia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Population total all countries: 2,750. Balui, Belaga, Kalua, Kemena rivers. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Kanyay, Kenja, Kindjin, Kinjin, Western Kenya, Western Kenyah.  Dialects: Uma’ Alim, Uma’ Lasan, Uma’ Baka.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan 
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