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Languages of Nepal

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Kingdom of Nepal, Sri Nepala Sarkar. 27,094,000. 17,982,769 Indo-European (79.1%), 4,183,995 Sino-Tibetan (18.4%), 40,260 Austro-Asiatic (less than 1%), 28,615 Dravidian (less than 1%), 503,295 not stated (2.2%) (2001 census). National or official languages: Nepali, English. Literacy rate: 54%; 65% males, 42% females (2001 census). Immigrant languages: English, Kharia (1,580), Urdu (175,000). Information mainly from D. B. Bista 1967, 1973, 1996; R. Burling 2003; K. Ebert 1994; A. Hale 1982; R. Hugoniot 1970; J. Matisoff, S. Baron and J. Lowe 1996; S. Toba 1976, 1983, 1991; W. Winter and Hansson 1991. Blind population: 100,000. Deaf population: 1,92,000. Deaf institutions: 3. The number of individual languages listed for Nepal is 126. Of those, 124 are living languages and 2 have no known speakers.
Angika

[anp] 15,900 in Nepal (2001 census). Terai. Alternate names: Anga, Angikar, Chhika-Chhiki.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Athpariya

[aph] 2,000 (1995 K. Ebert), decreasing. 439,312 all Rai languages (1991 census). Kosi zone, Dhankuta District, north of the Tamur, between the Dhankutakhola in the west and the Tangkhuwa in the east; Dhankuta and Bhirgaon panchayats. Alternate names: Arthare, Arthare-Khesang, Ath Paharia Rai, Athapre, Athpare, Athpre, Jamindar Rai.  Dialects: Athpare [byw] from Dhankuta and Belhara are very similar, but not mutually inherently intelligible (Bickel 1996). Reportedly similar to Limbu [lif], but not inherently intelligible with it. The term ‘Kiranti’ covers about 21 speech varieties, of which fewer than half are even partially mutually intelligible.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Awadhi

[awa] 561,000 in Nepal (2001 census). Lumbini zone, Kapilbastu District; Bheri zone, Banke and Bardiya districts. Alternate names: Abadhi, Abadi, Abohi, Ambodhi, Avadhi, Baiswari, Kojali, Kosali.  Dialects: Degauri Tharu, Gangapari, Mirzapuri, Pardesi, Tharu, Uttari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone 
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Bagheli

[bfy] Ethnic population: 136,953 Kewat (2001 census). Koshi Zone, Morang District. Alternate names: Bagelkhandi, Bhugelkhud, Gangai, Kawathi, Kenat, Kevat Boli, Kevati, Kewani, Kewat, Kewati, Kewot, Mandal, Mannadi, Riwai.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone 
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Bahing

[bhj] 10,000 (Lee et al. 2005). Sagarmatha zone, Okhaldunga District, south of Solu River in the Nachedanda ranges, east of Melung River to Thatan River and its tributaries west; south Solukhumbu District, Necha Batase and Sallyan VDCs. Alternate names: Bahing Lo, Baing, Bainge Rai, Baying, Bayung Lo, Pai Lo, Radi Lo, Rai, Kiranti-Bayung.  Dialects: Rumdali, Tolocha, Nechali. 85% or above intelligibility between all dialects. Rumdali is best understood among all Bahing dialects (Lee et al 2005); Bahing is more homogeneous than most Kiranti languages. Related to Sunwar [suz]. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% between dialects, 44%–48% with Sunwar.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Sunwari 
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Bantawa

[bap] 371,000 in Nepal (2001 census). Less than 5% monolinguals. Population total all countries: 390,200. Koshi zone, Morang, Dhankuta, Bhojpur, Sunsari, Sankhuwasawa districts; Sagarmatha zone, Khotang, Udayapur districts; Mechi zone, Jhapa, Panchthar districts. Amchoke is in Limbuwan, especially Ilam District. Homeland is the Eastern hills but many migrated to the Terai. Also in Bhutan. Alternate names: Bantaba, Bantawa Dum, Bantawa Rai, Bantawa Yong, Bantawa Yüng, Bontawa, Kiranti.  Dialects: Northern Bantawa (Dilpali), Southern Bantawa (Hatuwali, Hangkhim), Eastern Bantawa (Dhankuta), Western Bantawa (Amchoke, Amchauke). Southern and Northern Bantawa dialects are most similar and could be united as ‘Intermediate Bantawa’. Dialects are reportedly mutually inherently intelligible. Sorung and Saharaja are subvarieties of Western Bantawa. Rungchenbung and Yangma are subvarieties of Northern Bantawa. Eastern dialect is most divergent. Most closely related to Dungmali [raa]. Also related to Puma [pum], Sampang [rav], and Chhintange [ctn].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Baraamu

