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Languages of Malaysia (Sabah)

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Malaysia (Sabah). 2,862,300 (2006 Encyclopedia of Malaysia). 704,800 non-Malaysians. Literacy rate: 80%. Information mainly from M. Boutin 1986; M. and A. Boutin 1985; J. King and J. King 1984; P. Kroeger 1985, 1986; C. Miller 1981–1982, 1987; A. Pallesen 1985; C. Sather 1997; J. Walton and D. Moody 1984. The number of individual languages listed for Malaysia (Sabah) is 52. Of those, all are living languages.
Abai Sungai

[abf] 500 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,000. Lower reaches of Kinabatangan River. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic 
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Bajau, West Coast

[bdr] 55,000 (2000). West coast of Sabah, Kuala Penyu to Kudat, north, some east areas. Alternate names: Land Bajaw, West Coast Bajao.  Dialects: Kota Belud, Kawang, Putatan, Papar, Banggi, Sandakan Bajau, Pitas Bajau. Diversified in structure more than other Borneo languages. Related to but distinct from East Coast Bajau languages of Malaysia and the Philippines, and Indonesian Bajau [bdl] (1977 K. Pallesen). Less than 65% intelligibility with Southern Sama [ssb]. Papar dialect used in national broadcasting. May be more than 1 language.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw 
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Balangingi

[sse] 4,000 in Malaysia (2000). East coast of Sabah. Alternate names: Baangingi’, Balagnini, Balangingi Bajau, Balanian, Balanini, Balignini, Banadan, Binadan, Northern Sinama, Sama.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama 
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Banjar

[bjn] 2,300 in Malaysia (2000 SIL). Tawau. Alternate names: Bandjarese, Banjar Malay, Banjarese.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Bisaya, Sabah

[bsy] 15,800 (2000). North Brunei Bay coast area, mainly west Beaufort along Padas River, south of Weston; south Kuala Penyu District to coast. Alternate names: Basaya, Besaya, Bisaia, Bisayah, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai.  Dialects: 90% intelligibility of Tatana [txx]. Lexical similarity: with dialects of Brunei Bisaya [bsb]: 58% with Sarawak dialect and 57%–59% with Brunei dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya 
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Bonggi

[bdg] 1,400 (1990 UBS). Kudat District, Banggi Island. 15 villages. Alternate names: Banggi, Bangay, Banggi Dusun.  Dialects: Most similar to Molbog of the Philippines. Lexical similarity: with dialects of Brunei Bisaya [bsb]: 58% with Sarawak dialect and 57%–59% with Brunei dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya 
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Bookan

[bnb] 2,760 (2000). 300 or more Tengara. Keningau and Kinabatangan districts, Sook and Kinabatangan rivers headwaters area. Alternate names: Baukan, Baukan Murut.  Dialects: Baukan (Baokan, Bokan, Bookan, Boken, Bokun, Bukun, Bokon, Ulun-No-Bokon, Ulun-No-Bokan, Pingas), Kokoroton Murut, Tengara (Tungara, Tingara, Tenggaraq, Tangara’, Tanggaraq, Kinabatangan Murut). Close to Keningau Murut [kxi], Timugon [tih], Tagal [mvv].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Northern 
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Brunei

[kxd] 51,000 in Malaysia (2000). Sarawak, 4th, 5th divisions, Upper Balait and Tutau rivers, north coast; Sabah in Beaufort, Kuala Penyu, Labuan, Labuk-Sugut, Papar, Sipitang, Sandakan, Tenom districts. Alternate names: Brunei-Kadaian, Orang Bukit.  Dialects: Brunei, Kadaian (Kadayan, Kadian, Kadien, Kadyan, Karayan, Kedyan, Kedayan, Kedien, Kerayan).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Bugis

[bug]   Alternate names: Buginese.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis 
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Dumpas

[dmv] 1,080 (2000). Labuk-Sugut District, Perancangan village. Alternate names: Doompas.  Dialects: May be Paitanic. Comprehension of Tombonuo [txa] 87%, Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb] 57%, Coastal Kadazan [kzj] 44%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Unclassified 
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Dusun, Central

