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Languages of Nigeria

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Federal Republic of Nigeria. 141,356,000. National or official languages: Edo, Efik, Adamawa Fulfulde, Hausa, Idoma, Igbo, Central Kanuri, Yoruba, English. Literacy rate: 42%–51%. Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Bagirmi, Klao, Mbay, Mpade, Ngambay, Pana. Also includes languages of Lebanon, and Europe. Information mainly from J. Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989; R. Blench 1992, 2003, 1998–2004; B. Connell 1994, 2002; D. Crozier and R. Blench 1992; K. Hansford, J. Bendor-Samuel, and R. Stanford 1976; U. Siebert 1998–2002. Blind population: 800,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 22. The number of individual languages listed for Nigeria is 527. Of those, 514 are living languages, 2 are second languages without mother-tongue speakers, and 11 have no known speakers.
Abanyom

[abm] 12,500 (1986). Cross River state, Ikom LGA, Abangkang main village. Alternate names: Abanyum, Befun, Bofon, Mbofon.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid 
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Abon

[abo] 1,000 (1973 SIL). Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Abong town, south-east of Baissa. Alternate names: Abõ, Abong, Ba’ban.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid 
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Abua

[abn] 25,000 (Faraclas 1989). Rivers state, Degema and Ahoada LGAs. Dialects: Central Abuan, Emughan, Otapha (Otabha), Okpeden. The central dialect is understood by all others. Odual [odu] is the most closely related language. Lexical similarity: 70% with Odual [odu].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual 
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Abureni

[mgj] 4,000 (2006). Bayelsa state, 4 towns: Brass LGA, Agrisaba (Obo-Emeke); Ogbia LGA, Idema; Nembe LGA, Okoroba; Ogbia LGA, Opume, which is politically part of Oloibiri. Alternate names: Mini.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta 
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Acipa, Eastern

[acp] 5,000 (1993). Niger state, Kontagora LGA; Kaduna state, Birnin Gwari LGA. Towns include Randeggi and Bobi. Alternate names: Achipa, Acipanci, Sagamuk.  Dialects: Boroma (Taboroma), Randeggi, Bobi. Lexical similarity: 83% between Randeggi and Bobi; 52% with Shama [sqa]; 47%–50% with Cinda-Regi-Tiyal [cdr]; 42%–44% with Hungworo [nat]; 15%–20% with Western Acipa [awc].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku 
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Acipa, Western

[awc] 20,000 (1995 CAPRO). Niger state, Kontagora LGA; Kebbi state, Sakaba LGA. Towns include Kumbashi, Kakihum, and Karisen. Alternate names: Achipa, Acipanci, Sagamuk.  Dialects: Cep (Tochipo, Tacep, Western Acipanci). Morphological evidence suggests its affiliation with the Kamuku language subgroup. Lexical similarity: 89%–95% among the dialects; 15%–20% with Eastern Acipa [acp]; 18% with Hungworo [nat]; 16%–17% with Shama [sqa]; 15%–17% with Cinda-Regi-Tiyal [cdr].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku 
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Aduge

[adu] 1,900 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Anambra state, Oyi LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern 
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Afade

[aal] 31,000 in Nigeria (2006). Population total all countries: 36,000. Borno state, Ngala LGA. 12 villages. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Afada, Afadeh, Affade, Kotoko, Mogari.  Dialects: Related to Mpade [mpi], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf], Mser [kqx], Lagwan [kot].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North 
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Agatu

[agc] 70,000 (1987 UBS). Benue state, Otuko Divison, Agatu, Ochekwu, and Adoka districts; Nassarawa state, Awe and Nasarawa LGAs. Alternate names: North Idoma, Ochekwu.  Dialects: Member of the Idoma dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma 
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Agoi

[ibm] 12,000 (Faraclas 1989). Cross River state, Obubra LGA, Agoi-Ekpo, Ekom-Agoi, Agoi-Ibami, and Itu-Agoi towns. Alternate names: Ibami, Ro Bambami, Wa Bambani, Wagoi.  Dialects: Iko.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong 
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Agwagwune

[yay] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River state, Akamkpa LGA. Alternate names: Agwaguna, “Akunakuna” , Akurakura, Gwune, Okurikan.  Dialects: Abayongo (Bayono, Bayino), Abini (Obini, Abiri), Adim (Odim, Dim), Orum, Erei (“Enna” , Ezei), Agwagwune, Etono (Etuno). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono 
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Àhàn

[ahn] 300 (2000 R. Blench). Ondo state, Ekiti LGA, Ajowa, Igashi, and Omuo towns. Alternate names: Ahaan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Ayere-Ahan 
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Ajawa

[ajw] Extinct. Bauchi state. Alternate names: Aja, Ajanci.  Dialects: Related to Miya [mkf].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 
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Ake

[aik] 3,000 (1999 R. Blench). Nassarawa state, Lafia LGA. 3 villages. Alternate names: Aike, Akye.  Dialects: Most similar to Eggon [ego].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B 
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Akpa

[akf] 26,900 (2000). Benue state, Otukpo LGA. Alternate names: Akweya.  Dialects: A dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 84% with Yace [ekr].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa 
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Akpes

[ibe] 10,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Ondo state, Akoko North LGA. Alternate names: Ibaram-Efifa.  Dialects: Akunnu (Akpes), Ase, Daja, Efifa, Esuku (Echuku), Gedegede, Ikorom, Ibaram, Iyani. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Akpes 
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Akuku

[ayk]  Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Dialects: Related to Oloma [olm].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern 
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Akum

[aku]  Taraba state, near Cameroon border, Manga, Ekban, Konkom villages. Alternate names: Anyar.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb 
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Alago

[ala] 35,100 (2000). Nassarawa state, Awe and Lafia LGAs. Alternate names: Arago, Aragu, Argo, Idoma Nokwu.  Dialects: Doma, Agwatashi, Keana, Assaikio.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma 
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Alege

[alf] 1,200 (1973 SIL). Cross River state, Obudu LGA. Alternate names: Alegi, Ugbe, Uge.  Dialects: Related to Gayi [bzy] (Bisu of Obanliku subgroup) of Nigeria and Cameroon.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi 
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Alumu-Tesu

[aab] 7,000 (1999 R. Blench). 5,000 Arum; 1,000 Tesu. Nassarawa state, Akwanga LGA, near Wamba. Alumu is 7 villages and Tesu is 1. Alternate names: Alumu, Arum-Cesu, Arum-Chessu, Arum-Tesu.  Dialects: Alumu (Arum), Tesu. Related to Toro [tdv]. The 2 dialects have only intonation differences.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Alumic 
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Ambo

[amb] 1,000. Taraba state, Sardauna LGA. 1 village east of Baissa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid 
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Amo

[amo] 12,300 (2000). Plateau state, Bassa LGA; Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Amon, Among, Ba, Timap.  Dialects: Not similar to other languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Amo 
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Anaang

[anw] 1,400,000 (1991 census). Akwa Ibom state, Ikot Ekpene, Essien Udim, Abak, Ukanafun, and Oruk-Anam LGAs. Alternate names: Anang, Annang.  Dialects: Ikot Ekpene, Abak, Ukanafun.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik 
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Áncá

[acb] 300 (2006). Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Antere, Nca village. Alternate names: Bunta.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified 
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Arabic, Shuwa

[shu] 100,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL). Borno state, Dikwa, Konduga, Ngala, and Bama LGAs, widespread across Borno and Yobe states following transhumance (livestock movement). Alternate names: Arabe Choa, Chadian Arabic, Shua Arabic, Shuwa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Arigidi

[aqg] 48,000 (1986 in Crozier and Blench 1992). 45,000 Igashi, 3,000 Uro. Ondo state, Akoko North LGA; Kogi state, Kogi LGA. Alternate names: North Akoko.  Dialects: Oyin, Uro, Arigidí, Erúsú (Erushu), Ojo, Udo (Ido, Òwòn Ùdò, Oke-Agbe), Afa (Affa, Òwòn Àfá), Òge (Òwòn Ògè), Aje, Ese (Òwòn Èsé), Igashi (Ìgàshí, Ìgásí, Òwòn Ìgásí). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Akokoid 
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Ashe

[ahs] 35,000 (Barrett 1972). Begbere-Ejar. Kaduna state, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Ache, Ala, Koro Makama, Koron Ache, Koron Ala.  Dialects: Related to Begbere-Ejar [bqv].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro 
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Asu

[aum] 5,000 (1998 R. Blench). Niger state, Mariga LGA, villages south of Kontagora. Alternate names: Abewa, Ebe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe 
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Atsam

[cch] 30,000 (Barrett 1972). Kaduna state, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Cawai, Cawe, Cawi, Chawai, Chawe, Chawi.  Dialects: Most similar to Piti [pcn].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam 
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Auyokawa

[auo] Extinct. Jigawa state, Keffin Hausa and Auyo LGAs. Alternate names: Auyakawa, Awiaka.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1 
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Awak

[awo] 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Gombe state, Kaltungo LGA. Alternate names: Awok, Yebu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak 
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Ayere

[aye] 3,000 (Blench 1992). Kwara state, Oyi LGA, Kabba District. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Ayere-Ahan 
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Ayu

[ayu] 800 (2003 SIL). Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA, Kongon, Gwade, Tayu, Arau, Diger, Ikwa, Agamati, Anka Ambel, and Amantu villages. Alternate names: Aya.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Ayu 
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Baan

[bvj] 5,000 (1990). Rivers state, Gokana, Tai, and Eleme LGAs, Ban-Ogoi plus villages. Alternate names: Baan-Ogoi, Goi, Ogoi.  Dialects: Ka-Ban, Kesari.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West 
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Baangi

[bqx] 15,000 (1996). North Niger state. Alternate names: Cibaangi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari 
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Baatonum

[bba] 100,000 in Nigeria (1995 R. Jones). Kwara state, Borgu LGA; Niger state. Alternate names: Baatonun, Baatonun-Kwara, Barba, Bargu, Bariba, Batonnum, Batonu, Berba, Bogung, Borgawa, Borgu, Burgu, Zana.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Bariba 
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Bacama

[bcy] 150,000 (1992 CAPRO). Adamawa state, Numan and Guyuk LGAs; Kaduna state, northeast of Kaduna town; Kogi state, confluence of Benue and Niger rivers. Alternate names: Abacama, Bachama, Bashamma, Besema, Bwareba, Gboare.  Dialects: Mulyen (Mulwyin, Mwulyin), Opalo, Wa-Duku. In Bata dialect subgroup.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 
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Bada

[bau] 10,000 (1991 SIL). Plateau state, Kanam LGA; Bauchi state, Tafawa Balewa LGA. Alternate names: Badanchi, Badawa, Bat, Garaka, Jar, Jarawan Kogi, Kanna, Mbada, Mbadawa, Mbat, Plains Jarawa, River Jarawa.  Dialects: Gar. A member of the Jarawa dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Bade

[bde] 250,000 (1993). Yobe state, Bade LGA; Jigawa state, Hadejia LGA. Alternate names: Bedde, Bede, Gidgid.  Dialects: Gashua Bade (Mazgarwa), Southern Bade (Bade-Kado), Western Bade (Magwaram, Maagwaram), Shirawa. Similar to Duwai [dbp], Ngizim [ngi].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper 
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Bakpinka

[bbs] 4,000 (2006). Cross River state, Akamkpa LGA. Alternate names: Begbungba, Iyongiyong, Iyoniyong, Uwet.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong 
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Bali

[bcn] 2,000 (1991 R. Blench). Adamawa state, Numan LGA, at Bali, 30 km from Numan on Jalingo road. Alternate names: Bibaali, Ibaali, Maya.  Dialects: Similar to Kpasam [pbn].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang 
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Bangwinji

[bsj] 6,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Bauchi state, Balanga, Billiri, and Kaltungo LGAs. Alternate names: Bangjinge, Bangunji.  Dialects: Kaalo, Naaban. Noun class system is more similar to Waja [wja] and Tula [tul].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula 
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Barikanchi

[bxo]   Classification: Pidgin, Hausa based 
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Basa

[bzw] 100,000 (1973 SIL). Kogi state, Bassa and Ankpa LGAs; Plateau state, Nasarawa LGA; Federal Capital Territory, Yaba and Kwali LGAs; Benue state, Makurdi LGA. Alternate names: Abacha, Abatsa, Basa-Benue, Bassa-Komo” , “Bassa-Kwomu” , Rubasa, Rubassa.  Dialects: North-south dialect division along Benue River.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa 
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Basa-Gumna

[bsl] Extinct. Niger state, Chanchaga LGA; Plateau state, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names: Basa Kuta, Basa-Kaduna, Bassa-Kaduna, Gwadara Basa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa 
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Basa-Gurmana

[buj] 2,000 (Blench 1987). Niger state, border of Rafi and Chanchaga LGAs, Kafin Gurmana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa 
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Bassa-Kontagora

[bsr] 10 (1987). Ethnic population: 30,000. Niger state, Mariga LGA, northeast of Kontagora. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa  Nearly extinct.
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Bata

[bta] 150,000 in Nigeria (1992). Population total all countries: 152,500. Adamawa state, Numan, Song, Fufore, and Mubi LGAs. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Batta, Bete, Birsa, Demsa Bata, Dunu, Gboati, Gbwata, Gbwate.  Dialects: Zumu (Zomo, Jimo), Wadi (Wa’i), Malabu, Kobotachi, Ribaw (Ribow), Demsa, Garoua (Garua), Jirai. Closely related languages: Bacama [bcy], Gude [gde], Nzanyi [nja], Fali [fli], Zizilivakan [ziz]. They have joined with the Bacama in the Bwatiye Association.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 
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Batu

[btu] 25,000. Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, villages east of Baissa, below Mambila escarpment. Dialects: Amanda-Afi, Angwe, Kamino. A language subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid 
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Bauchi

[bsf] 20,000 (1988 R. Blench). Niger state, Rafi and Shiroro LGAs. Alternate names: Bauci, Baushi, Kushi.  Dialects: Wayam-Rubu, Madaka (Adeka), Supana.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana 
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Beele

[bxq] 120 (Temple 1922). Bauchi state, near the Bole, a few villages. Alternate names: Àbéélé, Bele, Bellawa.  Dialects: A separate language from Bole [bol].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Begbere-Ejar

[bqv] 35,000 (Barrett 1972). Ashe. Kaduna state, Kachia LGA, Plateau state, Keffi LGA. Alternate names: Agere, Koro Agwe, Koro Makama, Koro Myamya, Miamia, Miamiya.  Dialects: Koron Panda, Koron Ache, Ejar.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro 
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Bekwarra

[bkv] 100,000 (1989 SIL). Cross River state, Ogoja LGA. Alternate names: Bekworra, Ebekwara, Yakoro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi 
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Bena

[yun] 95,000 (1992). Adamawa state, Guyuk, Gombi, and Song LGAs, new settlements Song to Yola road. Alternate names: Binna, Buna, Ebina, Ebuna, Gbinna, “Lala” , Purra, Yangeru, Yongor, Yungur.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba 
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Berom

[bom] 300,000 (1993 SIL). Cen 2,000; Nincut 5,000 in 8 villages 7 km north of Fadam Karshe in Kaduna state. Plateau state, Berakin Ladi and Jos LGAs; Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA; Bauchi state. Alternate names: Afango, Berum, Birom, Cen Berom, Chenberom, Gbang, Kibbo, Kibbun, Kibo, Kibyen, “Shosho”.  Dialects: Gyell-Kuru-Vwang (Ngell-Kuru-Vwang), Fan-Foron-Heikpang, Bachit-Gashish, Du-Ropp-Rim, Hoss, Cen, Nincut (Aboro, Boro-Aboro).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic 
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Bete

[byf] 50 (1992). Ethnic population: 3,000. Taraba state, Takum LGA, Bete town, foot of Bete mountain, south of Wukari. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Lufu [ldq].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid  Nearly extinct.
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Bete-Bendi

[btt] 36,800 (1963). Cross River state, Obudu LGA. Alternate names: Bette-Bendi, Dama.  Dialects: Bete (Bette, Mbete), Bendi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi 
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Bile

[bil] 30,000 (1992). Adamawa state, East and southwest of Numan, along Benue River, Numan LGAs. Alternate names: Bili, Billanchi, Bille, Kunbille.  Dialects: Related to Mbula-Bwazza [mbu].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Bina

[byj] 7,000 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Binawa, Bogana.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Biseni

[ije] 4,800 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Bayelsa state, Biseni-Okordia LGA. Alternate names: Amegi, Buseni, Northeast Central Ijo.  Dialects: Not fully intelligible with other languages in the Ijo language subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Inland Ijo 
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Bitare