[brd] 2,000 (1998), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,383 (2001 census). Gandaki zone, North Gorkha District, Takhu village up the Doraundi Khola, east side above Chorgate, near Kumhali, about 7 villages. May be in Dhading District. Alternate names: Baram, Barhamu, Bhramu, Brahmu, Bramu.  Dialects: Related to Thangmi [thf] (Grierson-Konow).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Eastern 
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Belhariya

[byw] 500 (1995 K. Ebert), decreasing. Koshi zone, Dhankuta District, Belhara village and hill west of Dhankuta Bajar. Alternate names: Belhare, Athpariya, Athpahariya, Athpare, Athpagari.  Dialects: Different from Athpariya [aph], although also called that, and closely related to it (Winter 1991). Not intelligible with Athpariya (Bickel 1996:21). Appears to be between Athpariya, Yakkha [ybh], and Chhilling [cur] linguistically.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Bengali

[ben] 23,600 in Nepal (2001 census). Mechi zone, Jhapa District; Koshi zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha zone, Saptari District. Alternate names: Bangala, Bangla, Bangla-Bhasa.  Dialects: Barik, Bhatiari, Chirmar, Kachari-Bengali, Lohari-Malpaharia, Musselmani, Rajshahi, Samaria, Saraki, Siripuria.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Bhojpuri

[bho] 1,710,000 in Nepal (2001 census). Narayani zone, Rautahat, Bara, and Parsa districts; near India border, Lumbini zone, Nawalparasi District; Janakpur zone, Sarlahi District; Koshi zone, Morang District; Mechi zone, Jhapa District. Alternate names: Bajpuri, Bhojapuri, Bhozpuri.  Dialects: Bhojpuri Tharu, Teli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Bhujel

[byh] 3,900 (2005 D. Regmi). Ethnic population: 7,200 (2005 D. Regmi). Gandaki zone, East Tanahun District, south side of Chimkesori Peak, behind Yangchok, near the Magar. Separated from the Chepang by Trisuli (Narayani) River. Alternate names: Bujal, Bujhel, Bujheli, Bujhyal, “Gharti” , Pukhgyal Ngur, Western Chepang.  Dialects: Pronominal affix differences hinder intelligibility with Chepang. More like the East Himalayish languages. Lexical similarity: 98% with Chepang [cdm].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Chepang 
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Bodo

[brx] 3,300 in Nepal (2001 census). Ethnic population: 3,763 (2001 census). Mechi zone, Jhapa District. Alternate names: Bara, Bodi, Boro, Boroni, Mache, Mech, Meche, Mechi, Meci.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo 
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Bote-Majhi

[bmj] 11,000 (1991 census), decreasing. Narayani River banks and tributaries; Narayani zone, Chitwan, Parsa districts; Lumbini zone, Nawalparasi, Palpa, Gulmi districts; Gandaki zone, Tanahun, Gorkha, Kaski, Gulmi, Syangja districts. Alternate names: Kushar, Pakhe-Bote.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Byangsi

[bee] 1,730 in Nepal (2001 census). Ethnic population: 2,103. Mahakali zone, Darchula District, Byas Valley. 9 villages. Alternate names: Byangkho Lwo, Byanshi, Byansi, Byasi, Sauka, Shauka.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Camling

[rab] 12,100 (2006). East, Sagarmatha zone, Khotang District, west Khotang, Durchhim east across Diktel to Bhojpur border District; then south to Sawa Khola valley, scattered in Udayapur District. Sikkim and Darjeeling and Bhutan. Alternate names: Chamling, Chamlinge Rai, Rodong.  Dialects: Most similar to Bantawa [bap] and Puma [pum] linguistically. Many people speak a variety mixed with Nepali [nep].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Chantyal

[chx] 2,000 (Noonan 1997), decreasing. Ethnic population: 9,814 (2001 census). Dhaulagiri zone, Myagdi District, Kali Gandaki River valley. Ethnic Chantel also in Baglung District. Alternate names: Chantel, Chantel Kham, Chentel, Chhantel, Khamkura.  Dialects: Related to Gurung [ggn], Manangba [nmm], Tamang [tdg], Thakali [ths] (Noonan 1997).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Chaudangsi

[cdn] 1,200 in Nepal (2000). Mahakali zone, Darchula District, Chaudas Valley. 10 villages. Alternate names: Bangba Lwo, Sauka, Shauka, Tsaudangsi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Chepang

[cdm] 36,800 (2001 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 52,237. Inner Terai; Narayani zone, Makwanpur, Chitawan, and South Dhading districts; Gandaki zone, South Gorkha District. Alternate names: Tsepang.  Dialects: Eastern Chepang, Western Chepang. Bhujel [byj] could be considered a dialect similar to Western Chepang, but has difficult intelligibility with Chepang due to different pronominal affix morphology. Dialects differ in verb forms. Similar in morphology to Kiranti languages. Lexical similarity: 98% with Bhujel [byh].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Chepang 
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Chhintange

[ctn] 1,500 (2003). