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Languages of New Caledonia

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New Caledonia. 234,000. Melanesian 45%. National or official language: French. A French territory. Literacy rate: 85% among Melanesians. Immigrant languages: Tahitian (7,000), Vietnamese (5,000). Also includes Chinese (500). Information mainly from P. Geraghty 1988; S. Schooling 1990; D. Tryon 1995; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981. Blind population: 30. The number of individual languages listed for New Caledonia is 40. Of those, 39 are living languages and 1 has no known speakers.
Ajië

[aji] 4,040 (1996 census). Houailou: east coast Monéo to Kouaoua and inland valleys. Alternate names: A’jie, Anjie, Houailou, Wai, Wailu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic 
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Arhâ

[aqr] 35 (1996 census). Poya, upper valleys. Alternate names: Ara.  Dialects: Different from Arho [aok].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic  Nearly extinct.
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Arhö

[aok] 62 (1996 census), decreasing. Poya, Cradji, Nékliai villages. Alternate names: Aro.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic 
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Bislama

[bis] 1,200 in New Caledonia (1982 SIL). Mainly Noumea. Alternate names: Bichelamar.  Classification: Creole, English-based, Pacific 
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Bwatoo

[bwa] 300 (1982 SIL). Voh-Kone: Baco, Gatope, Oundjo; Poya: Népou. Dialects: May be Haveke [hvk] dialect. Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat it as dialect of Voh-Kone.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke 
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Caac

[msq] 890 (1996 census). Pouébo, northeast coast. Alternate names: Moenebeng.  Dialects: Pouébo (Pwebo), La Conception (St. Louis).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern 
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Cemuhî

[cam] 2,050 (1996 census). Touho: east coast from Congouma to Wagap and inland valleys. Alternate names: Camuhi, Camuki, Tyamuhi, Wagap.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Central 
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Dehu

[dhv] 11,300 (1996 census). Lifou, Loyalty Islands. Alternate names: De’u, Drehu, Lifou, Lifu.  Dialects: Losi, Wete.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands 
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Dumbea

[duf] 950 (1996 census). Paita on west coast, Ounia on east coast. Alternate names: Drubea, Dubea, Naa Dubea, Ndumbea.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, Extreme Southern 
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French

[fra] 53,400 in New Caledonia (1987). Mainly Noumea. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Futuna, East

[fud] 3,000 in New Caledonia (1986).  Alternate names: Futunian.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic 
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Fwâi

[fwa] 1,130 (1996 census). Hiènghène on east coast; Ouenguip to Pindache and lower valleys. Alternate names: Poai, Yehen, Yengen.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi 
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Haeke

[aek] 100 (1982 SIL). Voh-Kone: Baco. Alternate names: ’Aeke, Aeke, Haeake.  Dialects: Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat it as dialect of Voh-Kone.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Haekic  Nearly extinct.
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Haveke

[hvk] 300 (1982 SIL). Voh-Kone: Gatope, Oundjo, Tiéta. Alternate names: ’Aveke, Aveke.  Dialects: Bwatoo [bwa] may be a dialect. Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat it as dialect of Voh-Kone.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern 
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Hmwaveke

[mrk] 300 (1982 SIL). Voh: Tiéta. Alternate names: ’Moaveke, Ceta, Faa Ceta.  Dialects: Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat it as dialect of Voh-Kone.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke 
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Iaai

[iai] 1,560 (1996 census). Ouvéa Island, Loyalty Islands. Alternate names: Iai, Yai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands 
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Javanese, New Caledonian

[jas] 6,750 (1987). Noumea. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese 
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Jawe

[jaz] 730 (1996 census). Northeast coast from Tchamboenne to Tao and upper valleys. Alternate names: Diahoue, Njawe, Oubatch, Ubach.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi 
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Mea

[meg] 300 (1982 SIL). La Foa: upper valleys. Alternate names: Ha Mea, Hameha.  Dialects: Some influences from Tiri [cir]. Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat it as dialect of Tiri [cir].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern 
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Neku

[nek] 220 (1996 census). Bourail, lower valley. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic 
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Nêlêmwa-Nixumwak