[brt] 46,300 in Nigeria (Blench 2003). Population total all countries: 52,330. Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, near Baissa. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Njwande, Yukutare.  Dialects: Similar to Abon [abo].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid 
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Boga

[bvw] 10,000 (Blench 1990). Adamawa state, Gombi LGA. Alternate names: Boka.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern 
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Boghom

[bux] 50,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau state, Kanam, Wase, and Shendam LGAs. Alternate names: Bogghom, Boghorom, Bohom, Bokiyim, Borrom, Burma, Burom, Burrum, Burum.  Dialects: Related to Mangas [zns].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom 
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Boko

[bqc] 40,000 in Nigeria (1995 R. Jones). Niger state, Borgu LGA; Kebbi state, Bagudo LGA, Senji north to Kenugbe and Kaoje, 150 km south and Demmo, 50 km east. 35 villages. Alternate names: Bokonya.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa 
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Bokobaru

[bus] 30,000 (1997 R. Jones). 6,000 in Kaiama, 24,000 in surrounding villages. Kwara state, primarily Kaiama LGA, some in Baruten LGA. 35 villages. Alternate names: Busa-Bokobaru, Bussawa.  Dialects: Kaiama, village Bokobaru. Kaiama dialect speakers and those in other villages have good mutual inherent intelligibility. Bokobaru is distinct from Boko [bqc] of Benin. Different from Busa [bqp]. Lexical similarity 86% with Boko, 91% with Busa, 53% with Kyenga [tye], 50% with Bissa [bib] of Burkina Faso and Ghana.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa 
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Bokyi

[bky] 140,000 in Nigeria (1989 SIL). Population total all countries: 143,700. Cross River state, Ikom, Obudu, and Ogoja LGAs. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Boki, Nfua, Nki, Okii, Osikom, Osukam, Uki, Vaaneroki.  Dialects: Basua (Bashua), Irruan (Erwan, Eerwee), Boje (Bojie), Kwakwagom, Nsadop, Osokom, Wula (Baswo, Okundi, Kecwan), Oku, Boorim, Oyokom, Abo (Abu), Eastern Bokyi (East Boki).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi 
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Bole

[bol] 100,000 (1990). Bauchi state, Dukku, Alkaleri, and Darazo LGAs; Gombe state, Dukku LGA; Yobe state, Fika LGA; Plateau state, Wase LGA. Alternate names: Ampika, Bolanchi, Bolawa, Bolewa, Borpika.  Dialects: Bara, Fika (Fikankayen, Anpika).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Bo-Rukul

[mae] 2,000 (1999 R. Blench). 1,000 in each dialect. Plateau state, Bokkos LGA, Barkul, Mabo, Richa, Mwa villages. Alternate names: “Kaleri” , Mabo-Barkul, Mabo-Barukul.  Dialects: Bo, Rukul. A language subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern 
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Bu

[jid] 6,000 (1999 R. Blench). 4,000 Bu and 2,000 Ninkada. Nassarawa state, Akwanga LGA. 4 villages. Alternate names: Ibut, Jida, Jida-Abu, Jidda-Abu, Nakare.  Dialects: Bu (Abu), Ninkada (Jida). The 2 dialects are ethnically and geographically distinct, but linguistically similar.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Bukwen

[buz] 1,000. Taraba state, near Takum. 1 village. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid 
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Bumaji

[byp] 11,400 (2000). Cross River state, Obudu LGA, Bumaji town. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi 
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Burak

[bys] 4,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Gombe state, Billiri and Kaltungo LGAs, Burak town. Alternate names: Buurak.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen 
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Bura-Pabir

[bwr] 250,000 (1987 UBS). 200,000 Pabir (1993). 32,000 in Adamawa state (1992). Borno state, Biu and Askira-Uba LGAs; Adamawa state, Gombi LGA. Alternate names: Babir, Babur, Barburr, Bourrah, Bura, Burra, Huve, Huviya, Kwojeffa, Mya Bura, Pabir.  Dialects: Pela (Bura Pela, Hill Bura), Hyil Hawul (Bura Hyilhawul, Plain Bura). Kofa [kso] may be a related language.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1 
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Bure

[bvh] 500. Bauchi state, Darazo LGA, southeast of Darazo town. 1 village. Alternate names: Bubure.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole 
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Buru

[bqw] 1,000. Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, east of Baissa, Batu area. 1 village. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified 
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Busa

[bqp] 40,000 (2005 R. Jones SIM). 20,000 ethnic Laaru, Lupa and Kambari. Ethnic population: 20,000. Niger state, Borgu LGA, Kebbi state, Bagudo LGA. 35 villages. Alternate names: Bisã, Bisayã, Busa-Bisã, Busano, Bussanchi.  Dialects: New Busa, Wawa, Illo. New Busa and Wawa dialects are inherently intelligible. The New Busa dialect has more prestige, but Wawa dialect is viewed as purer and used for literature. New Busa has Hausa [hau]-influenced phonology. The Illo Busa dialect has Boko [bqc] influence. Lexical similarity: 91% with Bokobaru [bus], 85% with Boko, 54% with Kyenga [tye], 50% with Bissa [bib] in Burkina Faso.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa 
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Cakfem-Mushere

[cky] 5,000 (1990 SIL). Plateau state, Mangu LGA. Alternate names: Chakfem, Chokfem.  Dialects: Kadim-Kaban, Jajura.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 
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Cara

[cfd] 3,000 (1999 R. Blench). Plateau state, Bassa LGA, Teriya village. Alternate names: Chara, Fachara, Fakara, Nfachara, Pakara, Tariya, Tera, Teriya, Terri.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, North-Central 
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Cen

[cen] 2,000. Plateau state, center: Duruk Kamang village, SE of Jos. Alternate names: Chen.  Dialects: Most similar to Izere [izr] but has added Berom [bom] prefixes to its own prefix system and employs Berom style consonant alternation.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central 
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Centúúm

[cet] 200 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Bauchi state, Balanga LGA, Cham town, among Dijim [cfa]. Alternate names: Cen Tuum.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Che

[ruk] 100,000 (Blench 2003). Plateau state, Bassa LGA. Alternate names: Bache, Inchazi, Kuche, Rukuba, Sale.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Cibak

[ckl] 100,000 (1993 CAPRO). Borno state, Damboa LGA. Alternate names: Chibbak, Chibbuk, Chibok, Chibuk, Kibbaku, Kikuk, Kyibaku.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1 
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Cinda-Regi-Tiyal

[cdr] 30,000 (1995 S. and S. Dettweiler). Niger state, Chanchaga, Rafi, and Mariga LGAs; Kaduna state, Birnin Gwari LGA. Alternate names: Kamuku.  Dialects: Cinda (Ucinda, Jinda, Majinda, Tegina, Makangara), Regi, Tiyal (Tiyar, Kuki). Lexical similarity: 90%–95% among the 3 dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku 
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Cineni

[cie] 3,000 (1998). Borno state, Gwoza LGA, Cineni village. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda 
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Cishingini

[asg] 100,000 (2004 SIL). Niger state, Borgu and Agwara LGAs, west of Niger River and north of Kainji Lake National Park; Kebbi state, east of Niger River from Yelwa area south to Ngaski and Nasko. Alternate names: Agwara Kambari, Aschingini, Ashaganna, Ashingini, Chisingini, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, “Maunchi” , “Mawanchi” , Yauri.  Dialects: Rofia. A member of the Kambari subgroup, which includes Tsishingini [tsw] and Tsikimba [kdl].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari 
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Ciwogai

[tgd] 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Ganjuwa LGA, Tsagu village and farms area. Near Diri [dwa]. Alternate names: Sago, Tsagu.  Dialects: Related to Diri [dwa].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 
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C’lela

[dri] 90,000 (1993 SIL). East Kebbi state, Zuru, Sakaba, and Donko-Wasagu LGAs; Niger state, Rijau LGA; migrants south. Alternate names: Cala-Cala, Chilala, Chilela, Dakakari, Dakarkari, Dakkarkari, Kolela, Lalawa, Lela.  Dialects: Lila (Zuru, Senchi, Southern Lela), Dabai (Central Lela), Ribah, Adoma (Aroma, Roma-Na, Roma, Yelmo, Northern Lela). Lexical similarity: 93%–98% among dialects at Rade, Ribah, Dabai, and Senchi. Lexical similarity 55% with Hun-Saare [dud], 54% with the Fakai subgroup, 47% with Gwamhi-Wuri [bga], 20% with Acipa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka 
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Como Karim

[cfg] 11,400 (2000). Taraba state, Jalingo, Karim Lamido LGAs, near Lau. Alternate names: Asom, Chomo, Kinzimba, Kirim, Kiyu, Nuadhu, Shomo Karim, Shomoh, Shomong.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo 
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Cori

[cry] 1,000 (2004). Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA. 1 village area. Alternate names: Chori.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic 
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Daba

[dbq] 1,000 in Nigeria (Crozier and Blench 1992). Adamawa state, Mubi LGA, between Mubi and Bahuli. 1 village. Alternate names: Dabba.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 
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Dadiya

[dbd] 30,000 (1998). Gombe state, Balanga LGA; Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA; Adamawa state, Numan LGA, between Dadiya and Bambam. Alternate names: Daadiya, Dadia, Loodiya.  Dialects: Tunga (Boleri), Loofiyo, Kookwila, Loofaa. Dialect names are also names of settlements.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Dadiya 
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Dass

[dot] 8,830. 1,130 Lukshi, 4,700 Durr-Baraza, 700 Wandi and Zumbul, 2,300 Dot (1971 census). Bauchi state, Akleri, Toro, and Dass LGAs; Plateau state, Shendam LGA. Alternate names: Barawa.  Dialects: Lukshi (Dekshi), Durr-Baraza (Bandas), Zumbul (Boodla), Wandi (Wangday), Dot (Dwat, Zodi, Dott). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3 
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Daza

[dzd]  Bauchi state, Darazo LGA, a few villages. Alternate names: Dazawa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A 
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Defaka

[afn] 200 (2001 R. Blench). Rivers state, Opobo-Nkoro LGA, Niger Delta, Nkoro town. Alternate names: Afakani.  Dialects: Related to the Ijo group.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Defaka 
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Degema

[deg] 10,000 (1999 SIL). Rivers state, Degema LGA, Usokun-Degema (Usokun) and Degema Town (Atala) communities. Alternate names: “Dekema”.  Dialects: Atala, Usokun.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta 
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Dendi

[ddn] 2,050 in Nigeria (2000). Kebbi state, Argungu and Bagudo LGAs, on upper Niger River. Alternate names: Dandawa.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern 
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Deno

[dbb] 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Darazo LGA, 45 km northeast of Bauchi town. Alternate names: Be, Denawa, Denwa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Dera

[kna] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Adamawa state, Guyuk LGA; Borno state, Biu LGA. Alternate names: Kanakuru.  Dialects: Shani, Shellen, Gasi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Dera 
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Dghwede

[dgh] 30,000 (1980 UBS). Borno state, Gwoza LGA. Alternate names: Azaghvana, Dehoxde, Hude, Johode, Tghuade, Toghwede, Traude, Wa’a, Zaghvana.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda 
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Dibo

[dio] 100,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Niger state, Lapai LGA; Federal Capital Territory; Plateau state, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names: Ganagana, Ganagawa, Shitako, Zhitako, Zitako.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi 
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Dijim-Bwilim

[cfa] 25,000 (1998). Bauchi state, Balanga LGA; Gongola state, Numan LGA. Dialects: Dijim (Cham, Cam), Bwilim (Mwano, Mwona, Mwomo, Mona, Mwana, Fitilai). Related to Tso [ldp].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona 
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Diri

[dwa] 7,200 (2000). Bauchi state, Ningi and Darazo LGAs. Alternate names: Diriya, Dirya, Diryawa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 
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Dirim

[dir] 9,000 (1992). Taraba state, Bali LGA. Alternate names: Daka, Dakka, Dirin, Dirrim.  Dialects: Similar to Samba Daka [ccg] and may be a dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid 
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Doka

[dbi] 11,400 (2000). Kaduna state, Kachia LGA. 1 village. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern 
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Doko-Uyanga

[uya] 200. Cross River state, Akamkpa LGA. Several villages. Alternate names: Basanga, Dosanga, Iko, Uyanga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong 
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Dong

[doh] 5,000 (1998 R. Blench). Taraba state, Zing LGA; Adamawa state, Mayo Belwa LGA. Alternate names: Donga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid 
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Duguri

[dbm] 20,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Alkaleri and Tafawa-Balewa LGAs; Plateau state, Kanam LGA. Alternate names: Dugarwa, Duguranchi, Dugurawa, Dukuri.  Dialects: Gar Duguri, Badara Duguri, Northeast Duguri, Southwest Duguri. A member of the Jarawa [jar] dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Duhwa

[kbz] 800 (1973 SIL). Nassarawa state, Akwanga LGA, Kerifa village. Alternate names: Karfa, Kerifa, Nzuhwi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper 
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Dulbu

[dbo] 100 (1993). Bauchi state, Bauchi LGA, Dulbu village southeast of Bauchi town. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Dungu

[dbv] 1,100 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA, Dungi town. Alternate names: Dingi, Dungi, Dunjawa, Dwingi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Duwai

[dbp] 11,400 (2000). Yobe state, Bade LGA; Kano state, Hadejia LGA. Alternate names: Eastern Bade, Evji.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Duwai 
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Dza

[jen] 20,100 (2000). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, and Adamawa state, Numan LGA, Jen town, east of Karim-Lamido town, south of Bambuka town, by Benue River bank. Alternate names: Janjo, Jen, Jenjo.  Dialects: Kaigama, Laredo (Ardido), Jaule (Joole).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen 
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Dzodinka

[add]  Taraba state, Sardauna LGA. 1 village on Cameroon border. Alternate names: Adere, Adiri.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe 
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Ebira

[igb] 1,000,000 (1989 J. Adive). About 90% are monolingual. Kwara state, Okene, Okehi, and Kogi LGAs; Nassarawa state, Nasarawa LGA; Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Alternate names: Egbira, Egbura, Ibara, Igbarra, Igbira, Igbirra, Katawa, Kotokori, Kwotto.  Dialects: Okene (Hima, Ihima), Igara (Etuno), Koto (Igu, Egu, Ika, Bira, Biri, Panda). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade 
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Ebughu

[ebg] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom state, Mbo and Oron LGAs. Alternate names: Oron.  Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ebughu 
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Edo

[bin] 1,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Bendel state, Ovia, Oredo, and Orhionmwon LGAs. Alternate names: Addo, Benin, Bini, Oviedo, Ovioba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora 
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Efai

[efa] 6,320 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 7,210. Akwa Ibom state, Mbo LGA. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Effiat.  Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efai 
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Efik

[efi] 400,000 in Nigeria (1998). Population total all countries: 405,260. Cross River state, Calabar Municipality, Odukpani and Akamkpa LGAs; Akwa Ibom state, Itu town. Also in United States. Alternate names: Calabar.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik 
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Efutop

[ofu] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River state, Ikom LGA. Alternate names: Agbaragba, Ofutop.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid 
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Eggon

[ego] 140,000 (1990). Nassarawa state, Nasarawa Eggon, Akwanga, Lafia, Awe, and Obi LGAs. Alternate names: Egon, Hill Mada, Mada Dutse, Mada Eggon, Mo Egon.  Dialects: 25 dialects are locally recognized, but their status is unclear.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B 
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Ehueun

[ehu] 14,200 (2000). Ondo state, Akoko South LGA. Alternate names: Ekpenmen, Ekpimi, Epimi.  Dialects: Related to Ukue [uku].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse 
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Ejagham

[etu] 67,300 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 116,700. Cross River state, Akampka, Idom, Odukpani, Calabar LGAs. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Ekoi.  Dialects: Southern Ejagham (Ekin, Qua, Kwa, Aqua, Abakpa), Western Ejagham, Eastern Ejagham.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid 
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Ekajuk

[eka] 30,000 (1986 O. Asinya). Cross River state, Ogoja LGA, Bansara, Nwang, Ntara 1, 2, and 3, and Ebanibim towns. Alternate names: Akajo, Akajuk.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid 
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Eki

[eki] 5,000 (1988, in Crozier and Blench 1992:36). Cross River state, northeast of Efik, south of Idere. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Probably Central Lower Cross, related to Anaang [anw]. Similar to Idere [ide] (1998 B. Connell).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo 
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Ekit

[eke] 200,000 (1989). Akwa Ibom state, Uquo Ibeno and Eket LGAs. Alternate names: Eket.  Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Some dialect variation.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ekit 
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Ekpeye

[ekp] 30,000 (1973 SIL). Rivers state, Ahoada East and Ahoada West LGAs. Alternate names: Ekkpahia, Ekpabya, Ekpaffia.  Dialects: Ako, Upata, Ubye, Igbuduya. Related to Igbo [ibo].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Ekpeye 
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Eleme