[dtp] 141,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 Ranau (1989 UBS), 70,000 Bundu (1990 UBS), 500 (?) Kuala Monsok Dusun (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Labuk-Sugut District, Perancangan village. Alternate names: Central Kadazan, Dusan, Dusum, Dusun, Dusur, Kadasan, Kadayan, Kedayan.  Dialects: Dusun Sinulihan (Sinulihan), Kadazan-Tagaro (Tagaro), Kiundu, Pahu’, Sokid, Tindal, Menggatal (Kiulu, Telipok), Ranau, Bundu (Taginambur), Beaufort, Luba, Kuala Monsok Dusun.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central 
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Dusun, Sugut

[kzs] 12,200 (2000). Labuk-Sugut District, Sugut River headwaters. Alternate names: Dusun, Kadayan, Sugut, Sugut Kadazan, Tanggal, Tilau-Ilau.  Dialects: Tinagas, Talantang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central 
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Dusun, Tambunan

[kzt] 15,600 (2000), decreasing. Tambunan District, parts of Keningau. Alternate names: Tambunan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central 
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Dusun, Tempasuk

[tdu] 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Tempasuk village area, Kota Belud. Alternate names: Kedamaian Dusun, Tampasok, Tampassuk, Tampasuk, Tempasok, Tindal.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central 
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Gana

[gnq] 1,000 (2000). Minusut and Kuangoh, Keningau District along Baiaya River, a tributary of Pegalan River, north of Keningau town. Alternate names: Gana’, Ganaq, Keningau Dusun, Minansut.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun 
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Ida’an

[dbj] 5,000 (2000). Population includes 1,500 Begak. East coast of Sabah, Lahad Datu, Kinabatangan, and Sandakan districts. Alternate names: Bulud Upi, Eraans, Idaan, Idahan, Idan, Idayan.  Dialects: Begak (Begahak, Bagahak), Subpan (Supan, Sungai), Ida’an. Not closely related to other languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Ida’an 
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Iranun

[ill]  Lahad Datu and Kota Belud districts, 17 villages; also reportedly in Kudat and Marudu. Alternate names: “Ilanun” , Illanun, Illanoan, Illanoon, Iranon Maranao, Iranum, Lanoon, Ylanos, Lanun, Illanos.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon 
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Javanese

[jav] 300,000 in Malaysia (Wurm and Hattori 1981).  Alternate names: Jawa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese 
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Kadazan, Coastal

[kzj] 60,000 (1986 SIL). West coast of Sabah, Penampang, and Papar districts. Alternate names: Kadazan Tangaa’, Membakut Kadazan, Papar Kadazan, Penampang Kadazan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun 
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Kadazan, Klias River

[kqt] 1,000 (1984 SIL). Klias River area, Beaufort District. Dialects: Low intelligibility with Coastal Kadazan [kzj]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tatana [txx].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun 
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Kadazan, Labuk-Kinabatangan

[dtb] 20,600 (2000 SIL). 14,000 to 16,000 Labuk (1987 SIL), 7,000 to 8,000 Sungai (1982 SIL). Northeast Sabah, Sandakan, Labuk-Sugut, and Kinabatangan districts. Alternate names: Eastern Kadazan, Labuk Kadazan, Sogilitan, Tindakon, Tompulung.  Dialects: Mangkaak (Mangkahak, Mangkok, Mangkak), Sukang, Labuk, Lamag Sungai (Sungei).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Eastern 
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Kalabakan

[kve] 2,230 (2000 WCD). Tawau District along Kalabakan River. Alternate names: Kalabakan Murut, Tawau Murut, Tidung.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong 
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Keningau Murut

[kxi] 7,000 (2000), decreasing. 1,000 to 1,200 Dusun Murut (1985 SIL). Keningau District, area north of Keningau town Pegalan River. Alternate names: Central Murut.  Dialects: Nabay (Nabai, Nebee, Dabay, Dabai, Rabay, Rabai), Ambual, Dusun Murut. Similar to Bookan [bnb], Timugon [tih].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut 
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Kimaragang

[kqr] 25,000 (2007), decreasing. Kota Marudu and Pitas districts. Alternate names: Kimaragan, Kimaragangan, Maragang, Marigang.  Dialects: Tandek (Garo), Pitas Kimaragang, Sandayo, Sonsogon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun 
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Kinabatangan, Upper

