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Languages of Malaysia (Peninsular)

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Malaysia (Peninsular). 26,640,000 (2004). 12,123,300 speakers of Austronesian languages, 3,399,000 speakers of Chinese languages, 44,610 speakers of Austro-Asiatic languages (Matisoff 1991), 1,090,000 speakers of Dravidian languages. Immigrant languages: Burmese, Chinese Sign Language, Eastern Panjabi (56,400), Malayalam (35,800), Sylheti, Telugu (39,000), Western Cham. Information mainly from A. Baxter 1988; B. Comrie 1987; R. Dentan 1968; I. Hancock 1969; J. Holm 1989; F. Lebar, G. Hickey, J. Musgrave 1964; S. Lim 1981; W. G. Shellabear 1913. Blind population: 22,300. The number of individual languages listed for Malaysia (Peninsular) is 41. Of those, all are living languages.
Batek

[btq] 1,000 (2006), decreasing. North Pahang, Kelantan, Trengganu. Alternate names: Bateg, Bateq, Batok, Kleb, Nong, Tomo.  Dialects: Batek Teq (Teq), Batek De’ (Deq), Batek Iga, Batek Nong (Nong). Deq and Nong dialects may be separate languages.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern 
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Cheq Wong

[cwg] 660 (2003 COAC), increasing. Just south of Semai, Pahang. Alternate names: Beri, Che Wong, Chewong, Che’wong, Chuba, Siwang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Chewong 
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Chinese, Hakka

[hak] 1,090,000 in Malaysia (2000).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Mandarin

[cmn]  Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Min Dong

[cdo] 252,000 in Malaysia (2004).  Dialects: Foochow (Fuzhou).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Min Nan

[nan] 2,660,000 in Malaysia (2000). 497,280 Teochew, 141,045 Hainanese, 2,020,868 Hokkien (2000).  Alternate names: Min Nan, Minnan.  Dialects: Fukienese (Amoy, Fujianese, Hokkien), Hainanese, Chaochow (Teochow, Teochew).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Pu-Xian

[cpx] 24,700 in Malaysia (2000). Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. Dialects: Xinghua (Hsinghua, Hinghua).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Yue

[yue] 1,070,000 in Malaysia (2000 census).  Alternate names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh.  Dialects: Cantonese, Toishanese.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Duano

[dup] 500 in Malaysia (2007 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,067. South coast, Pontian Kecil area, northwest; west coast of Johor, Muar, Batu Pahat, and Pontian districts, Lenga, Semerah, Minyak Beku, Senggarang, Rengit, Kuala Benut, Pontian Besar, and Sungai Layau settlements. Alternate names: Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Orang Kuala, Orang Laut.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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English

[eng] 380,000 in Malaysia (Crystal 2005), increasing.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Jah Hut

[jah] 5,100 (2003 COAC), increasing. Ethnic population: 2,442 (2000 D. Bradley). Just south of main body of Semai [sea], Kuala Krau, Pahang [zlm]. Alternate names: Jah Het.  Dialects: Kerdau, Krau, Ketiar Krau (Tengganu), Kuala Tembeling, Pulau Guai, Ulu Ceres (Cheres), Ulu Tembeling.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Jah Hut 
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Jakun

[jak] Ethnic population: 27,448. East coast and inland, Pairang River, Pekan to Sri Gading, east to Benut, northwest to middle Muat River area. Alternate names: Djakun, Jakoon, Jaku’d, Jakud’n, Orang Hulu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Jehai

[jhi] 1,000 (2006), increasing. Ethnic population: 1,843 (2003). Northeast Perak and west Kelantan. Alternate names: Jahai, Pangan.  Dialects: Jehai, Batek Teh.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern 
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Kensiu

[kns] Population total all countries: 300. Ethnic population: 232 (2003). Northeast Kedah, near Thai border. Overlaps into south Yala Province, Thailand. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Kenseu, Kensieu, Kensiw, Mendi, Monik, Moniq, Ngok Pa, Orang Bukit, Orang Liar.  Dialects: Ijoh (Ijok), Jarum, Jeher (Sakai Tanjong of Temongoh), Kedah (Quedah), Plus, Ulu Selama, Kensiu Batu, Kensiu Siong, Kentaq Nakil.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western 
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Kintaq

[knq] 160 in Malaysia (2003 COAC), decreasing. Kedah-Perak border area, Thai border. Overlaps into South Yala Province, Thailand. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Bong, Kenta, Kintak, Kintaq Bong.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western 
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Lanoh

[lnh] 220 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 224 (2000 D. Bradley). North central Perak. Alternate names: Jengjeng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic 
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Mah Meri

[mhe] 2,990 (2003 COAC), increasing. Selangor coast, Malacca. Alternate names: Besisi, Cellate.  Dialects: Kuala Langot Besisi, Malakka Besisi, Ulu Langat Orang Bukit, Selangor Sakai, Betise’ (Betisek), Sisi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian 
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Malaccan Creole Malay

[ccm] Ethnic population: 300. Malacca Straits. Alternate names: Chitties Creole Malay.  Dialects: May be historically related to Sri Lankan Creole Malay [sci].  Classification: Creole, Malay based 
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Malaccan Creole Portuguese

[mcm] 1,000. Ethnic population: 12,640. Trankera and Hilir, Melaka, Straits of Malacca. Related varieties in parts of Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. Alternate names: Bahasa Geragau, Bahasa Serani, Luso-Malay, Malaccan, Malaqueiro, Malaquenho, Malaquense, Malaquês, Malayo-Portuguese, Malaysian Creole Portuguese, Papia Kristang, Português de Malaca, Portuguese Patois, Serani.  Classification: Creole, Portuguese based 
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Malay