[elm] 58,000 (1990 UBS). Rivers state, Eleme LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West 
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Eloyi

[afo] 25,000 (2000 SIL). Plateau state, Awe and Nasarawa LGAs; Benue state, Otukpo LGA. Alternate names: Afao, Afo, Afu, Aho, Epe, Keffi.  Dialects: Mbeci, Mbeji, Mbamu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Eloyi 
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Emai-Iuleha-Ora

[ema] 100,000 (Schaefer 1987). Edo state, Owan LGA. Alternate names: Ivbiosakon, Kunibum.  Dialects: Ivhimion, Emai, Iuleha, Ora. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora 
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Engenni

[enn] 20,000 (1980 UBS). Rivers state, Ahoada West LGA; Bayelsa state, Yenagoa LGA. Alternate names: Egene, Ngene.  Dialects: Ediro, Inedua, Ogua, Zarama.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta 
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English

[eng]   Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Enwan

[env] 14,000 (2006). Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee 
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Enwan

[enw] 15,000 (1998 B. Connell). Akwa Ibom state, Mbo LGA. Alternate names: Oron.  Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda 
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Epie

[epi] 12,000 (1973 SIL). Bayelsa state, Yenagoa LGA. Alternate names: Epie-Atissa.  Dialects: Atisa (Atissa).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta 
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Eruwa

[erh] 64,000 (2004). Delta state, Isoko LGA. Alternate names: Arokwa, Erakwa, Erohwa.  Dialects: Related to Urhobo [urh]. Not intelligible with any Isoko [iso] dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern 
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Esan

[ish] 200,000 (1973 SIL). 7,000 Ekpon in 7 villages (1998). Edo state, Agbazko, Okpebho, Owan, and Etsako LGAs. Alternate names: Anwain, Esa, Isa, Ishan.  Dialects: Ekpon, Igueben.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora 
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Esimbi

[ags]  Taraba state, SSE of Wukari. Alternate names: Aage, Age, Bogue, Essimbi, Isimbi, Mburugam, Simpi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid 
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Etebi

[etb] 15,000 (1989). Akwa Ibom state, Uquo Ibeno LGA. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ekit 
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Eten

[etx] 40,000 (Blench 2003). Plateau state, Barakin Ladi LGA; Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA. Alternate names: Aten, Etien, Ganawuri, Jal, Niten, Ten.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic 
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Etkywan

[ich] 50,200 (2000). Taraba state, Takum, Sardauna, Bali, and part of Wukari LGAs. Alternate names: Etekwe, Icen, Ichen, Itchen, Kentu, Kyanton, Kyato, Nyidu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen 
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Etulo

[utr] 10,000 (1988 R. Shain). Benue state, Gboko LGA; Taraba state, Wukari LGA. Alternate names: Eturo, Turumawa, Utur.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Etulo 
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Evant

[bzz] 10,000 in Nigeria (1996 SIL). Population total all countries: 11,000. Cross River state, Obudu LGA. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Avand, Avande, Balegete, Belegete, Evand, Ovand, Ovande, Ovando.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 50% with Iceve-Maci [bec], Tiv [tiv], and Otank [uta].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid 
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Fali

[fli] 20,000 (1990 in Crozier and Blench 1992:39). 5,000 or fewer in Vin dialect. Adamawa state, Mubi and Michika LGAs. 4 principal villages. Alternate names: Fali of Mubi, Fali of Muchella, Vimtim, Yimtim.  Dialects: Vin (Uroovin, Uvin, Vimtim), Huli (Bahuli, Urahuli), Madzarin (Ura Madzarin, Muchella), Bween (Urambween, Bagira). Dialects named after villages.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 
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Fali of Baissa

[fah] Few left (Crozier and Blench 1992). South Taraba state, Falinga Plateau region. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Fam

[fam] 1,000 (1984). Taraba state, Bali LGA, 17 km east of Kungana. Dialects: Not closely related to other languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Fam 
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Firan

[fir] 2,500 (Blench 2003). Plateau state, Barkin Ladi LGA, Kwakwi Station south of Jos. Alternate names: Faran, Foron, Kwakwi, Yes Firan.  Dialects: Related to Izere [izr].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, Izeric 
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Fulfulde, Adamawa

[fub] 7,611,000 all Fulfulde in Nigeria (1991 SIL). East central, Taraba and Adamawa States, Yola area. Alternate names: Eastern Fulfulde, Fillanci, Fula, Fulani, Fulatanchi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Eastern 
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Fulfulde, Benin-Togo

[fue]  South and west of Niger River, where Nigeria, Niger, and Benin meet, south to where a big tributary joins Niger River from the east, along Niger River south to the delta. Southern boundary is east-west line below intersection of rivers to 75 km south in Benin-Nigeria border, to border bend from north-south, to 30 km east. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central 
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Fulfulde, Nigerian

[fuv] 1,710,000 in Nigeria (2000). 340,000 in Sokoto. Kano-Katsina, Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Jos Plateau and southeast to Bauchi, Gombe is center; Bororro in Bornu state, Maiduguri is center; Sokoto in Sokoto state. Also in Cameroon, Chad. Alternate names: Kano-Katsina-Bororo Fulfulde.  Dialects: Kano-Katsina, Bororo (Mbororo, Ako, Nomadic Fulfulde), Sokoto.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central 
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Fum

[fum]  Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Antere, on Cameroon border. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields 
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Fungwa

[ula] 1,000 (1992 R. Blench). Niger state, Rafi LGA. Alternate names: Afungwa, Tufungwa, Ula, Ura.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku 
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Fyam

[pym] 3,000. Plateau state, Jos, Barkin Ladi, and Mangu LGAs. Alternate names: Fem, Fyem, Genawa, Gyem, Gyema, Paiem, Pem, Pyem.  Dialects: Most similar to Horom [hoe]. Chadic influence.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern 
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Fyer

[fie] 26,100 (2000). Plateau state, Mangu LGA, Fyer District. Alternate names: Fier.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer 
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Gaa

[ttb] 10,000 (1997 R. Boyd). Adamawa state, Ganye LGA; Tiba Plateau, between Garba Sbege and Jada, north of Shebshi Mountains. Alternate names: Tiba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid 
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Ga’anda

[gqa] 43,000 (1992). Adamawa state, Gombi LGA; Song, Guyuk, and Mubi LGAs, and Borno state, Biu LGA. Alternate names: Ga’andu, Ganda, Makwar, Mokar.  Dialects: Ga’anda, Gabin.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern 
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Gade

[ged] 72,100 (2000). Federal Capital Territory and Nassarawa state, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names: Gede.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade 
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Galambu

[glo] 25,000 (2006). Bauchi state, Bauchi LGA. Alternate names: Galambe, Galambi, Galembi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Gamo-Ningi

[bte] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 15,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Bauchi state, Ningi LGA. Dialects: Gamo (Buta, Mbuta, Mbotu, Ba-Buche, Ba-Mbutu), Ningi. Formerly a dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera 
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Ganang

[gne] 3,000 (2007), decreasing. Plateau state, Gashish Kuk village area, Nye and Iny settlements, southeast of Jos, beyond Kura falls. Alternate names: Gashish.  Dialects: Similar to Izere [izr].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central 
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Gbagyi

[gbr] 700,000 (1991 SIL). Niger state, Rafi, Chanchaga, Shiroro, Suleija LGAs; Kaduna state, Kachia LGA; Nassarawa state, Keffi, Nasarawa LGAs; Federal Capital Territory. Alternate names: East Gwari, Gbagye, Gwari, Gwari Matai, Ibagyi.  Dialects: Tawari, Kuta, Diko, Karu, Kaduna, Louome, Vwezhi, Ngenge (Genge, Gyange, Gyengyen).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari 
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Gbari

[gby] 350,000 (2002 SIL). Niger state, Zungeru to Kaduna River north; southeast through Minna; Federal Capital Territory, Paiko past Kwali; Niger state, Chanchaga, Suleija, Agaie, Rafi, and Lapai LGAs; Nassarawa state, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names: Gbari Yamma, Gwari Yamma, Nkwa, West Gwari.  Dialects: Kwali, Izem, Gayegi, Gbagyi Nkwa, Paiko, Botai, Jezhu, Kong, Kwange (Kangye, Agbawi, Wake, Wi), Wahe. Lexical similarity: 89%–98% among dialects, 66%–78% with Gbagyi dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari 
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Gbaya, Northwest

[gya] Very few in Nigeria. Taraba state, Bali LGA. Alternate names: Baya.  Dialects: Gbeya (Gbea).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest 
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Gbiri-Niragu

[grh] 25,000 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Gure-Kahugu.  Dialects: Gbiri (Igbiri, Agari, Agbiri, Gura, Gure), Niragu (Kahugu, Kapugu, Kafugu, Kagu, Anirago).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Geji

[gji] 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Gejawa, Gezawa, Kayauri.  Dialects: Bolu (Magang, Pelu), Geji (Gyaazi, Gezawa, Gaejawa), Zaranda (Buu). Geji dialect subgroup, in Barawa [dot] language subgroup.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper 
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Gengle

[geg] 4,000. Adamawa state, Mayo Belwa and Fufore LGAs. Alternate names: Momu, Wegele, Yagele.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye 
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Gera

[gew] 200,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Bauchi and Ganjuwa LGAs, Bauchi town. Alternate names: Gerawa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Geruma

[gea] 9,030 (2000). Bauchi state, Toro, Ganjuwa, Bauchi, and South Ningi LGAs. Alternate names: Gerema, Germa.  Dialects: Sum, Duurum.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Ghotuo

[aaa] 9,000 (1994). Edo state, Owan, and Akoko-Edo LGAs. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee 
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Gibanawa

[gib]  Sokoto state, Jega LGA, near Dukawa [dud]. Alternate names: Gembanawa, Gimbanawa, Jega.  Classification: Pidgin, Hausa-based 
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Giiwo

[kks] 14,000 (1998 SIL). Bauchi state, Alkaleri, Bauchi, and Darazo LGAs. Alternate names: Bu Giiwo, Kirfi, Kirifawa, Kirifi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Glavda

[glw] 28,500 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 31,300. Borno state, Gwoza LGA, mainly Nggoshe village (different from Ngoshi); Agapalawa, Amuda, Vale, Ashigashiya, Kerawa, Pelekwa villages. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Galavda, Galvaxdaxa, Gelebda, Glanda, Guelebda.  Dialects: Bokwa, Ngoshie (Ngweshe), Glavda. Similar to Guduf-Gava [gdf]. Wolff (1971) separates Glavda [glw] from Guduf-Gava and Gvoko [ngs].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda 
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Goemai

[ank] 200,000 (1995). Plateau state, Shendam; Nassarawa state, Lafia and Awe LGAs. Alternate names: Ankwai, Ankwe, Ankwei, Kemai.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 
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Gokana

[gkn] 100,000 (1989). Rivers state, Gokana LGA. Dialects: Bodo, Bomu, Dere, Kibangha.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East 
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Gude

[gde] 68,000 in Nigeria (1987). Population total all countries: 96,000. Adamawa state, Mubi LGA; Borno state, Askira-Uba LGA. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Cheke, Goude, Mapodi, Mapuda, Mocigin, Motchekin, Mudaye, Shede, Tchade.  Dialects: Different dialects are spoken in Cameroon and Nigeria but are inherently intelligible.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 
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Gudu

[gdu] 5,000 (1993). Adamawa state, Song LGA. Alternate names: Gudo, Gutu.  Dialects: Kumbi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 
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Guduf-Gava

[gdf] 55,900 (2000). Borno state, Gwoza LGA, mainly Gava, Cikide, and Guduf. Alternate names: Afkabiye, Gudupe.  Dialects: Cikide (Chikide), Guduf, Gava (Yaghwatadaxa, Yawotataxa). Similar to Glavda [glw]. Hide [xed]; 35% intelligibility with Guduf-Gava. Wolff (1971) separates Guduf-Gava from Gvoko [ngs] and Glavda. Lexical similarity: 56% with Hide, 50% with Lamang [hia] and Mabas [vem].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda 
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Gun

[guw] 259,000 in Nigeria (2000). Lagos state, Badagry LGA. Alternate names: Gugbe, Gun-Alada, Gun-Gbe, Seto-Gbe.  Dialects: Alada (Alada-Gbe), Asento, Gbekon, Gun (Gu, Egun, Goun), Phela, Savi, Weme, Seto.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja 
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Gupa-Abawa

[gpa] 15,000 (1989). 10,000 or more Gupa, 5,000 Abawa. Niger state, Lapai LGA, Gupa and Edzu village areas. Dialects: Gupa, Abawa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe 
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Gurmana

[gvm] 3,000 (1989). Niger state, Shiroro LGA, Gurmana town area. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana 
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Guruntum-Mbaaru

[grd] 15,000 (1993). Bauchi state, Bauchi and Alkaleri LGAs. Alternate names: Gurdung, Guruntum.  Dialects: Dooka, Gar, Gayar, Karakara, Kuuku, Mbaaru.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum 
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Gvoko

[ngs] 20,000 in Nigeria (1990). Population total all countries: 21,000. Borno state, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa state, Michika LGA. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Gavoko, Gevoko, Ghboko, Kuvoko, Nggweshe, Ngoshe Sama, Ngoshe-Ndhang, Ngoshi, Ngossi, Ngweshe-Ndaghan.  Dialects: A separate but related language to Glavda [glw] and Guduf [gdf].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda 
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Gwa

[gwb] 980 (2000). Bauchi state, Toro LGA. Dialects: Related to Lame.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Gwamhi-Wuri

[bga] 16,000 (2000). Kebbi state, Wasugu LGA, Danko-Maga area; Niger state, Magama LGA, Dusai and Kwimu; Gwamfawa around Danko; Wurawa around Maga; migrants in Niger state. Alternate names: Lyase, Lyase-Ne.  Dialects: Gwamhi (Gwamfanci, Gwamfi Gwamfawa, Abaangi, Banga, Banganci, Bangawa), Wuri (Wuranci, Wurawa). The 2 dialects have slight lexical and tonal differences. Lexical similarity: 57% with ut-Ma’in [gel], 47% with Hun-Saare [dud], 43% with Clela [dri].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka 
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Gwandara

[gwn] 27,300 (2000). Niger state, Suleija LGA; Federal Capital Territory; Kaduna state, Kachia LGA; Nassarawa state, Keffi, Lafia, Nasarawa, and Akwanga LGAs. Alternate names: Kwandara.  Dialects: Gwandara Karashi, Gwandara Koro, Gwandara Southern (Kyan Kyar), Gwandara Eastern (Toni), Gwandara Gitata, Nimbia.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 
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Gyem

[gye] 1,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Gema, Gemawa, Gyam, Gyemawa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera 
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Hasha

[ybj] 3,000 (1999 R. Blench). Nassarawa state, Akwanga LGA, 3 villages: Hashasu, Kusu, and Bwora. Alternate names: Yashi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B 
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Hausa

[hau] 18,500,000 in Nigeria (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 24,988,000. Sokoto, Kaduna, Katsina, Kano, Bauchi, Jigawa, Zamfara, Kebbi, and Gombe states. Spoken as L2 in north. Also in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Germany, Ghana, Niger, Sudan, Togo. Alternate names: Abakwariga, Habe, Haoussa, Hausawa, Kado, Mgbakpa.  Dialects: Kano, Katagum, Hadejiya, Sokoto, Gobirawa, Adarawa, Kebbawa, Zamfarawa, Katsina, Arewa. Barikanchi is a Hausa pidgin used in military barracks. There is a pidgin or market Hausa. Subdialects of Eastern Hausa: Kano, Katagum, Hadejiya; of Western Hausa: Sokoto, Katsina, Gobirawa, Adarawa, Kebbawa, Zamfarawa; of North Hausa: Arewa, Arawa. Abakwariga is a subgroup.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 
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Hausa Sign Language

[hsl]   Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Hide

[xed] 4,000 in Nigeria (2001 SIL). Borno state, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa state, Michika LGA; along Cameroon border, across from Tourou. 1 village area. Alternate names: Ftour, Hdi, Hedi, Tourou, Tur, Turu, Turu-Hide, Xedi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang 
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Holma

[hod] Extinct. Adamawa state, north of Sorau on Cameroon border. Alternate names: Bali Holma, Da Holmaci.  Dialects: Related to Nzanyi [nja].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 
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Hõne