[dmg] 5,000 (2000). 500 Dusun Segama and 800 to 900 Sinabu’ (1985 SIL). Primarily upper reaches of Kinabatangan River; also Lahad Datu and Sandakan districts, Maligatan, Minusu, and Tongud. Alternate names: Sungai Milian.  Dialects: Kalabuan (Kolobuan), Makiang, Dusun Segama (Saga-i, Soghai, Segai), Sinabu’ (Sinabu). Dialects have approximately 87% mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: over 90% among all dialects, except Makiang and Sinabu’ with 80%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan 
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Kota Marudu Talantang

[grm] 1,800 (2000). Kota Marudu District, Talantang 1 and Talantang 2. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun 
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Kota Marudu Tinagas

[ktr] 1,250 (1985 SIL). South Kota Marudu and Parong, a migrant village in north Kota Marudu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central 
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Kuijau

[dkr] 7,910 (2000). Keningau District, area west and north of Keningau town. Alternate names: Hill Dusun, Kijau, Koijoe, Kuiyow, Kujau, Kuliow, Kuriyo, Kwijau, Menindal, Menindaq, Minansut, Tidung, Tindal.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun 
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Lobu, Lanas

[ruu] 2,800 (1986 SIL). 2,000 in Lobu, 800 in Rumanau. Lobu in Keningau District near Lanas, Rumanau in Masaum, Mangkawagu, Minusu, Kinabatangan District. Dialects: Lobu, Rumanau (Rumanau Alab, Romanau, Roomarrows). May be a dialect of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan 
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Lobu, Tampias

[low] 1,800 (1985 SIL). Tampias area, Ranau. 3 villages. Dialects: High intelligibility of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Lanas Lobu [ruu].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan 
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Lotud

[dtr] 5,000 (1985 SIL), decreasing. Tuaran District, just north of Kota Kinabalu, Tuaran town area. Alternate names: Dusun Lotud, Suang Lotud.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun 
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Malay

[msa] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 39,144,949. 
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Malay, Cocos Islands

[coa] 4,000 in Malaysia (2000), decreasing. Population total all countries: 5,000. Tawau and Lahad Datu; 1 village northwest of Beluran. Also in Australia. Alternate names: Suang Lotud, Dusun Lotud AGE All ages DOM Home, market, village meetings.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade 
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Malay, Sabah

[msi]   Alternate names: Bazaar Malay, Pasar Malay.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay 
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Mapun

[sjm] 1,870 in Malaysia (1999). East coast of Sabah, Sandakan; west coast of Sabah, Banggi, Marudu, Kudat, Kota Kinabalu. Alternate names: Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanon, Jama Mapun, Kagayan, Orang Cagayan, Sama Mapun.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw 
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Minokok

[mqq] 1,200 (2007). Kinabatangan River headwaters. Dialects: Most similar to Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb] and Kimaragang [kqr].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central 
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Molbog

[pwm] 6,680 in Malaysia (1990 Census). Banggi Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic 
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Paluan

[plz] 5,500 (2000). 3,000 Paluan, 1,000 to 2,000 Pandewan. Tenom, Keningau, and Pensiangan districts, Padas River tributaries; Dalit, Keramatoi, Nabawan, Pamentarian, Mesopo rivers; lower Sook River valley; Talankai and Sapulut rivers’ headwaters. Dialects: Paluan (Peluan), Dalit Murut, Sook Murut, Takapan, Makaheeliga (Makialiga), Pandewan (Pandewan Murut). Most similar to Tagal Murut [mvv].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut 
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Papar

[dpp] 1,000 (2000). Kuala Penyu District. Alternate names: Bajau Bukit.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun 
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Rungus

[drg] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Kudat, Pitas, Labuk-Sugut districts. Alternate names: Dusun Dayak, Melobong Rungus, Memagun, Memogun, Momogun, Roongas, Rungus Dusun.  Dialects: Gandahon, Gonsomon, Nuluw, Pilapazan (Rungus Tanga, Central Rungus). Gonsomon and Nuluw most distinctive dialects. Gandahon is less distinct. Lexical similarity within 86%–96% range.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun 
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Sama, Southern