[msa] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 39,144,949. 
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Malay

[zlm] 8,880,000 in Malaysia. 10 million in Peninsular Malaysia, 505,800 in Sarawak, and 30,000 in Labuan. Population total all countries: 10,296,000. Widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, parts of Sarawak. Also in Canada, Indonesia (Sumatra), Myanmar, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United States. Alternate names: Colloquial Malay, Local Malay, Malayu.  Dialects: Coastal Terengganu, Inland Terengganu, Kelantan, Pahang, Southeast Island, Orang Hulu, Orang Kuala, Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor, Sarawak (Sarawak Malay), Tamiang, Deli, Riau Mainland, Lubu, Akit, Sakai, Riau islands, coastal Jambi, Belitung, Northwestern Kalimantan, Upstream Western Kalimantan, Southwestern Coastal Kalimantan. Kedah Malay [meo], Negeri Sembilan Malay [zmi], Jakun [jak], Duano [dup], Orang Kanaq [orn], Orang Seletar [ors], Temuan [tmw], Sabah Malay [msi], and Burnei [kxd], are so closely related that they may one day be included as dialects of Malay [zlm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Malay, Baba

[mbf] Ethnic population: 5,000. Peninsular Malaysia, Melaka Tengah, Malacca Straits. Alternate names: Chinese Malay, Straits Malay.  Classification: Creole, Malay based 
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Malay, Kedah

[meo] 2,600,000 in Malaysia (2004). Kedah, Penang, Perlis, and (north) Perak states. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Satun Malay.  Dialects: Distinct from Pattani Malay [mfa], Standard Malay [zsm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Malay, Standard

[zsm] Some L1 speakers, but pervasive diglossia with local Malay varieties makes it difficult to estimate L1 population. Widespread Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. Also in Brunei, Singapore. Alternate names: Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku.  Dialects: Over 80% cognate with Indonesian.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Malaysian Sign Language

[xml] 24,000.  Alternate names: Bahasa Isyarat Malaysia.  Dialects: Variations are found in every state, but are mutually intelligible with the possible exception of some places in Terengganu state. The status of the sign language in Terengganu is not yet clear.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Minriq

[mnq] 160 (2003 COAC). Southeast Kelantan. Alternate names: Mendriq, Menraq, Menrik, Menriq.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern 
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Mintil

[mzt] 40 (1975 SIL). Tamun River, Pahang. Alternate names: Mitil.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
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Negeri Sembilan Malay

[zmi] Ethnic population: 507,500 (2004). Southeast of Kuala Lumpur, Ulu Muar District. Alternate names: Malaysian Minangkabau, Ulu Muar Malay.  Dialects: Related to Minangkabau [min] in Sumatra, Indonesia.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Orang Kanaq

[orn] Ethnic population: 83 (2003 census). Southeast and northeast of Mawai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Orang Seletar

[ors] Population total all countries: 880. Ethnic population: 1,407 (2003 census). Southeast coast around Kukuo, Jahore Bahru, east and north, and the north coast of Singapore. Also in Singapore. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Penang Sign Language

[psg] 1,000, decreasing. 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000. Penang. Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Sabüm

[sbo]  North central Perak. Dialects: Most similar to Lanoh [lnh], Semnam [ssm].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic 
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Selangor Sign Language

[kgi] 500, decreasing. Peninsular Malaysia, Selangor, elsewhere. Alternate names: KLSL, Kuala Lumpur Sign Language.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Semai

[sea] 43,900 (2003). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000 (2000). Northwest Pahang and south Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, central mountain area. Alternate names: “Central Sakai” , Seng’oi, Sengoi, Senoi.  Dialects: Jelai, Perak I, Perak II, Cameron, Telom, Bidor, Betau, Lipis, Bil, Ulu Kampar (Kampar), Gopeng, Tanjung Malim, Parit, Tapah (Jalan Pahang).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic 
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Semaq Beri

[szc] Ethnic population: 3,545 (2003 COAC). Pahang, Trengganu, Kelantan. Alternate names: Semaq Bri, Semoq Beri.  Dialects: 2 dialects.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian 
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Semelai

[sza] Ethnic population: 6,418 (2003 COAC). Between Segamat (Johore) and Pahang rivers. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian 
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Semnam

[ssm] 670 (2000). North central Perak. Dialects: Similar to Lanoh [lnh], Sabüm [sbo].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic 
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Tamil

[tam] Ethnic population: 1,396,480 (2000).  Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil 
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Temiar

[tea] Ethnic population: 25,725 (2003 COAC). Perak and Kelantan; Pahang. Alternate names: Northern Sakai, Pie, Seroq, Temer.  Dialects: Grik, Kenderong, Kenering, Po-Klo (Sakai Bukit of Temongoh), Sakai of Plus Korbu, Sungai Piah, Tanjong Rambutan, Tembe’ (Tembi), Ulu Kinta (Kinta Sakai), Lanoh Kobak.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic 
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Temoq

[tmo]  Southeast Pahang, Jeram River. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian 
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Temuan

[tmw] Ethnic population: 22,162 (2003 COAC). Southern extension of the main range, south half of the peninsula, Selangor, Pahang, Johore, Negri Sembilan, Kuala Langat, scattered settlements. Alternate names: Benua, Niap.  Dialects: Beduanda (Biduanda), Belanda (Belana, Blanda, Landa, Belanas, Belandas), Berembun (Birmun), Mantra (Mentera, Mintra), Temuan, Udai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Tonga

[tnz]  Northwest tip north of Kaki. Alternate names: Mos Tean-ean.  Dialects: Satun.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Tonga 
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