[juh] 7,000 (Storch 1999). Ethnic population: Much more than 7,000 (Storch 1999). Gombe state, Akko LGA. Pindiga in Pindiga and adjacent villages: Tumu, Kashere, Futuk, Kaltanga; Gwana in Gwana and adjacent villages: Kasan Dare, Gobirawa, Katagum, Kwaya, Dizi, Digare, Jukon, Konan Kuka, Andamin. Dialects: Pindiga, Gwana. Gwana and Pindiga dialects are mutually intelligible only with difficulty. Similar to Wãpha [juw], Jiba [juo], Wapan [juk], Jukun Takum [jbu], Jibu [jib], but not intelligible with them.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun 
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Horom

[hoe] 1,500 (1998 R. Blench). Plateau state, Bokkos LGA. Alternate names: “Kaleri”.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern 
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Huba

[hbb] 175,000 (1992). Adamawa state, Hong, Maiha, Gombi, and Mubi LGAs. Alternate names: Chobba, Kilba.  Dialects: Luwa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2 
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Hungworo

[nat] 20,000 (2003 SIL). Niger state, Rafi LGA, Kagara and Maikujeri town areas. Alternate names: Ingwe, Ingwo, Ngwe, Ngwoi, Nkwoi, Ungwe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 50%–52% with Kamuku dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku 
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Hun-Saare

[dud] 73,000 (1985 P. Ahmed). 10,000 outside the traditional area. Kebbi state, Wasagu and Yauri LGAs; Niger state, Rijau LGA; migrants farther south. Dialect centers are Rijau-Senjir, Dukku-Iri, Zente-Dogo, and Darengi. Alternate names: Duka, Dukanchi, Dukanci, Dukawa, Dukwa.  Dialects: Eastern Duka (Hun, Et-Hun, Hune), Western Duka (Es-Saare). Lexical similarity: 85% between the Rijau and Dukku dialects; 63% Duka with ut-Ma’in [gel], 50% with Clela [dri], 47% with Gwamhi-Wuri [bga].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka 
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Hwana

[hwo] 32,000 (1992). Adamawa state, Gombi LGA; some in Song and Hong LGAs. Alternate names: Fiterya, Hona, Hwona.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern 
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Hya

[hya]  Tukwri, Shike, Ligwe and Gameta villages. Alternate names: Ghye, Za.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 
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Hyam

[jab] 100,000 (1994 UBS). Kaduna state, Kachia and Jema’a LGAs. Alternate names: Ham, Hyamhum, Jabba, Jeba.  Dialects: A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic 
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Ibani

[iby] 60,000 (1989 UBS). Rivers state, Bonny. Alternate names: Bonny, Ubani.  Dialects: A member of Koin subgroup within the Ijo subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Ibani-Okrika-Kalabari 
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Ibibio

[ibb]  Akwa Ibom state, Itu, Uyo, Etinan, Ikot Abasi, Ikono, Ekpe-Atai, Uruan, Onna, Nsit-Ubium, and Mkpat Enin LGAs. Dialects: Enyong, Central Ibibio, Itak, Nsit. Several dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik 
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Ibilo

[ibi] 5,000. Edo state, Ibilo town. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora 
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Ibino

[ibn] 10,000 (Faraclas 1989). Akwa Ibom state, Uquo-Ibeno LGA. Alternate names: Ibeno, Ibuno.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibino 
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Ibuoro

[ibr] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom state, Itu and Ikono LGAs. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro 
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Iceve-Maci

[bec] 5,000 in Nigeria (1990). Cross River state, Obudu LGA. Alternate names: Icheve, Oceve, Ochebe, Ocheve, Utse, Utser, Utseu.  Dialects: Maci (Matchi, Oliti, Olithi, Olit, Kwaya, Oliti-Akwaya, Motom, Motomo), Bacheve (Becheve, Bechere, Beheve, Baceve).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid 
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Idere

[ide] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom state, Itu LGA. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Probably Central Lower Cross, related to Anaang [anw]. Similar to Eki [eki] (1998 B. Connell).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo 
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Idesa

[ids] 5,690 (2000). Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Dialects: Related to Oloma [olm].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern 
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Idoma

[idu] 600,000 (1991 UBS). Benue state, Otukpo and Okpokwu LGAs. Dialects: Idoma Central (Oturkpo, Akpoto), Idoma West, Idoma South (Igumale, Igwaale, Ijigbam), Okpogu. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma 
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Idon

[idc] 5,000. Kaduna state, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Idong.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern 
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Idun

[ldb] 10,000 (Barrett 1972). Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA. Alternate names: Adong, Lungu, Ungu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro 
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Igala

[igl] 800,000 (1989 UBS). Kogi state, Ankpa, Idah, Dekina, and Bassa LGAs; Edo state, Oshimili LGA; Anambra state, Anambra LGA. Alternate names: Igara.  Dialects: Ebu, Idah, Ankpa, Ogugu, Ibaji, Ife, Anyugba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Igala 
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Igbo

[ibo] 18,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Abia state, Anambra state, Aguata, Anambra, Awka, Idemili, Ihiala, Njikoka, Nnewi, and Onitsha LGAs; Enugu state, Awgu, Enugu, Ezeagu, Igo-Etiti, Igbo-Eze, Isi-Uzo, Nkanu, Nsukka, Udi, and Uzo-Uwani LGAs; Imo state; Rivers state, Ikwerre, Bonny, and Ahoada LGAs; Delta state, Oshimili, Aniocha, and Ndokwa LGAs; Akwa Ibom state, Ika LGA. The only or majority language in Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo. Also in northeast Delta state and southeast Rivers state, Oyigbo LGA and Opobo part of Opobo-Nkoro LGA, and alongside Ibani [iby] in Bonny LGA. Alternate names: Ibo.  Dialects: Owerri (Isuama), Onitsha, Umuahia, Orlu, Ngwa, Afikpo, Nsa, Oguta, Aniocha, Eche, Egbema, Oka (Awka), Bonny-Opobo, Mbaise, Nsuka, Ohuhu, Unwana. 30 dialects vary in inherent intelligibility. The standard literary form is developing based on the dialects of Owerri and Umuahia, omitting the nasality and aspiration found in those dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo 
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Igede

[ige] 250,000 (1991 UBS). Benue state, Oju, Otukpo, and Okpokwu LGAs; Cross River state, Ogoja LGA. Alternate names: Egede, Igedde.  Dialects: Ito, Oju (Central Igede), Worku, Gabu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma 
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Iguta

[nar] 6,120 (1990). Plateau state, Jos-North LGA primarily; Jos-South, Jos-East, and Bassa LGAs; Bauchi state, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Anaguta, Naraguta.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera 
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Igwe

[igw] 47,800 (2000). Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee 
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Ihievbe

[ihi]  North and east of Afuze, Owan LGA, Ihievbe Ogbe, Ebetse, and Iyakhora villages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central 
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Ija-Zuba

[vki]  Federal Capital Territory, south of Abuja, north of Minna Suleja road. Alternate names: Koro Afiki, Koro Ija, Koro Zuba.  Dialects: A dialect subgroup. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Different from Lijili [mgi], Begbere-Ejar [bqv], or Tanjijili [uji]. ‘Koro’ is used as a cover term for several languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified 
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Ijo, Southeast

[ijs] 71,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 66,600 Nembe, 4,900 Akassa. Bayelsa state, Brass LGA. Alternate names: Brass Ijo, Brass-Nembe, Ijaw.  Dialects: Ijo, Nembe (Nimbe), Akassa (Akaha).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, East 
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Ika

[ikk] 22,800 (2000). Delta state, Ika LGA. Dialects: A separate language in the Igbo language subgroup. The dialect around Agbor, the administrative and commercial center, appears to be developing into a standard form. Further east and south from there, varieties become more similar to Igbo (Report of the Committee on Languages of Midwestern state: 12).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo 
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Iko

[iki] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom state, Ikot Abasi LGA. 3 villages. Dialects: Culturally they consider themselves Obolo [ann], but cannot use Obolo literature. Iko is more similar to other Lower Cross languages than to Obolo. Listed separately by Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Iko 
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Ikpeshi

[ikp] 5,320 (2000). Bendel state, Etsako LGA. Alternate names: Ekpeshe, Ikpeshe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee 
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Iku-Gora-Ankwa

[ikv] 13,000 (2006). Kaduna state, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Iku.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern 
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Ikulu

[ikl] 50,000 (1998). Kaduna state, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Ankulu, Ikolu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern 
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Ikwere

[ikw] 200,000 (1973 SIL). Rivers state, Ikwerre, Port Harcourt, and Obio-Akpor LGAs. Alternate names: Ikwerre, Ikwerri.  Dialects: Apani, Akpo-Mgbu-Tolu, Ogbakiri, Emowhua, Ndele, Elele, Omerelu, Egbedna, Aluu, Igwuruta, Ibaa, Isiokpo, Omagwna, Ubima, Ipo, Omudioga, Obio, Rumuji. A separate language in the Igbo language subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo 
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Ilue

[ilv] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom state, Oron LGA. Alternate names: Idua.  Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ilue 
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Irigwe

[iri] 40,000 (1985 UBS). Plateau state, Bassa and Barakin Ladi LGAs; Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Aregwe, Idafan, Iregwe, Kwal, Kwan, Kwoll, Miango, Nkarigwe, Nnerigwe, Nyango, Rigwe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central 
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Isekiri

[its] 510,000 (1991 UBS). Delta state, Warri, Bomadi, and Ethiope LGAs. Alternate names: Chekiri, Irhobo, Iselema-Otu, Ishekiri, Itsekiri, Iwere, Jekri, Selemo, Shekiri, Warri.  Dialects: Similar to Yoruba [yor].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Isoko

[iso] 423,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Delta state, Isoko and Ndokwa LGAs. Alternate names: “Biotu” , “Igabo” , “Sobo”.  Dialects: Ozoro, Ofagbe, Emede, Owe (Owhe), Elu, Aviara, Iyede, Imiv, Enhwe, Ume, Iwire (Igbide), Olomoro, Iyede-Ami, Unogboko, Itebiege, Uti, Iyowo, Ibiede, Oyede, Uzere, Irri (Iri), Ole (Oleh).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern 
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Ito

[itw] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom state, Akamkpa LGA. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro 
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Itu Mbon Uzo

[itm] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom state, Ikono and Itu LGAs. Alternate names: Itu Mbon Uso, Itu Mbuzo.  Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro 
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Ivbie North-Okpela-Arhe

[atg] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Edo state, Etsako and Akoko-Edo LGAs, Ate, Okpekpe, and Okpella villages. Dialects: Ivbie North (Ibie North), Okpela (Okpella, Ukpella, Upella), Arhe (Atte, Ate). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee 
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Iyayu

[iya] 24,700 (2000). Ondo state, 1/4 of Idoani town. Alternate names: Idoani.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse 
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Iyive

[uiv] 1,000 in Nigeria (Crozier and Blench 1992). Benue state, Kwande LGA, near Turan. Alternate names: Asumbo, Ndir, Uive, Yiive.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid 
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Izere

[izr] 50,000 (1993 SIL). South Izere: Plateau state, Barikin Ladi LGA; North, Northeast Izere: Plateau state, Jos LGA; Bauchi state, Toro LGA; and Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA. Alternate names: Afizare, Afizarek, Afusare, Feserek, Fezere, Fizere, Hill Jarawa, Izarek, Jarawa, Jarawan Dutse, Jari, Jos-Zarazon.  Dialects: Northwest Izere, Northeast Izere, South Izere. The Fobor dialect is prestigious. Northwest Izere subdialects: Fobor (Fobur), Shere; Northeast: Fedare (Zandi, Zendi), Jarawan Kogi (Maigemu), and Fursom (Fursum); South: Forom (Ichen). Firan [fir] is a separate language.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central 
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Izi-Ezaa-Ikwo-Mgbo

[izi] 593,000 (1973 SIL). 200,000 Izi, 180,000 Ezaa, 150,000 Ikwo, 63,000 Mgbo. Ebonyi state, Abakaliki, Ezza, Ohaozara, and Ishielu LGAs; Benue state, Okpokwu LGA. Dialects: Izi (Izzi), Ezaa (Eza), Ikwo, Mgbo (Ngbo). Dialect subgroup within the Igbo language subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo 
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Izon

[ijc] 1,000,000 (Williamson 1989). 100,000 Kolokuma (1991 UBS). 1,770,000 all Ijo languages. Bayelsa state, Yenagoa, South Ijaw, Kolokuma-Opokuma, Ekeremor, and Sagbama LGAs; Delta state, Burutu, Warri, and Ughelli LGAs; Ondo state, Ilaje, Ese-Odo LGAs; Ekiti state, Ikole LGA. Alternate names: Central-Western Ijo, Ijaw, Ijo, Izo, Uzo.  Dialects: Arogbo, Furupagha, Egbema, West Olodiama, Oporoza (Gbaranmatu), Ogulagha, Iduwini, Ikibiri, Ogboin, West Tarakiri, Kabo(Kabowei), Kumbo(Kumbowei), Mein, Operemo, Tuomo, Ogbe Ijo, Gbarain, Kolokuma-Opokuma, Ekpetiama, Apoi, Koluama, Basan (Bassan), East Olodiama, East Tarakiri, Oyiakiri, Oporomo (Oporoma), Bumo (Boma). The Ijo (Ijaw) subgroup includes 7 languages. Izon has about 30 inherently intelligible dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West Ijo 
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Izora

[cbo] 1,500 (Blench 2003). Plateau state, Bassa LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera 
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Janji

[jni] 1,150 (2000). Plateau state, Bassa LGA. Alternate names: Ajanji, Anafejanzi, Jenji, Tijanji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera 
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Jara

[jaf] 46,300 (2000). Borno state, Biu and Kwaya-Kusar LGAs; Gombe state, Akko and Yamaltu-Deba LGAs. Alternate names: Jera.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western 
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Jarawa

[jar] 150,000 (1978 MARC). 20,000 Bankal, 19,000 Gingwak. Bauchi, Adamawa, and Plateau States. Alternate names: Jar, Jara, Jaranchi, Jarawan Kogi.  Dialects: Bankal (Bankala, Baranci, Zhar), Ligri, Kanam, Bobar, Gingwak (Gwak, Jarawan Bununu, Jaracin Kasa). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Jere

[jer] 23,000 (1972 SIL). 7,000 Boze, 2,350 Gusu, 2,000 Bunu, 3,500 Panawa. Plateau state, Bassa LGA; Bauchi state, Toro LGA; Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Jeere, Jera.  Dialects: Boze (Eboze, Anabeze, Buji), Gusu (Gusawa, Gussum, Gesawa, Guzawa, Isanga, Asanga, Anibau, Anosangobari), Ezelle (Jere, Jeriyawa, Azelle, Jengre), Bunu (Ribina, Rebina, Ibunu, Narabunu, Anorubuna, Gurrum, Anegorom), Panawa (Ipanawa, Unupanawa). A dialect subgroup. In Ezelle dialect, a speaker is ‘Ozelle’ or ‘Bajere’; speakers are ‘Azelle’ or ‘Jarawa’. In Eboze a speaker is ‘Unabeze’, speakers are ‘Anabeze’.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera 
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Jiba

[juo] 2,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Taraba state, Wukari and Karim Lamido LGAs; Plateau state, Langtang and Wase LGAs; Bauchi state, Alkaleri and Akko LGAs; villages north and west of Kalingo. Alternate names: Jibe, Jibi, Jukun Kona, Kona.  Dialects: A member of the Kororofa language subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa 
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Jibu

[jib] 30,000 (1997 SIL). Taraba state, Gashaka and Bali LGA. Alternate names: Jibanci, Jibawa.  Dialects: Gayam, Garbabi, Galamjina.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun 
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Jilbe

[jie] 100 (H. Tourneux). Borno state, Jilbe town, Cameroon border across from Dabanga town. 1 village. Alternate names: Zoulbou.  Dialects: Kotoko speakers in Cameroon and Chad consistently report low intelligibility with Jilbe. Not the same as Zizilivakan [ziz].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1 
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Jimi

[jmi] 1,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Ganjuwa LGA, Jimi village. Alternate names: Bi-Gimu.  Dialects: Zumo.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Eastern 
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Jiru

[jrr] 3,420 (2000). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA. Alternate names: Atak, Kir, Wiyap, Zhiru.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo 
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Jju

[kaj] 300,000 (1988 SIL). Kaduna state, Kachia and Jema’a LGAs. Alternate names: Kache, Kaje, Kajji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central 
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Jorto

[jrt] 17,300 (2000). Plateau state, Shendam LGA, at Dokan Kasuwa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 
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Ju

[juu] 900 (1993). Bauchi state, Bauchi LGA, Ju village. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum 
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Jukun Takum

[jbu] 11 in Nigeria (2000). Taraba state, Takum, Sardauna, and Bali LGAs. Alternate names: Diyi, Jukun, Njikum.  Dialects: Takum, Donga (Akpanzhi).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun 
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Kaan

