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Languages of Niger

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Republic of Niger, République du Niger. 13,264,000. National or official languages: French, Arabic, Fulfulde, Gourmanchéma, Hausa, Manga Kanuri, Tamajaq, Zarma. Literacy rate: 17%. Information mainly from J. Applegate 1970; J. Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989; K. Isaac and E. Johnson 2007; J. Lukas 1937; R. Nicolai 1979, 1981, 1983; D. Sapir 1971. Blind population: 30,000 (1998). Deaf population: 20,000 (1998). The number of individual languages listed for Niger is 21. Of those, all are living languages.
Arabic, Algerian Saharan Spoken

[aao] 10,000 in Niger (1998). Northwest, Agadez area. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Arabic, Hassaniyya

[mey] 10,000 in Niger (1998).  Alternate names: Hasanya, Hassani, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sulaka.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Arabic, Libyan Spoken

[ayl] 5,000 in Niger (1998). East, north of N’guigmi near Ngourti. Alternate names: Libyan Vernacular Arabic, Sulaimitian Arabic.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Arabic, Shuwa

[shu] 5,000 in Niger (1998). East. Alternate names: Arabe Choa, Chadic Arabic, Shua, Shuwa Arabic.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Dazaga

[dzg] 50,000 in Niger (2007 SIL). East, north of Goure; south near Chad border. Alternate names: Daza, Toubou, Tubu.  Dialects: Kashirda, Azzaga.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu 
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French

[fra] 6,000 in Niger (Johnstone 1993).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Fulfulde, Central-Eastern Niger

[fuq] 450,000 (1998). Central and east, Dogondoutchi area east to Chad border. Alternate names: Fula, Fulani, Fulbe, Peul, Peulh.  Dialects: Wodaabe. Culturally distinct from other Fulfulde varieties.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central 
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Fulfulde, Western Niger

[fuh] 450,000 in Niger (2007). Population total all countries: 1,230,000. West, Burkina Faso border east to Dogondoutchi area. Also in Benin, Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Fula, Fulani, Fulbe, Gorgal Fulfulde, Northeastern Burkina Faso Fulfulde, Peul, Peulh.  Dialects: Dallol, Bitinkoore, Tera.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central 
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Gourmanchéma

[gux] 30,000 in Niger (1998). Southwest, near Burkina Faso border. Alternate names: Goulimancema, Gourma, Gourmantche, Gurma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma 
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Hausa

[hau] 5,460,000 in Niger (2006). Central, along Nigeria border; widespread in cities. Alternate names: Haoussa, Hausawa, Haussa.  Dialects: Dawra, Katsina, Damagaram, Gobirawa, Aderawa, Arewa, Kurfey, Gaya.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 
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Kanuri, Bilma

[bms] 20,000 (2003). Northeast, Kawar region. Alternate names: Bla Bla, Kanouri, Kanoury.  Dialects: Bilma, Fachi. A member of the Kanuri subgroup.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri 
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Kanuri, Central

[knc] 80,000 in Niger (1998). East, along Nigeria border. Alternate names: “Beriberi” , Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri.  Dialects: Movar (Mowor, Mober, Mobber, Mavar).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri 
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Kanuri, Manga

[kby] 280,000 in Niger (1998). Population total all countries: 480,000. East, along Nigeria border. Also in Nigeria. Alternate names: Kanouri, Kanoury, Manga.  Dialects: Manga, Dagara. Part of a dialect subgroup that includes other Kanuri varieties and Kanembu [kbl] in Chad.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri 
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Kanuri, Tumari

[krt] 40,000 (1998). 50% monolingual. Tumari in N’guigmi; dialects in neighboring villages. Alternate names: Kanambu, Kanembu.  Dialects: Tumari, Sugurti (Suwurti), Kubari (Kuwuri). Not the same as Kanembu [kbl] in Chad, although referred to as ‘Kanembu’ in Niger. There is a gradual differentiation between Kanembu in Chad and Kanuri dialects. Most similar to Manga Kanuri [kby].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri 
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Tagdal

[tda] 26,900 (2000). Between Tahoua central, Agadez north central, and Ingall northeast. Dialects: Azawagh (Southern Tagdal), Air (Northern Tagdal). Tagdal lexicon is about 75%–80% Berber. Everyday vocabulary is about 50% Berber and 50% Songhay.  Classification: Mixed language, Songhay-Berber 
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Tamahaq, Tahaggart

[thv] 20,000 in Niger (1998).  Alternate names: Tamachek, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomachek, Touareg, Tourage, Tuareg.  Dialects: Hoggar (Ahaggaren, Ajjer, Tahaggart), Ghat (Ganet, Djanet).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Northern 
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Tamajaq, Tawallammat

[ttq] 450,000 in Niger (1998). Population total all countries: 640,000. Eastern dialect in central, Tahoua area from Ingal to Mali border; western in west, north and northwest of Niamey. Also in Mali, Nigeria. Alternate names: Amazigh, Tahoua Tamajeq, Tahoua, Tamachek, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tewellemet, Tomacheck, Touareg, Tourage, Tuareg.  Dialects: Tawallammat Tan Dannag (Ioullemmeden), Tawallammat Tan Ataram.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern 
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Tamajeq, Tayart

[thz] 250,000 (1998). Central, Agadez area. Alternate names: Amazigh, Tamachek, Tomacheck, Touareg, Tuareg.  Dialects: Air (Agadez, Tayart, Tayert, Tamestayert), Tanassfarwat (Tamagarast).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern 
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Tasawaq

[twq] 8,000 (1998 SIL). Central Niger, Ingal and Teguidda-n-Tessoumt, near Agadez. Alternate names: Ingelshi.  Dialects: Similar to Tagdal [tda], Tadaksahak [dsq] of Mali, and Korandje [key] of Algeria.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Northern 
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Tedaga

[tuq] 10,000 in Niger (1998 SIL). Seguedine, Bilma, Termit-Kaoboul. Alternate names: Tebu, Teda, Tibbu, Toubou, Tubu.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu 
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Zarma

[dje] 2,350,000 in Niger (2006). Population total all countries: 2,438,400. Southwest. Also in Burkina Faso, Mali, Nigeria. Alternate names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarmaci.  Dialects: Kaado. In Niger, dialects from Dendi [ddn] and Songai blend into Zarma. Intelligibility is high, although they use ethnic names ‘Dendi’ or ‘Songai’ for themselves. Cannot understand Gao Songai [ses] in Mali.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern 
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