[nee] 950 (1996 census). Northwest coast of Koumac (Nixumwak) and Poum (Nelemwa). Alternate names: Fwa-Goumak, Koumac, Kumak.  Dialects: Nixumwak (Kumak Koumac), Nelemwa (Nelema, Nenema).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern 
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Nemi

[nem] 320 (2000 D. Tryon). East coast: upper valleys north of Hiènghène, west coast at Voh: Ouélis and upper valley. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi 
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Nengone

[nen] 6,500 (2000 D. Tryon). Mare, Loyalty Islands. Alternate names: Iwatenu, Maré.  Dialects: Iwatenu is a register of respect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands 
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Numee

[kdk] 1,810 (1996 census). Yate, Touaouru, and Goro on main island south coast (Numee dialect), Isle Ouen (Ouen), and Isle of Pines (Kwenyii). Alternate names: Duauru, Kapone, Kunie, Kwenyii, Naa Numee, Naa-Wee, Ouen, Touaouru, Tuauru, Uen, Wen.  Dialects: Numee (Touaouru), Ouen, Kwenyii (Kunie).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, Extreme Southern 
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Nyâlayu

[yly] 1,520 (1996 census). North coast, Belep Island, Arama, and Balade. Dialects: Yalayu, Belep.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern 
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Orowe

[bpk] 590 (1996 census). Bourail upper valleys: Ni, Pothé, Bouirou, Azareu. Alternate names: Boewe.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic 
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Paicî

[pri] 5,500 (1996 census). East coast between Poindimié and Ponérihouen and inland valleys. Alternate names: Ci, Paaci, Pati, Ponerihouen.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Central 
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Pije

[piz] 160 (1996 census). Hiènghène: Tipindjé, Tiendanite, and Pouépaï. Alternate names: Pindje, Pinje.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi 
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Pwaamei

[pme] 220 (1996 census). Voh: Ouélis, Témala, Tiéta. Alternate names: Poamei.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North 
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Pwapwa

[pop] 16 (1996 census). Voh: Boyen. Alternate names: Poapoa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North  Nearly extinct.
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Tayo

[cks] 2,000 (1996 C. Corne). South, Ploum, Mont-Dore, and especially Saint Louis, near Noumea. Alternate names: Patois, Patois de St-Louis.  Dialects: Not intelligible with French.  Classification: Creole, French based 
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Tiri

[cir] 260 (1996 census). La Foa: lower valleys. Alternate names: Ciri, Ha-Tiri, Tinrin.  Dialects: Some comprehension of Mea [meg].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Zire-Tiri 
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Uvean, West

[uve] 1,110 (1996 census). North and south Ouvea Atoll, Loyalty Islands. Alternate names: Faga-Uvea, Fagauvea.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic 
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Vamale

[mkt] 150 (1982 SIL). East coast: (Vamale dialect) Téganpaïk, Tiouandé; west coast: (Hmwaeke dialect) Voh, Tiéta. Alternate names: ’Moaeke, Hmwaeke, Pamale.  Dialects: Vamale, Hmwaeke.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern 
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Waamwang

[wmn] Extinct. Voh, north. Alternate names: Wamoang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke 
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Wallisian

[wls] 19,400 in New Caledonia (2000). Noumea. Alternate names: East Uvean, Uvean, Wallisien.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, East Uvean-Niuafo’ou 
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Xârâcùù

[ane] 3,780 (1996 census). Canala, east coast and inland valleys. Alternate names: Anesu, Canala, Haraneu, Kanala, Xaracii.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Xaracuu-Xaragure 
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Xaragure

[axx] 570 (1996 census). Thio, east coast, and Ouinane west coast. Alternate names: ’Aragure, Aragure, Haragure, Thio.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Xaracuu-Xaragure 
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Yuaga

[nua] 1,990 (1996 census). Inland valleys between Gomen (Thuanga) and Bondé (Juanga). Alternate names: Juanga, Nua, Nyua, Thuanga, Yuanga.  Dialects: Thuanga, Juanga.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern 
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Zire

[sih] 4 (1996 census). Bourail, coastal plain. Alternate names: Nerë, Siche, Sirhe, Sîshëë, Zira.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Zire-Tiri  Nearly extinct.
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