[ldl] 10,000 (1992). Adamawa state, Shellen, Song, and Numan LGAs. Alternate names: Kan, Libbo, Libo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Libo 
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Kadara

[kad] 40,000 (Barrett 1972). Kaduna state, Kachia LGA; Niger state, Chanchaga LGA. Alternate names: Adara.  Dialects: Kajuru (Ajure), Minna, Kachia, Iri.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern 
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Kagoma

[kdm] 25,400 (2000). Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA. Alternate names: Agoma, Gwong, Gyong, Kwong.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic 
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Kaivi

[kce] 2,320 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Kaibi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Kakanda

[kka] 20,000 (1989 R. Blench). Niger state, Agaie and Lapai LGAs; Kwara state, Kogi LGA; along Niger River centered on Budã. Alternate names: Adyaktye, Akanda, Hyabe.  Dialects: Budon Kakanda, Gbanmi-Sokun Kakanda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe 
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Kakihum

[kxe] 15,000 (1996). North Niger state. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari 
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Kalabari

[ijn] 258,000 (Jenewari 1989). Rivers state, Degema, Akulga, Asaritoru, and Port Harcourt LGAs. Dialects: Mutually intelligible with Bile [bil] (Bille), Kirike [okr], and Ibani [iby].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Ibani-Okrika-Kalabari 
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Kam

[kdx] 5,000 (1993). Taraba state, Bali LGA, between Mayo Kam and Garba Chede. 2 villages. Alternate names: Nyingwom, Nyiwom, Yimwom.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Kam 
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Kamantan

[kci] 10,000 (Barrett 1972). Kaduna state, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Angan, Kamanton.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Kami

[kmi] 5,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Niger state, Lapai LGA, Ebo town, and 11 villages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe 
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Kamo

[kcq] 20,000 (1995 CAPRO). Gombe state, Billiri, Kaltungo and Akko LGAs. Alternate names: Kamu, Ma, Nubama, Nyima.  Dialects: Typologically more similar to Awak (no singular-plural noun suffixes).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak 
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Kamwe

[hig] 300,000 (1992). Adamawa state, Michika LGA, Mandara Mountains. Alternate names: Higgi, Higi, Hiji, Vacamwe.  Dialects: Nkafa, Dakwa (Bazza), Sina, Futu, Tili Pte, Fali of Kiriya, Fali of Mijilu, Modi, Humsi. Similar to Psikye [kvj] and Hya [hya] of Cameroon.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 
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Kaningkom-Nindem

[kdp] 12,000 (2008). Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA. Alternate names: Kaningdom-Nindem, Kaningdon-Nindem, Kaningkon-Nindem, Kaninkom-Nindem, Kaninkon-Nindem, Ninkyob-Nindem.  Dialects: Ninkyob (Ninkyop, Kaningkom, Kaninkon, Kaningkwom), Nindem (Inidem, Nidem). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Kanufi

[kni] 10,400 (2000). Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA. Alternate names: Karshi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Kanuri

[kau] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 3,955,900. 
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Kanuri, Central

[knc] 3,000,000 in Nigeria (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Population total all countries: 3,240,500. Borno state, Kukawa, Kaga, Konduga, Maiduguri, Monguno, Ngala, Bama, Gwoza LGAs; Yobe state, Nguru, Geidam, Damaturu, Fika, Fune, and Gujba LGAs; Jigawa state, Hadejia LGA. Also in Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Niger, Sudan. Alternate names: Beriberi, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Yerwa Kanuri.  Dialects: Kaga (Kagama), Lare (Lere), Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa, Yerwa. Kwayam dialect not understood by other Kanuri (Lukas 1937). Maiduguri dialect mutually intelligible. Most similar to Manga Kanuri [kby] and Tumari Kanuri [krt]. Yerwa is the central dialect. Part of a dialect subgroup that includes other Kanuri dialects and Tumari Kanuri [krt] in Chad.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri 
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Kanuri, Manga

[kby] 200,000 in Nigeria (1993). Mainly Yobe state; Jigawa and Bauchi states. Alternate names: Kanouri, Kanoury, Manga.  Dialects: Dagara, Manga.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri 
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Kapya

[klo] 200 (2004). Taraba state, Takum LGA, at Kapya. Dialects: Related to Kutep [kub].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb 
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Karekare

[kai] 150,000 (1993 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Gamawa and Misau LGAs; Yobe state, Fika and Nangere LGAs. Alternate names: Karai Karai, Karaikarai, Kerekere, Kerrikerri.  Dialects: Jalalam (West Karekare), Birkai, Kwarta Mataci.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Karekare 
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Kariya

[kil] 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Ganjuwa LGA, Kariya village near Miya town. Alternate names: Kariyu, Kauyawa, Lipkawa, Vinahe, Wihe.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 
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Khana

[ogo] 200,000 (1989). Rivers state, Khana LGA; Akwa Ibom state, Oruk Anam LGA, Wiisoe village. Alternate names: Kana, Ogoni.  Dialects: Yeghe, Norkhana, Ken-Khana, Boúe, Nyo-Kana, Babbe. Similar to Gokana [gkn], Tee [tkq].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East 
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Kholok

[ktc] 2,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, near Didango. Alternate names: Kode, Koode, Kwoode, Pia, Pitiko, Widala, Wurkum.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Kinuku

[kkd] 500 (1973 SIL). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Kinugu, Kinuka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Kiong

[kkm] 100 (2004). Ethnic population: 569. Cross River state, Odukpani and Akampka LGAs. Alternate names: Akayon, Akoiyang, Iyoniyong, Okonyong, Okoyong.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop  Nearly extinct.
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Kir-Balar

[kkr] 3,050 (1993). Bauchi state, Bauchi LGA, Kir Bengbet and Kir Bajang’le villages. Alternate names: Kir, Kirr.  Dialects: Kir, Balar (Larbawa).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom 
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Kirike

[okr] 248,000 (1995 UBS). Rivers state, Okrika, Port Harcourt, and Ogu-Bolo LGAs. Alternate names: Okrika.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Ibani-Okrika-Kalabari 
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Koenoem

[kcs] 3,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau state, Shendam LGA. Alternate names: Kanam.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 
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Kofa

[kso] 1,100 (2003). Adamawa state, Song LGA, north of Belul road, north of Yola. Alternate names: Kota.  Dialects: Reportedly a separate language from Bura-Pabir [bwr].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1 
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Kofyar

[kwl] 110,000 (2000). Plateau state, Qua’an Pan and Mangu LGAs; Nassarawa state, Lafia LGA. Dialects: Kofyar (Kwong), Kwagallak (Kwa’alang, Kwalla), Dimmuk (Dimuk, Doemak), Mirriam (Mernyang), Bwol (Bwal, Mbol), Gworam (Giverom, Goram), Jipal (Jepel, Jepal, Jibyal). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 
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Kohumono

[bcs] 30,000 (1989). Cross River state, Obubra LGA. Alternate names: Bahumono, Ediba, Ekumuru, Humono, Ohumono.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono 
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Koma

[kmy] 32,000 in Nigeria (1989). Population total all countries: 35,000. Adamawa state, Ganye and Fufore LGAs, Koma Vomni, Alantika Mountains. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Kuma.  Dialects: Gomme (Damti, Koma Kampana, Panbe), Gomnome (Mbeya, Gimbe, Koma Kadam, Laame, Youtubo), Ndera (Vomni, Doome, Doobe). A language subgroup. 3 subdialects: Koma Vomni, Koma Beiya, and Koma Damti. Ndera and Gomnome barely understand each other, but both understand Gomme. Related to Mom Jango [ver].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere 
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Kono

[klk] 5,520 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA, Kona village. Alternate names: Konu, Kwono.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Korop

[krp] 10,200 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 17,640. Cross River state, Odukpani and Akampka LGAs. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Durop, Kurop, Ododop.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop 
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Kpan

[kpk] 11,400 (2000). Taraba state, Wukari, Takum, and Sardauna LGAs, Kato Bagha, Wukari, Suntai, Gayan, Gindin Dutse, Likam. Alternate names: Abakan, Hwaso, Hwaye, Ibukwo, Ikpan, Kpanten, Kpwate, Nyatso, Nyonyo, Yorda.  Dialects: Bissaula, Kumbo (Kpanzon), Takum, Donga (Akpanzhi), Apa, Kente (Kentu, Kyentu, Etkye), Eregba. Related to Etkywan [ich].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen 
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Kpasam

[pbn] 3,000. Adamawa state, Numan LGA, Kpasham town, on Numan-Jalingo road. Alternate names: ’Balo, Kpasham, Nyisam, Passam.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang 
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Kpati

[koc] Extinct. Taraba state, Wukari, Takum LGAs. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba 
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Kubi

[kof] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Gunjawa LGA, Kubi town. Alternate names: Kuba, Kubawa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Kudu-Camo

[kov] 42 (1990 M. Bross). Bauchi state, Ningi LGA. Alternate names: Kuda-Chamo, Kudawa.  Dialects: Kudu (Kuda), Camo (Chamo). Related to Butu-Ningi [bte]. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera  Nearly extinct.
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Kugama

[kow] 5,000 (1995). Adamawa state, Fufore LGA. Alternate names: Kugamma, Wegam, Yamale, Yamalo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang 
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Kugbo

[kes] 2,000 (1973 SIL). Rivers state, Brass LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo 
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Kukele

[kez] 95,000 (1989). Cross River state, Ogoja LGA; Ebonyi state, Abakaliki LGA; Benue state, Okpokwu and Oju LGAs. Alternate names: Bakele, Ukele.  Dialects: Mtezi, Ugbala, Iteeji. 4 dialects in the north, 3 south, besides those named.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele 
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Kulere

[kul] 15,600 (1990). Plateau state, Bokkos LGA. Alternate names: Akande, Akandi, Kande, Korom Boye, Tof.  Dialects: Tof, Richa, Kamwai-Marhai.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper 
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Kulung

[bbu] 15,000 (1973 SIL). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, at Balasa, Bambur, and Kirim; Wukari LGA, Gada Mayo. Alternate names: Bakuli, Bakulu, Bakulung, Bambur, Kukulung, Kulu, Kuluno, Wo, Wurkum.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Kumba

[ksm] 3,420 (2000). Adamawa state, Mayo Belwa and Fufore LGAs. Alternate names: Isaro, Sate, Yofo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye 
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Kupa

[kug] 20,000 (1998 R. Blench). Kwara state, Kogi LGA, around Abugi. 52 villages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe 
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Kurama

[krh] 40,300 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka and Ikara LGAs; Kano state, Tudun Waya LGA. Alternate names: Akurmi, Akurumi, Azumu, Bagwama, Bukurumi, Tikurami.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Kushi

[kuh] 11,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Billiri, and Kaltungo LGAs, Kushi village. Alternate names: Chong’e, Goji, Kushe.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper 
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Kutep

[kub] 44,600 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 46,000. Taraba state, Takum LGA. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Ati, “Jompre” , Kuteb, Kutev, Mbarike, Zumper.  Dialects: Jenuwa, Lissam, Fikyu, Kunabe, Kentin. Fikyu has subdialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb 
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Kutto

[kpa] 3,000 (1995). Bauchi state, Bajoga LGA; Borno state, Gujba LGA. 2 villages. Alternate names: Kupto, Kúttò.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper 
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Kuturmi

[khj] 10,500 (2000). Kaduna state, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Ada.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern 
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Kwa

[kwb] 7,000 (1992). Adamawa state, Numan LGA, Gyakan and Kwa towns, near Munga. Alternate names: Baa, Kwah.  Dialects: Gyakan, Kwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Kwa 
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Kwaami

[ksq] 10,000 (1990). Bauchi state, Gombe LGA. Alternate names: Komawa, Kwam, Kwamanchi, Kwami, Kwom.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper 
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Kwak

[kwq]  Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Antere. Alternate names: Bùkwák.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified 
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Kyak

[bka] 5,000 (Adelberger 1995). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA. Alternate names: Bambuka, Nyakyak.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen 
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Kyenga

[tye] 4,000 in Nigeria (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 5,000. Kebbi state, Geshuru, Kaele, Saufu, and Tuni villages west of Illo; Boko villages of Maze, Samia, Baikinrua, Pisa. Also in Benin. Alternate names: Kenga, Tienga, Tyanga, Tyenga.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Shanga [sho], 38%–40% with the Busa group.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa 
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Labir

[jku] 13,000 (2006). Bauchi state, Bauchi and Alkaleri LGAs. Alternate names: Jakanci, Jaku, Jakun.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Laka

[lak] 5,000 (1995). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA; Adamawa state, Yola LGA. Alternate names: Godogodo, Lakka, Lao Habe, Lau.  Dialects: Related to Karang [kzr].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified 
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Lala-Roba

[lla] 46,000 (1993). Adamawa state, Gombi LGA; Borno state. Alternate names: Gworam.  Dialects: Lala (Lalla), Roba (Robba), Ebode.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba 
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Lamang

[hia] 40,000 (1993). Borno state, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa state, Michika LGA. Alternate names: Gbuhwe, Laamang, Waha.  Dialects: North Laamang, Central Laamang, South Laamang. 37% intelligibility with Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 31% of Hide [xed]. North Lamang subdialects: Zaladeva (Alataghwa), Dzuba, Leghva (Luhuva), Gwoza-Wakane; Central Lamang: Hedkala (Hidkala, Xidkala, Hitkala, Hitkalanchi), Waga (Waha, Woga, Wagga), Dlige; South Lamang: Ghudavan. Lexical similarity: 64% with Hide and Vemgo-Mabas, 50% with Gvoko [ngs].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang 
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Lame

[bma] 10,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Toro LGA, Lame District. Dialects: Ruhu (Rufu, Rufawa), Mbaru (Bambaro, Bombaro, Bomberawa, Bunberawa, Bambara, Bamburo), Gura (Tugura, Agari, Agbiri). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Lamja-Dengsa-Tola

[ldh] 3,420 (2000). Adamawa state, Mayo Belwa LGA, Ganglamja area (Lamja Mt.), between Mayo Belwa and Tola. 13 villages. Lamja central town is Ganglamja; Dengsa are south of Lamja. Dialects: Lamja, Dengsa, Tola. A dialect subgroup. Together with Samba Daka [ccg] may form a language subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid 
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Lamnso’

[lns]  Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, scattered mixed with other languages. Alternate names: Bansaw, Banso, Banso’, Lamnsok, Lamso, Nsaw, Nsho’, Nso, Nso’, Panso.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, East 
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Laru

[lan] 5,000 (1995 R. Jones). Niger state, Borgu LGA, Niger River banks, Karabonde, Monnai, Leshigbe, Luma, Sansanni, Shagunu villages. Alternate names: Laranchi, Larawa, Laro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake 
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Leelau

[ldk] 5,000 (Adelberger 1995). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, between Bambuka and Karim-Lamido town, near Lake Mungah. Alternate names: Lelau, Lelo, Munga, Munga Lelau.  Dialects: A member of the Munga dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen 
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Legbo

[agb] 60,000 (1989). Cross River state, Obubra LGA; Ebonyi state, Afikpo LGA. Alternate names: Agbo, Gbo, Igbo, Imaban, Itigidi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo 
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Lemoro

[ldj] 10,000 (1998 CAPRO). Plateau state, Bassa LGA; Bauchi state, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Anemoro, Anowuru, Emoro, Limoro, Limorro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera 
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Lenyima

[ldg] 13,000 (2006). Cross River state, Obubra LGA. Alternate names: Anyima, Inyima.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo 
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Lere

[gnh] Ethnic population: 16,328 (2000). Bauchi state, Toro LGA. Dialects: Si (Rishuwa, Kauru, Kuzamani), Gana, Takaya (Taura). Language subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera  Nearly extinct.
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Leyigha

[ayi] 10,000 (1989). Cross River state, Obubra LGA. Alternate names: Asiga, Assiga, Ayiga, Ayigha, Yigha.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo 
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Lijili

[mgi] 50,000 (1985 UBS). Nassarawa state, Awe and Lafia LGAs. Alternate names: Koro Lafia, Koro of Lafia, Ligili, Megili, Migili, Mijili.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southern 
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Limbum

[lmp] Few in Nigeria (Crozier and Blench 1992). Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Mambila uplands. Alternate names: Kambu, Wimbum.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe 
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Lokaa

[yaz] 120,000 (1989). Cross River state, Obubra LGA. Alternate names: Loke, Loko, Luko, Yakö, Yakurr.  Dialects: Ugep, Nkpam.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko 
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Longuda

[lnu] 32,000 (1973 SIL). Adamawa state, Guyuk LGA; Bauchi state, Balanga LGA. Alternate names: Languda, Longura, Nunguda, Nungura, Nunguraba.  Dialects: Nya Ceriya (Banjiram, Cirimba), Nya Gwanda (Nyuwar, Gwandaba), Nya Guyuwa (Guyuk, Plain, Turuba), Nya Dele (Jessu), Nya Tariya (Taraba).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Longuda 
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Loo