[ssb] 119,000 in Malaysia (2000). Virtually no monolinguals. 6,000 Sikubung, 15,000 Bajau Laut, 13,000, Bajau Ubian, 700 Bajau Banaran, 9,000 Sibutu, 14,500 Bajau Simunul, 61,000 Bajau Kubang (or Bajau Semporna). East, north, and west coasts; Banggi, Kota Belud, Gaya Island, Kuala Penyu. Alternate names: Sama Sibutu’, Southern Bajau.  Dialects: Bajau Banaran, Bajau Darat, Bajau Laut (Mandelaut, Pala’au, Sama Laut, Sama Mandelaut, Sama Pala’au, Sea Bajau, Sea Gypsies), Bajau Semporna (Bajau Asli, Kubang, Sama Kubang), Laminusa (Laminusa Sinama), Sibutu (Sibutuq, Sama Sibutu, Samah-Samah, Samah Lumbuh), Simunul (Sama Simunul), Sikubung (Kubung, Sama Kubung), Sama (A’a Sama, Sama’, Samah, Samal, Samar), Ubian (Obian, Sama Ubian, Tau Ubian).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama 
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Selungai Murut

[slg] 600 in Malaysia (2000). Pensiangan District, Sapulut River confluence with Pensiangan River south to Indonesia border. 1 village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut 
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Sembakung Murut

[sbr] 2,000 in Malaysia (2000). Along Sembakung River in northern Kalimantan, Indonesia, from the mouth upstream into Sabah. Alternate names: Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Simbakong, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tingalun, Tinggalan, Tinggalum.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong 
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Serudung Murut

[srk] 350 (2000). Tawau District along Serudung River; Tawau town area, 1 village. Alternate names: Serudong, Tawau Murut, Tidung.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong 
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Tagal Murut

[mvv] 13,000 in Malaysia (2000). Population total all countries: 15,000. Widespread southwest Sabah, Pensiangan, Keningau, Tenom, Sipitang districts, south into Kalimantan, Indonesia. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Dialects: Rundum (Arundum), Tagal (Taggal, Tagul, Tagol, North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut), Sumambu (Semembu, Semambu, Sumambuq), Tolokoson (Telekoson), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Pensiangan Murut (Pentjangan, Lagunan Murut), Salalir (Sadalir, Sedálir, Saralir), Alumbis (Lumbis, Loembis), Tawan, Tomani (Tumaniq), Maligan (Mauligan, Meligan, Bol Murut, Bole Murut). Most similar to Paluan [plz].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut 
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Tatana

[txx] 5,500 (1982 SIL). Kuala Penyu District. Alternate names: Tatana’, Tatanaq.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya 
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Tausug

[tsg] 150,000 in Malaysia (2000). Sempurna, Sandakan, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Labuk-Sugut, Kudat districts. Alternate names: Joloano, Joloano Sulu, Moro, Sooloo, Sulu, Suluk, Taosug, Tausog, Taw Sug.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug 
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Tidong

[tid] 20,000 in Malaysia (2000). Kota Marudu and Kota Belud districts, Kota Kinabalu towns, others. Alternate names: Camucones, Nonukan, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong.  Dialects: Tarakan (Terakan), Sesayap (Sesajap).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong 
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Timugon Murut

[tih] 7,000 (2000). 1,200 to 1,700 in Beaufort Murut (1982 SIL). Tenom District, Padas River from Melalap to Batu; Beaufort District, Bukau and lower Padas rivers. Alternate names: Temogun, Tenom Murut, Timigan, Timigun, Timogon, Timogun, Timugon, Tumugun.  Dialects: Kapagalan, Poros, Beaufort Murut (Binta’), Timugon, Sandiwar (Sandewar), Dabugus, Lower Murut, Murut Padas, Bukau (Bukow).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut 
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Tobilung

[tgb] 8,850 (2007). Kota Marudu and Kota Belud districts; Kota Kinabalu towns, others. Alternate names: Tabilong, Tobilang, Tebilung.  Dialects: Low intelligibility with Coastal Kadazan [kzj]; moderate intelligibility with Kimaragang [kqr] and Rungus [drg].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun 
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Tombonuo

[txa] 10,000 (2000). 3,000 Lingkabau. Labuk-Sugut, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts. Alternate names: Lobu, Paitan, Sungai, Sungei, Tambanua, Tambanuo, Tambanuva, Tambanwas, Tambenua, Tambunwas, Tembenua, Tombonuwo, Tombonuva, Tumbunwha, Tunbumohas.  Dialects: Lingkabau Sugut (Linkabau).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic 
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Wolio

[wlo]   Alternate names: Buton, Butonese, Butung.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru 
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Yakan

[yka] 1,000 in Malaysia (2000).  Alternate names: Yacan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic 
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