[ldo] 8,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Gombe state, Kaltungo LGA; Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, Bambuka to Karim-Lamido road. Alternate names: Lo, Loh, Shungo, Shunhu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen 
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Lopa

[lop] 5,000 (1996 R. Blench). Niger state, Borgu LGA, Amboshidi and Tungan Bori, islands in Niger River; Kebbi state, Yauri LGA. Alternate names: Djiri, Kirikjir, Lopawa, Lupa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake 
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Lubila

[kcc] 11,400 (2000). Cross River state, Akamkpa LGA, at Ojo Nkomba and Ojo Akangba. Alternate names: Kabila, Kabire, Lubilo, Ofor, Ojor.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko 
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Lufu

[ldq] 3,200 (2006). Taraba state, Takum LGA, Lufu, and Lufu Jauro. Classification: Unclassified 
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Luri

[ldd] 2 (2004 R. Blench). Bauchi state, Bauchi LGA, Kayarda and Luri villages. Dialects: May be a dialect of Polci [plj].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West  Nearly extinct.
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Maaka

[mew] 10,000 (1993). Borno state, Gujba LGA, Bara town and associated hamlets. Alternate names: Maga, Magha, Maha, Maka.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Mada

[mda] 100,000 (1993 SIL). Plateau state, Akwanga and Keffi LGAs; Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA. Alternate names: Madda, Yidda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Mafa

[maf] 4,910 in Nigeria (2000). Borno state, Gwoza LGA. Alternate names: Bula, Bulahai, “Matakam” , Natakan.  Dialects: Mafa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 
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Mághdì

[gmd] 2,000 (1992). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, a section of the Widala. Alternate names: Tala, Widala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen 
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Mak

[pbl] 5,690 (2000). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, off Banbuka to Karim-Lamido road. Alternate names: Leemak, Lemak, Panya, Panyam, Zo.  Dialects: Panya, Zo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen 
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Mala

[ruy] 6,630 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Amala, Rumaiya, Rumaya, Tumala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Mama

[mma] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Nassarawa state, Akwanga LGA. Alternate names: Kantana, Kwarra.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Mambila, Nigeria

[mzk] 99,000 (1993). Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Mambila Plateau. Alternate names: Bang, Lagubi, Mabila, Mambere, Mambilla, Nor, Nor Tagbo, Tongbo.  Dialects: Barup. Nearly every village has a separate dialect, forming a chain. Dialect centers are Bang, Dorofi, Gembu, Hainari, Kabri, Mayo Ndaga, Mbamnga, Tamien, Tepo, Warwar. Similar to Mambila [mcu] of Cameroon.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Mambila 
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Mangas

[zns] 100 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Bauchi LGA, Mangas town. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom 
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Marghi Central

[mrt] 158,000 (2006). Borno state, Askira-Uba and Damboa LGAs; Adamawa state, Mubi and Michika LGAs. Alternate names: Marghi, Margi.  Dialects: Lassa (Babal), Gulak (Dzerngu), Madube (Gwara), Mulgwe (Malgwa), Wurga.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2 
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Marghi South

[mfm] 166,000 (2006). Borno state, Askira-Uba LGA; Adamawa state, Mubi and Michika LGAs. Dialects: Wamdiu, Hildi. Marghi South, Marghi Central [mrt], and Putai [mfl] form a language subgroup. Hoffman (1963) relates Marghi South to Huba [hbb] rather than to Margi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2 
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Mashi

[jms] 1,000. Taraba state, near Takum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid 
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Mawa

[wma] Extinct. Bauchi state, Toro LGA, possibly Mara village. Classification: Unclassified 
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Mbe

[mfo] 14,300 (1973 SIL). Cross River state, Ogoja LGA. Alternate names: Ketuen, Western Mbube.  Dialects: Idum, Ikumtale, Odaje.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbe 
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Mbembe, Cross River

[mfn] 100,000 (1982 UBS). Cross River state, Obubra and Ikom LGAs; Anambra state, Abakaliki LGA. Alternate names: Ekokoma, Ifunubwa, Oderiga, Ofunobwam, Okam, Wakande.  Dialects: Okom (Eghom, Ohana-Onyen), Apiapum, Adun, Osopong (Osophong, Ezopong), Ofombonga (Ewumbonga), Ofonokpan, Ekama (Ekamu), Oferikpe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Mbembe 
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Mbembe, Tigon

[nza] 20,000 in Nigeria (1987). Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Kurmi District. Alternate names: Akonto, Akwanto, Noale, Tigim, Tigon, Tigong, Tukun.  Dialects: Ashuku (Kitsipki), Nama (Dama, Namu, Nzare, Kporo, Eneeme).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Mbembe 
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Mboi

[moi] 19,000 (1992). Adamawa state, Song, Fufore, and Gombi LGAs. Alternate names: Gena, Mboire, Mboyi.  Dialects: Banga, Mboi, Handa. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Mboi 
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Mbongno

[bgu] 3,000 in Nigeria (Blench and Connell 1999). Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Kakara town. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Bungnu, Bungun, Bunu, Gbunhu, Kakaba, Kamkam.  Dialects: Several minor dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila 
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Mbula-Bwazza

[mbu] 40,600 (2000). 10,000 Bwazza, 20,000 Tambo, 5,000 to 10,000 Mbula. Adamawa state, Numan, Guyuk, Song, Demsa LGAs. Dialects: Bwazza (Bwaza, Bwa’za, Bare, Bere, Tambo), Mbula.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Mburku

[bbt] 12,000 (2000). Bauchi state, Darazo LGA. Alternate names: Barke, Barko, Burkanawa, Kariya, Lipkawa, Mburkanci, Wudufu, Wuufu.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 
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Mingang Doso

[mko] 3,000 (1995 SIL). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, 15 km east of Karim Lamido town. 1 village and area hamlets. Alternate names: Doso, Munga Doso, Ngwai Mungàn.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen 
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Miship

[mjs] 6,000 (1976 SIL). Plateau state, Pankshin, Mangu, Shendam LGAs. Alternate names: Chip, Cip, Ship.  Dialects: Doka.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 
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Miya

[mkf] 30,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Ganjuwa LGA, Miya town. Alternate names: Miyawa, Muya.  Dialects: Gala, Faishang, Fursum, Demshin, Federe.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 
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Mom Jango

[ver] 104,000 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 110,520. Adamawa state, Yola and Fufore LGAs, Verre hills. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Kobo, Vere, Verre, Were.  Dialects: Mom Jango, Momi (Ziri). Mom Jango and Momi are probably separate languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere 
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Montol

[mtl] 21,900 (1990). Plateau state, Shendam LGA. Alternate names: Baltap, Montal, Teel.  Dialects: Montol, Baltap-Lalin. Related to Tal [tal].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 
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Moo

[gwg] 5,000 (1998). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, off the Bambuka to Karim-Lamido road, near Gomu Mountain. Alternate names: Gomu, Gwom, Gwomo, Gwomu, Ngwaa Móò, Yáá Mòò.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen 
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Mumuye

[mzm] 400,000 (1993 SIL). Taraba state, Jalingo, Zing, Karim Lamido, Yorro, Bali LGAs; Adamawa state, Ganye, Fufore, Yola, Numan, and Mayo Belwa LGAs. Alternate names: Yoro.  Dialects: Zinna, Dong, Yoro, Lankaviri, Gola (Bajama), Gongla, Kasaa, Saawa, Jalingo, Nyaaja, Jeng, Gnoore, Yaa, Sagbee, Shaari, Kugong, Mang, Kwaji, Meeka, Yakoko.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye 
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Mundat

[mmf] 1,000 (1998 SIL). Plateau state, Bokkos LGA, Mundat village near Sha. Dialects: Similar to Sha [scw] and Duhwa [kbz].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper 
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Mvanip

[mcj] 100 (Blench and Connell 1999). Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, 25% of Zongo Ajiya and hamlets northwest of Mambila Plateau. Alternate names: Magu, Mvanlip, Mvano, Mvanon, Mvanöp.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila 
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Mwaghavul

[sur] 295,000 (1993 SIL). Plateau state, Barakin-Ladi and Mangu LGAs. Alternate names: Sura.  Dialects: Mupun (Mapan, Mapun), Panyam.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 
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Nde-Gbite

[ned]  Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Antere. Alternate names: Biti, Bötö.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Unclassified 
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Nde-Nsele-Nta

[ndd] 19,500 (1987). 12,000 Nde, 3,000 Nsele, 4,500 Nsa. Cross River state, Ikom LGA. Dialects: Nde (Ekamtulufu, Mbenkpe, Udom, Mbofon, Befon), Nsele, Nta (Atam, Afunatam).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid 
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Ndoe

[nbb] 7,340 (2000). Cross River state, Ikom LGA. Dialects: Ekparabong (Akparabong), Balep (Anep, Anyep).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid 
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Ndoola

[ndr] 60,400 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 62,520. Taraba state, Bali, Gashaka, Sardauna LGAs. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Ndola, Ndoro, Njoyame, Nundoro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Ndoro 
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Ndun

[nfd] 3,000 (2003 R. Blench). Kaduna state, southwest of Fadan Karshe, Ankpong, Anfufalim, Ngbok, Ankara, Banyeng, Ungwar Rimi villages. Alternate names: Indun, Nandu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, West-Central 
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Ndunda

[nuh] 350 (Blench and Connell 1999). Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, near Mvanip, 5 km from Yerimaru, past Kakara on Tea Estate Road, northwest of Gembu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila 
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Ngamo

[nbh] 60,000 (1993). Yobe state, Fika LGA; Gambe state, Nafada-Bajoga LGA. Alternate names: Gamawa, Gamo, Ngamawa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Ngas

[anc] 400,000 (1998 SIL). Plateau state, Pankshin, Kanam, and Langtang LGAs. Alternate names: Angas, Karang, Kerang.  Dialects: Hill Angas, Plain Angas.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 
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Nggwahyi

[ngx] 2,000 (1995). Borno state, Askira-Uba LGA. Alternate names: Ngwaxi, Ngwohi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2 
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Ngizim

[ngi] 80,000 (1993). Yobe state, Damaturu LGA. Alternate names: Ngezzim, Ngizmawa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper 
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Ngwaba

[ngw] 10,000 (1993 CAPRO). Adamawa state, Gombi LGA at Fachi and Guduniya, and Hong LGA. 2 villages. Alternate names: Goba, Gombi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 
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Nigerian Sign Language

[nsi]   Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Ningye

[nns] 3,990 (2000). Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA, Ningeshen Kurmi village and 3 small settlements: Akwankwan, Kobin, and Ningeshen Dutse. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Ninzo

[nin] 35,000 (1973 SIL). Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA; Nassarawa state, Akwanga LGA. Alternate names: Akiza, Amar Tita, Ancha, Fadan Wate, Gbhu D Amar Randfa, Hate, Incha, Kwasu, Ninzam, Nunzo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Njerep

[njr] 6 (2000 B. Connell). Southeast, near the Mambila [mcu]. Alternate names: Njerup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Njerup  Nearly extinct.
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Nkari

[nkz] 5,000 (1998 B. Connell). Akwa Ibom state, Ikono LGA. Dialects: Formerly thought a dialect of Ibibio [ibb].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro 
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Nkem-Nkum

[isi] 34,500 (1987 O. Asinya). 18,000 Nkem, 16,500 Nkum. Cross River state, Ogoja LGA. Dialects: Nkem (Nkim, Ogoja, Ishibori, Isibiri, Ogboja), Nkum. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid 
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Nkoroo

[nkx] 4,550 (1989 UBS). Rivers state, Opobo-Nkoro LGA. Alternate names: Nkoro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, East Nkoroo 
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Nkukoli

[nbo] 1,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River state, at the juncture of Ikom, Obubra, and Akamkpa LGAs, Iko Ekperem Development Area. Alternate names: Ekuri, Lokoli, Lokukoli, Nkokolle.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko 
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Nnam

[nbp] 3,000 (1987 O. Asinya). Cross River state, Ikom and Ogoja LGAs. Alternate names: Ndem.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid 
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Nshi

[nsc]  Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Antere, Nkiri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified 
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Numana-Nunku-Gbantu-Numbu

[nbr] 30,000 (Blench 2003). Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA; Plateau state, Akwanga LGA. Alternate names: Sanga.  Dialects: Nunku, Numana (Nimana), Gbantu (Gwantu, Gwanto), Numbu. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Nungu

[rin] 50,000 (1999). Plateau state, Akwanga LGA. Alternate names: Lindiri, Rendre, Rindiri, Rindre.  Dialects: Rindre, Gudi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Nupe-Nupe-Tako

[nup] 800,000 (1990). Niger state, Mariga, Gbako, Agaie, and Lapai LGAs; Kwara state, Edu LGA; Kogi state, Kogi LGA; Federal Capital Territory. Alternate names: Nufawa, Nupe, Nupeci, Nupecidji, Nupenchi, Nupencizi.  Dialects: Nupe Central (Nife, Anupe, Nupecizi, Nupencizi, Ampeyi, Anupecwayi, Anuperi, Tapa, Tappah, Takpa), Nupe Tako (Bassa Nge). Nupe Central is literary norm.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe 
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Nyam

[nmi] 100 (2006). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, Andami village. Alternate names: Nyambolo.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper 
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Nyeng

[nfg] 2,000 (Blench 2003). Kaduna state, Adu village. Alternate names: Hanyeng, Ningon.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, West-Central 
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Nyong

[muo]  Adamawa state, Mayo Belwa LGA. 6 villages. Alternate names: Chukkol, Daganyonga, Mubako, Mumbake, Nyoking, Nyongnepa, Peti, Teteka, Yapeli.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko 
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Nzanyi

[nja] 77,000 in Nigeria (1993). Population total all countries: 86,000. Adamawa state, Maiha LGA. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Jeng, Jenge, Kobotshi, Njai, Njanyi, Njei, Njeing, Njeny, Nzangi, Zani, Zany.  Dialects: Paka, Rogede, Nggwoli, Hoode, Maiha, Magara, Dede, Mutidi, Lovi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 
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Obanliku

[bzy] 65,000 (Faraclas 1989). Cross River state, Obanliku LGA. Alternate names: Abanliku.  Dialects: Bebi, Busi, Basang, Bisu (Gayi), Bishiri. A dialect subgroup. Related to Alege [alf].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi 
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Obolo

[ann] 200,000 (1996 National Population Commission). Rivers state, Andoni LGA; Akwa Ibom state, Ikot Abasi LGA, islands off southern coast. Ibibio [ibb] east and northeast, Ogoni [ogo] northwest, Ibani [iby] west, Atlantic Ocean south. Alternate names: Andone, Andoni, Andonni.  Dialects: East Obolo (Okoroete, Ibot Obolo), West Obolo (Ataba, Unyeada). Ngo (in the Central area) is the prestige dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo 
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Obulom

[obu] 3,420 (2000). Rivers state, Port Harcourt LGA, Abuloma town. Alternate names: Abuloma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta 
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O’chi’chi’

[xoc] Extinct. Rivers state, Etche LGA, Ikwewengwo and Umuebulu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta 
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Odual

[odu] 18,000 (1989). Rivers state, Abua-Odual LGA. Alternate names: Saka.  Dialects: Arughunya, Adibom. Lexical similarity: 70% with Abua [abn] (most similar).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual 
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Odut

[oda] 20 (1980s, from 2000 R. Blench). Cross River state, Odukpani LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop  Nearly extinct.
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Ogbah

[ogc] 170,000 (Ahiamadu 1993). Rivers state, Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA, north Niger Delta. Alternate names: Ogba.  Dialects: Egnih, Igburu-Usomini. A member of the Igbo language subgroup. Lexical similarity: 81%–94% among dialects. Ogbah dialect has 45% lexical similarity with Ndoni [ukw], 41% with Igbo [ibo], 32% with Ikwere [ikw], 23% with Ekpeye [ekp].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo 
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Ogbia

[ogb] 200,000 (1989). Bayelsa state, Brass LGA. Alternate names: Ogbinya.  Dialects: Agholo (Kolo), Oloibiri, Anyama. A dialect subgroup but all inherently intelligible.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta 
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Ogbogolo

[ogg] 10,000 (1995). Rivers state, Ahoada LGA. 1 town. Alternate names: Obogolo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta 
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Ogbronuagum

[ogu] 12,000 (2000 E. Kari). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2000 E. Kari). Rivers state, Degema LGA, Bukuma village near Buguma. Alternate names: Bukuma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta 
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Okobo

[okb] 50,000 (Connell 1991). Akwa Ibom state, Okobo LGA. Dialects: Possibly 2 dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Okobo 
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Okodia

[okd] 3,600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Bayelsa state, Yenagoa LGA. Alternate names: Okordia.  Dialects: Not fully intelligible with Biseni [ije] or other Ijo languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo 
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Oko-Eni-Osayen

[oks] 10,000 (Williamson 1989). 4,000 in Ogori, 3,000 in Magongo, 3,000 in Eni. Kogi state, Okene LGA, Ogori and Magongo towns, 15 km south southwest of Okene. Alternate names: Ogori-Magongo, Oko.  Dialects: Oko (Ogori, Uku), Osayen (Magongo, Osanyin), Eni. A dialect subgroup. Seems equally distantly related to Yoruba [yor], Ebira [igb], Edo [bin], Igbo [ibo], and Idoma [idu].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Oko 
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Okpamheri

[opa] 30,000 (1973 SIL). Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Alternate names: Opameri.  Dialects: Okulosho (Okurosho), Western Okpamheri, Emhalhe (Emarle, Somorika, Semolika). Subdialects of Okulosho: Ojirami (Eekunu), Dagbala (Dangbala), Oja (Oza), Makeke (Uuma), Oma. Subdialects of Western Okpamheri: Ekpe, Bekuma, Lankpese (Lampese, Lankpeshi), Imoga (Imorga, Uma), Eko (Ekon, Ekor), Ikaran-Oke (Ikeram-Oke), Ebunn-Oke, Ikaran-Ele (Ikeran-Ile), Ebunn-Ugbo, Ikpesa, Igbo-Ola-Sale (Ugboshi-Sale), Aiyegunle (Oshi), Igbo-Ola-Oke (Ugboshi-Oke), Onumo (Onumu), Ogugu, Ogbe-Sale, Ogbe-Oke.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern 
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Okpe

[oke] 25,400 (2000). Edo state, Okpe LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern 
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Okpe

[okx] 8,700 (2004). Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Dialects: Related to Oloma [olm].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern 
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Oloma

[olm]  Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Dialects: Related to Okpe [okx], Idesa [ids], Akuku [ayk].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern 
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Olulumo-Ikom

[iko] 30,000 (Faraclas 1989). 5,000 Olulumo, 25,000 Ikom. Cross River state, Ikom LGA. May also be in Cameroon. Alternate names: Lulumo.  Dialects: Okuni, Olulumo, Ikom.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Ikom 
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Oring

[org] 75,000 (1989). 12,300 Ufia, 3,000 Effium, 6,350 Okpoto (1955 R. Armstrong). Benue state, Okpokwu LGA; Ebonyi state, Ishielu LGA. Alternate names: Koring, Orri, Orrin, Orringorrin.  Dialects: Okpoto, Ufia (Utonkon), Ufiom (Effium).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Koring 
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Oro

[orx] 75,000 (1989). Akwa-Ibom state, Oron LGA. Alternate names: Oron.  Dialects: Some dialect variation.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Oro 
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Oruma

[orr] 5,000 (1995). Bayelsa state, Ogbia LGA, Oruma and Ibelebiri towns. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo 
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Ososo

[oso] 19,000 (2000). Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee 
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Otank

[uta] 3,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River state, Obudu LGA; Benue state, Kwande LGA. Alternate names: Otang, Otanga, Utanga, Utange, Utank.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Tiv [tiv], 60% with Iceve-Maci [bec], 50% with Evant [bzz], 40% with Mesaka [iyo] and Eman [emn].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid 
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Pa’a

[pqa] 8,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Ningi and Bauchi LGAs. Alternate names: Afa, Afanci, Afawa, Fa’awa, Foni, Fucaka, Pa’awa, Pala.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 
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Panawa

[pwb] 3,500 (Blench 2003). Bauchi state, Toro LGA. 5 villages. Alternate names: Bugel, Bujiye.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos 
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Pangseng

[pgs]  Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA. Dialects: Pangseng, Komo, Jega.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye 
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Pe

[pai] 4,000 (Blench 2003). Plateau state, Pankshin LGA, 17 km south of Jos-Amper main road. 7 villages. Alternate names: Dalong, Pai.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid 
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Peere

[pfe] Few in Nigeria. Adamawa state, Ganye LGA. Alternate names: Kotofo, Kotopo, Kotpojo, Koutin, Kutin, Kutine, Kutinn, Pare, Patapori, Peer, Pere, Potopo, Potopore.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Kutin 
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Pero

[pip] 25,000 (1995 CAPRO). Gombe state, Kaltungo LGA, Gwandum, Gundalf, Kushi, Yapito, and Burak. Alternate names: Filiya, Pipero.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper 
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Pidgin, Nigerian

[pcm] 30,000,000 including L1 and L2 speakers. Southern states; northern states in Sabon Garis; coastal and urban areas. Alternate names: Nigerian Creole English, Nigerian Pidgin English.  Dialects: Lagos Pidgin, Delta Pidgin, Cross River Pidgin, Benin Pidgin. No unified standard. Dialects may be very different from each other. Partially intelligible with Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone and Cameroon Pidgin [wes].  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio 
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Piti

[pcn] 5,530 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Abisi, Bisi, Pitti.  Dialects: Riban (Ribam).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam 
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Piya-Kwonci

[piy] 5,000 (1992). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA; some in Bauchi state. 21 villages or more. Alternate names: Ambandi, Pia, Pitiko, Piya, Wurkum.  Dialects: Piya, Kwonci.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper 
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Polci

[plj] 22,000 (1995 CAPRO). 2,000 Zul (1995), 4,000 Buli (1993), 400 Langas (1993), 15,000 Polci, 250 Baram (1993), 800 Dir (1993). Bauchi state, Dass, Toro, and Bauchi LGAs. Alternate names: Palchi, Palci, Polchi.  Dialects: Zul (Mbarmi, Barma), Baram (Mbaram, Barang), Dir (Diir, Dra, Baram Dutse), Buli, Langas (Nyamzax, Lundur), Polci (Posa, Polshi, Palci). Polci dialect subgroup in Barawa language subgroup.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper 
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Pongu

[png] 30,000 (2003 SIL). Niger state, Rafi LGA, Gumna and Tegina districts, between Kusheriki (north), Zungeru (south), and road southwest, with center in Sabon Gari Pangu. Some in Kaduna, Minna, Kontagora, and Bida towns. Bordered by Kamuku [cdr], Ngwoi [nat], Ura [ula], Basa-Kaduna [bsl], Baushi [bsf], Basa-Gurmana [buj], Gurmana [gvm], and Gbari [gby]. Alternate names: Arringeu, Pangu, Pongo.  Dialects: Akwa, Asebi, Awege, Azhiga, Cagere, Camajere, Cansu, Caundu, Ubwebwe. Lexical similarity: 94%–99% among dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku 
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Psikye

[kvj] 12,000 in Nigeria (1992). Adamawa state, north and east of Michika, south of Madagali, in Mandara Mountains. Alternate names: Kamsiki, Kapsiki, Ptsake.  Dialects: Psikye (Kapsiki, Kamu), Zlenge, Wula (Oula, Ula-Xangku, Lying).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 
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Putai

[mfl] 50. Borno state, Damboa LGA. Alternate names: Marghi West.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1  Nearly extinct.
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Putukwam

[afe] 12,000 (1973 SIL). 3,500 Afrike dialect. Cross River state, Obudu and Ogoja LGAs. Alternate names: Mbe Afal, Mbube Eastern, Utugwang.  Dialects: Utugwang (Otukwang), Okorogung, Okorotung, Afrike (Aferike), Obe (Mbe East), Oboso. Member of the Obe subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi 
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Pyapun

[pcw] 17,300 (2000). Plateau state, Shendam LGA. Dialects: Related to Tal [tal], Montol [mtl].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 
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Rang

[rax]  Taraba state, Zing LGA. Dialects: Similar to Mumuye [mzm].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye 
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Reshe

[res] 44,000 (1993 SIL). South Kebbi state, Yauri LGA; west Niger state, Borgu LGA; banks of Niger River, north of Busa. Alternate names: Bareshe, Gunga, Gunganchi, Gungawa, Tsureja, Tsureshe, Yaurawa.  Dialects: Most divergent of the Western Kainji languages (Blench 1988). Lexical similarity: 43% with Lopa [lop], 33% with Laru [lan], 20% with Hun-Saare [dud], 11% with Tsishingini [tsw] (Salka).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Reshe 
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Rogo

[rod]  Niger state, Rafi and Mariga LGAs, Ucanja town area, 30 km northwest of Kagara; Kaduna state, Birnin Gwari LGA. Alternate names: Burogo, Ucanja Kamuku, Urogo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku 
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Ron

[cla] 115,000 (1995). 20,000 Shagawu. Plateau state, Bokkos, Barakin-Ladi, and Mangu LGAs. Alternate names: “Chala” , “Challa”.  Dialects: Bokkos (Alis I Run), Daffo-Butura (Lis Ma Run), Monguna (Shagawu, Shagau, Nafunfia, Maleni).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper 
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Ruma

[ruz] 5,090 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Bagwama, Rurama, Ruruma, Turama.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Samba Daka

[ccg] 107,000 (2000). Taraba state, Gashaka, Jalingo, Bali, Zing LGAs, and Adamawa state, Ganye and Mayo Belwa LGAs. Alternate names: Chamba Daka, Daka, Dakka, Dekka, Deng, Jama, Nakanyare, Sama, Samba, Tchamba, Tikk, Tsamba.  Dialects: Samba Daka, Samba Jangani, Samba Nnakenyare, Samba of Mapeo, Taram, Dirim. A dialect subgroup. Together with Lamja-Dengsa-Tola [ldh], it may form a language subgroup. Similar to Dirim [dir].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid 
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Samba Leko

[ndi] 62,000 in Nigeria (2000). Adamawa state, Ganye, Fufore, Wukari, and Takum LGAs. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Chamba Leko, Lego, Leko, Lekon, Ndi, Samba, Samba Leeko, Suntai.  Dialects: Similar to Kolbila [klc].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko 
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Sambe

[xab] 6 (Blench 2003). Kaduna state, Sambe village 10 km west of Agamati town. Dialects: Most similar to Hasha.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Platoid, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B  Nearly extinct.
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Sanga

[xsn] 20,100 (2000). 1,600 Bujiyel (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Asanga, Isanga.  Dialects: Bujiyel.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera 
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Sasaru

[sxs] 12,500 (2000). Edo state, Akoko-Edo LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee 
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Saya

[say] 50,000 (1973 SIL). 7,000 Sigdi (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Tafawa Balewa LGA. Alternate names: Sayanci, Sayara, Sayawa, Seiyara, Seya, Seyawa.  Dialects: Sigidi (Sugudi, Sigdi, Segiddi), Zaar (Vikzar, Vigzar, Kal, Gambar Leere, Lusa). Saya dialect subgroup in Barawa language subgroup.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper 
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Sha

[scw] 3,000 (1998 SIL). Plateau state, Bokkos LGA, Sha District. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper 
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Shakara

[nfk] 3,000 (Blench 2003). Kaduna state. 13 villages. Alternate names: Isakara, Tari.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, West-Central 
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Shall-Zwall

[sha] 8,900 (2004). Bauchi state, Dass LGA. Dialects: Shall (Shal), Zwall. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic 
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Shamang

[xsh]  Kaduna state, Kachia and Jema’a LGAs. Alternate names: Samang, Samban.  Dialects: Related to Hyam [jab].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic 
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Shama-Sambuga

[sqa] 5,000 (1995 S. and S. Dettweiler). Niger state, Rafi and Mariga LGAs; Kaduna state, Birnin Gwari LGA. Alternate names: Bushama, Tushama.  Dialects: Shama, Sambuga. Lexical similarity: 64%–66% with the 3 Kamuku [rod] dialects, 69% with Hungworo [nat], 52% with Eastern Acipa [acp], 16%–17% with Western Acipa [awc].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku 
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Shanga

[sho] 5,000 (1995). Kebbi state between Kaoje and Yauri, Niger River, both sides; Gante, Lafugu, Zaria, Besse, Shanga, Dugu Raha, Dugu Tsofo, Bakin Turu villages. Alternate names: Shangawa, Shonga, Shongawa.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with the Busa group. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kyenga [tye], 38%–40% lexical similarity with the Busa group.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa 
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Shau

[sqh]  Bauchi state, Toro LGA, Shau and Mana villages. Alternate names: Lìsháù, Sho.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera  Nearly extinct.
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Sheni

[scv] 6 (2004 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 1,500. Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Shaini, Shani, Shenanci.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jere  Nearly extinct.
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Shiki

[gua] 1,200 (2006). Bauchi state, Bauchi LGA. Gubi and Guru towns north of Bauchi town. Alternate names: Guba, Gubawa, Gubi, Mashiki.  Dialects: Gubi, Guru.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian 
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Shoo-Minda-Nye

[bcv] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA, Benue River banks. Dialects: Shoo (Banda, Bandawa), Minda (Jinleri), Nye (Kunini).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Unclassified 
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Shuwa-Zamani

[ksa] 1,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi state, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Kauru, Kuzamani, Rishuwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Siri

[sir] 3,800 (2006). Bauchi state, Ningi LGA. Alternate names: Sirawa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 
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Somyev

[kgt] 18 (2000 B. Connell). Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Kila Yang, Njike, Kuma, Jabu, Kikau, and Mayo Daga towns. Alternate names: Kila, Somyewe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila  Nearly extinct.
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Sorko

[bze]  Niger, Kwara, and Kebbi states, Lake Kainji. Alternate names: “Boso” , Bozo, Corogama, Jenaama Bozo, Jenama, Nononke, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Sorogama.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama 
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Sukur

[syk] 14,800 (1992). North tip Adamawa state, Michika LGA, Mandara Mountains. Alternate names: Adikimmu Sukur, Gemasakun, Sakul, Sugur.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.6 
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Sur

[tdl] 5,000 (1998 R. Blench). Bauchi state, Tafawa Balewa LGA; Plateau state, Pankshin LGA. Alternate names: Dishili, Myet, Nsur, Suru, Tapshin, Tapshinawa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid 
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Surubu

[sde] 7,170 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Fiti, Skrubu, Srubu, Zurubu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Tal

[tal] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau state, Pankshin LGA. Alternate names: Amtul, Kwabzak.  Dialects: Related to Montol [mtl], Goemai [ank], Pyapun [pcw], Koenoem [kcs].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 
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Tala

[tak] 1,000 (1993). Bauchi state, Bauchi LGA, Kuka and Talan Kasa villages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum 
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Tamajaq, Tawallammat

[ttq] Few in Nigeria. Far northwest Sokoto state. Alternate names: Azbinawa, Buzu, Tahoua Tamajeq, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, Tuareg.  Dialects: Ioullemmeden.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern 
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Tambas

[tdk] 3,000 (2001 R. Blench). Plateau state, Pankshin LGA. Alternate names: Tambes, Tembis.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer 
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Tangale

[tan] 130,000 (1995 CAPRO). Gombe state, Billiri, Kaltungo, Akko, and Balanga LGAs. Alternate names: Tangle.  Dialects: Kaltungo, Biliri, Shongom, Ture.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper 
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Tanjijili

[uji] 8,540 (2000). Niger state, Chanchaga and Suleija LGAs, Kafin Koro on Minna to Abuja road. About 10 villages. Alternate names: Jijili, Koro, Koro Funtu of Kafin Koro, Koro Funtu of Minna, Koro Funtu of Shakoyi, Ujijili.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southern 
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Tarok

[yer] 300,000 (1998 R. Blench). Plateau state, Kanam, Wase, and Langtang LGAs; Taraba state, Wukari LGA. Alternate names: Appa, Yergam, Yergum.  Dialects: Izini (Hill Tarok), Itarok (Plain Tarok), Selyer, Itarok Oga Asa, Igyang.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid 
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Tedaga

[tuq] 2,000 in Nigeria (Blench 1990). Borno state, northeast LGAs. A few villages. Dialects: Kecherda.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu 
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Tee

[tkq] 313,000 (2006). Rivers state, Tai LGA. Alternate names: Tai.  Dialects: Previously regarded as a dialect of Khana [ogo]. Has a number of sounds not found in Khana.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East 
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Teme

[tdo] 4,000 (1995). Adamawa state, Mayo Belwa LGA, Mayo Belwa River banks. Alternate names: Tema.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye 
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Tera

[ttr] 101,000 (2000). Gombe state, Yamaltu-Deba LGA; Borno state, Kwayakusar LGA. Dialects: Nyimatli (Nyemathi, Yamaltu, Nimalto, Nyimatali), Pidlimdi (Hina, Hinna, Ghuna, Ghena), Bura Kokura. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western 
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Teshenawa

[twc] Extinct. Jigawa state, Keffin Hausa LGA, Teshena town. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper 
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Tha

[thy] 1,000 (1998 U. Kleinewillinghöfer). Taraba state, near Lau. Alternate names: Joole Manga, Kapawa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen 
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Tita

[tdq] 3,420 (2000). Taraba state, Jalingo LGA, Hoai Petel. Alternate names: Hoai Petel.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo 
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Tiv

[tiv] 2,210,000 in Nigeria (1991 UBS). Benue state, Makurdi, Gwer, Gboko Kwande, Vandeikya, and Katsina Ala LGAs; Plateau state, Lafia LGA; Taraba state, Bali, Takum, and Wukari LGAs. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: “Munshi”.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid 
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Toro

[tdv] 3,930 (2000). Nassarawa state, Akwanga LGA, northeast of Wamba, Turkwam village. Alternate names: Turkwam.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau 
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Tsikimba

[kdl] 100,000 (2004 SIL). Niger state, Magama and Mariga LGAs, Auna and Wara areas, west of Kainji Lake on Niger River. Alternate names: Agaushi, Akimba, Auna, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, Kimba.  Dialects: Agaunshe, Ashen. Part of Kambari subgroup, which includes Tsishingini [tsw] and Cishingini [asg].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari 
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Tsishingini

[tsw] 100,000 (2004 SIL). Niger state, Magama and Mariga LGAs, Salka area. Alternate names: Ashingini, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, Salka.  Dialects: Ibeto. A member of the Kambari language subgroup, which includes Cishingini [asg] and Tsikimba [kdl].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari 
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Tso

[ldp] 16,000 (1992 CAPRO). Adamawa state, Numan LGA; Bauchi state, Kaltungo LGA. Alternate names: Cibbo, Cuyi Tsó, Kitta, Lotsu-Piri, Pire, Piri, Tsóbó.  Dialects: Berbou, Gusubou, Swabou.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona 
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Tsuvadi

[tvd] 150,000 (1998). Niger state, Bangi, Kontagora, and Rijau LGAs. Alternate names: Abadi, Avadi, Evadi, Ibeto, Kamberi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari 
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Tula

[tul] 30,000 (1998 U. Kleinewillinghöfer). Gombe state, Kaltungo LGA, 30 km east of Billiri. Alternate names: Kotule, Kutule.  Dialects: Kutule, Baule, Yili.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula 
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Tumi

[kku] 2,270 (2000). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Kitimi, Tutumi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Tunzuii

[dza] 2,500 (Blench 2003). Ethnic population: 4,500. Plateau state, Jos East Local Government. 5 villages; Bauchi state, Toro LGA. 2 villages. Alternate names: Dugusa, Duguza, Itunzu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera 
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Tyap

[kcg] 130,000 (1993 SIL). Kaduna state, Kachia, Saminaka, and Jema’a LGAs. Alternate names: Katab, Kataf.  Dialects: Atakat (Atakar, Attaka, Attakad, Attakar, Takat), Kachichere (Aticherak, Daroro, Techera), Kafanchan (Fantuan, Fantwam, Kpashan), Kagoro (Agolok, Agorok, Agwolok, Aguro, Agwot), Katab (Atyap, Tyap), Sholio (Asholio, Asolio, Osholio, Aholio, Marwa, Morwa, Moroa, Maruwa, Maroa).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central 
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Ubaghara

[byc] 30,000 (1985 UBS). 24,000 Biakpan. Cross River state, Akampka LGA. Dialects: Biakpan, Ikun, Etono, Ugbem, Utuma (Utama, Utamu). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Ubaghara 
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Ubang

[uba] 3,420 (2000). Cross River state, Obudu LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi 
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Uda

[uda] 10,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom state, Mbo LGA. Dialects: Listed separately by Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda 
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Uhami

[uha] 13,600 (2000). Ondo state, Akoko South and Owo LGAs. Alternate names: Ishua.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse 
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Ukaan

[kcf] 18,000 (1973 SIL). Ondo state, Ikakumo-Akoko, Auga, Ishe towns; Edo state, Ikakumo-Edo, Ayanran towns. Alternate names: Aika, Anyaran, Auga, Ikan, Kakumo.  Dialects: Ikaan, Igau, Ayegbe (Iisheu), Iinno (Iyinno). Only one-way intelligibility between some dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Ukaan 
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Ukpe-Bayobiri

[ukp] 12,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River state, Obudu and Ikom LGAs. Dialects: Ukpe, Bayobiri. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi 
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Ukpet-Ehom

[akd] 11,400 (2000). Cross River state, Akamkpa LGA. Alternate names: Akpet-Ehom.  Dialects: Ukpet (Akpet), Ehom (Ubeteng, Ebeteng). A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Akpet 
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Ukue

[uku] 14,100 (2000). Ondo state, Akoko South LGA. Alternate names: Ekpenmen, Ekpenmi, Epinmi, Ukpe.  Dialects: Related to Ehuen [ehu].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse 
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Ukwa

[ukq] 100 (2004). Cross River state, Akampka LGA. Dialects: Listed separately by Crozier and Blench 1992.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik 
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Ukwuani-Aboh-Ndoni

[ukw] 150,000 (1973 SIL). Delta state, Ndokwa LGA; Rivers state, Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA. Dialects: Ukwuani (Ukwani, Ukwali, Kwale), Abo (Aboh, Eboh), Ndoni. A dialect subgroup within the Igbo language subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo 
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Ulukwumi

[ulb] 10,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Delta state, Aniocha and Oshimili LGAs. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Umon

[umm] 20,000 (1995). Cross River state, Akampka LGA. 25 villages. Alternate names: Amon.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono 
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Uneme

[une] 19,800 (2000). Edo state, Etsako, Agbazko, and Akoko-Edo LGAs. Alternate names: Ileme, Ineme, Uleme.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee 
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Uokha

[uok]  North and west of Afuze, Owan LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central 
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Urhobo

[urh] 546,000 (Johnstone 1993). Delta state, Ethiope and Ughelli LGAs. Alternate names: “Sobo”.  Dialects: Agbarho, Ujevwe, Agbon, Udu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern 
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Usaghade

[usk]  Cross River state, Odukpani LGA, Calabar area. Alternate names: Isangele, Usakade, Usakedet.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Usaghade 
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ut-Ma’in

[gel] 36,000 (1992 SIL). Kebbi state, Zuru LGA, Fakai District, with migrants south; Sakaba LGA, Kur. Alternate names: Fakai, Fakanchi, Fakanci, Fakkanci, Gelanchi.  Dialects: Kag (Puku, Fakanchi, Et-Kag), Jiir (Gelanchi, Et-Jiir), Kur (Kere, Kar, Keri-Ni, Kelli-Ni, Kelanchi, Kelinci), Zuksun (Zussun, Et-Zuksun), Ror (Et-Maror, Tudanchi, Er-Gwar), Fer (Fere, Et-Fer, Wipsi-Ni, Kukum), Us (Et-Us), Koor (Kulu). Kag, Ker, Jiir, and Fer have 79%-92% inherent intelligibility with Ror. Ror and Kag, the largest dialects, Koor and Us, the smallest. Lexical similarity: 81%–97% among dialects, 63% with Hun-Saare [dud], 50% with Clela [dri], 57% with Gwamhi-Wuri [bga].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka 
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Uvbie

[evh] 19,800 (2000). Delta state, Ethiope LGA. Alternate names: Effurun, “Evhro” , Evrie, Uvhria, Uvwie.  Dialects: Related to Urhobo [urh].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern 
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Uzekwe

[eze] 5,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River state, Ogoja LGA. Alternate names: Ezekwe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele 
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Vaghat-Ya-Bijim-Legeri

[bij] 20,000 (2003). Plateau state, Mangu LGA; Bauchi state, Tafawa Balewa LGA. 10 villages 20 km south of Tafawa Balewa. Alternate names: Kwanka.  Dialects: Vaghat (Tivaghat, Kadun, Kwanka), Ya (Tiya, Boi), Bijim, Legeri. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A 
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Vemgo-Mabas

[vem] 10,000 in Nigeria (1993). Population total all countries: 15,000. Adamawa state, Michika LGA, Madagali District. Also in Cameroon. Dialects: Vemgo, Mabas, Visik (Vizik). 56% intelligibility with Lamang [hia], 36% intelligibility with Hide [xed]. Possibly intelligible with Mafa [maf]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Hide, 64% with Lamang, 50% with Gvoko [ngs].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang 
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Viti

[vit]  Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Antere. Alternate names: Vötö.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Unclassified 
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Vono

[kch] 500 (1973 SIL). Kaduna state, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Kiballo, Kiwollo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru 
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Voro

[vor]  Adamawa state, Guyuk and Song LGAs, south of Dumne Road, Waltande, and associated hamlets. Alternate names: Bena, Buna, Ebina, Ebuna, Woro, Yungur.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba 
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Vute

[vut] 1,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL). Taraba state, Sardauna LGA, Northeast Mambila Plateau. Alternate names: Babute, Bute, Buti, Fute, Mbute, Mbutere, Mfuti, Vutere, Wetere, Wute.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute 
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Waja

[wja] 60,000 (1989 U. Kleinewillinghöfer). Gombe state, Balanga, Akko, Yamaltu Deba LGAs; Adamawa state, northern Michika LGA; Borno state, Gwoza LGA; Taraba state, Bali LGA. Alternate names: Nyan Wiyau, Wiyaa, Wuya.  Dialects: Deruwo (Wajan Dutse), Waja (Wajan Kasa). Small dialect differences.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula 
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Waka

[wav] 5,000 (1992). Taraba state, Karim Lamido LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye 
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Wandala

[mfi] 20,000 in Nigeria (1993). 10,000 Gamargu, 9,300 Kirawa. Borno state, Damboa, Bama, Gwoza, and Konduga LGAs. Alternate names: Mandara, Ndara.  Dialects: Kamburwama, Masfeima, Jampalam, Ziogba, Mazagwa, Gwanje, Gamargu (Gamergu, Malgo, Malgwa), Kirawa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara 
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Wannu

[jub] 4,000. A few thousand (1998 A. Storch). Benue state, Makurdi Division, Iharev District, Abinsi town. Alternate names: Abinsi, Awannu, Jukun Abinsi, River Jukun.  Dialects: A member of the Kororofa language subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa 
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Wapan

[juk] 100,000 (1994 UBS). Taraba state, Wukari LGA; Plateau state, Shendam and Langtang LGAs; Nassarawa state, Lafia and Awe LGAs. Alternate names: Jinkum, Jukon, Juku, Juku Junkun, Jukum, Jukun Wapan, Jukun Wukari, Wakari, Wapã, Wukari.  Dialects: Wukan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa 
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Wãpha

[juw] 1,610 (2000). Plateau state, Shendam, Wase LGA, Wase Tofa village; Langtang LGA, Kumbur village. Alternate names: Wase, Wase Tofa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun 
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Warji

[wji] 77,700 (2000). Bauchi state, Ningi LGA; Jigawa state, Birnin Kudu LGA. Alternate names: Sar, Sarawa, Warja, Warjawa.  Dialects: Miya [mkf] may be a dialect.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 
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Wom

[wom] 5,000 (Blench 1989). Adamawa state, Fufore LGA. Alternate names: Pere, Pereba, Perema.  Dialects: Similar to Samba Leko [ndi].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko 
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Yace

[ekr] 50,000 (2002). Cross River state, Yala Local Government Area, Osina, Imbuor, Aliforkpa (Ewor), Wonyer, Maa (formerly Ijiegu). Alternate names: Ekpari, Iyace, Yache, Yatye.  Dialects: Alifokpa, Ijiegu. Lexical similarity: 84% with Akpa [akf].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa 
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Yala

[yba] 50,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River state, Ogoja, Obubra, and Ikom LGAs. Alternate names: Iyala.  Dialects: Nkum (Yala Ikom), Nkum Akpambe (Yala Obubra), Yala Ogoja.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma 
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Yamba

[yam] Few in Nigeria (1990 R. Blench). Taraba state, Sardauna and Gashaka LGAs, Antere, and other border villages. Alternate names: “Kaka” , Mbem.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe 
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Yangkam

[bsx] 100 (1996 R. Blench). Plateau state, Kanam, Langtang, and Wase LGAs, west of Bashar, 25 km north of Jarme on Amper-Bashar Road. 4 villages: Tukur, Bayar, Pyaksam, and Kiram. Alternate names: Bashar, Basharawa, Bashiri, Yankam.  Dialects: Similar to Pe [pai].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid  Nearly extinct.
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Yedina

[bdm] 3,000 in Nigeria. Borno state, islands in Lake Chad. Alternate names: Boudouma, Buduma, Yedana, Yedima, Yidana.  Dialects: Buduma, Kuri (Kouri, Kakaa).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma 
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Yekhee

[ets] 274,000 (1995 UBS). Edo state, Etsako, Agbako, and Okpebho LGAs. Alternate names: Afenmai, Etsako, Etsakor, Iyekhee, “Kukuruku”.  Dialects: Auchi, Uzairue, South Ibie (South Ivbie), Uwepa-Uwano (Weppa Wano), Avianwu (Fugar), Aviele, Ivhiadaobi, Ekperi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee 
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Yendang

[yen] 62,600 (1987). Adamawa state, Mayo Belwa and Numan LGAs; Taraba state, Yoro, Jalingo, Zing, and Karim Lamido LGAs. Alternate names: Nyandang, Yandang, Yendam, Yundum.  Dialects: Kuseki, Yofo, Poli (Akule, Yakule), Yoti.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang 
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Yeskwa

[yes] 13,000 (1973 SIL). Kaduna state, Jema’a LGA; Nassarawa state, Keffi LGA. Alternate names: Yasgua.  Dialects: Panda, Nyenkpa, Tattara, Bede, Buzi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro 
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Yiwom

[gek] 14,100 (2000). Plateau state, Shendam and Langtang South LGAs. Alternate names: Gerka, Gerkanchi, Gerkawa, Gurka.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Yiwom 
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Yoruba

[yor] 18,900,000 in Nigeria (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 19,380,800. Most of Oyo, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Kwara, and Lagos states; Kogi state, west LGAs. Also in Benin, Sierra Leone, Togo, United Kingdom, United States. Alternate names: Yariba, Yooba.  Dialects: Oyo, Ijesha, Ila, Ijebu, Ondo, Wo, Owe, Jumu, Iworro, Igbonna, Yagba, Gbedde, Egba, Akono, Aworo, Bunu (Bini), Ekiti, Ilaje, Ikale, Awori.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Yukuben

[ybl] 15,000 in Nigeria (1992). Population total all countries: 15,950. Taraba state, Takum LGA, between Katsina Ala and Gamana rivers. About 20 villages. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Ayikiben, Balaabe, Balaaben, Boritsu, Nyikobe, Nyikuben, Oohum, Uhumkhegi, Uuhum, Uuhum-Gigi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb 
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Zangwal

[zah] 100 (1993). Bauchi state, Bauchi LGA. Alternate names: Twar, Zwangal.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum 
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Zari

[zaz] 20,700 (2000). 20,000 Zakshi (1995 CAPRO), 1,000 Boto. Bauchi state, Toro, Dass, and Tafawa Balewa LGAs, and Plateau state. Alternate names: Zariwa.  Dialects: Zakshi (Zaksa), Boto (Boot, Bibot), Zari (Kopti, Kwapm). In Zari dialect subgroup and Barawa language subgroup.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper 
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Zarma

[dje] 87,800 in Nigeria (2000). Kebbi state, Argungu, Birnin Kebbi, and Bunza LGAs; Niger state north of Mokwa along Kontagora road; Yobe state north of Nguru. Alternate names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zerma.  Dialects: Kaado.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern 
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Zeem

[zua] 400 (Blench 2003). Bauchi state, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Chaari.  Dialects: Tulai, Danshe, Lushi (Lukshi, Dokshi), Dyarum (Kaiwari, Kaiyorawa). The Zeem dialect subgroup in the Barawa language subgroup. Tulai and Danshe dialects have no remaining speakers.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper 
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Zhire

[zhi]  Kaduna state, Kachia and Jema’a LGAs. Alternate names: Kenyi.  Dialects: Related to Hyam [jab].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic 
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Ziriya

[zir] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000. Bauchi state, Toro LGA, Kere and Ziriya. Alternate names: Jiriya.  Dialects: May not be distinct from Sheni [scv].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera 
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Zizilivakan

[ziz]  Adamawa state, Mubi LGA, Jilbu town, near Cameroon border. Alternate names: Àmzírív, Fali of Jilbu, Ziliva, Ziziliveken.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 
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Zumbun

[jmb] 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi state, Darazo LGA, Jimbim settlement. Alternate names: Jimbin, Jimbinawa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 
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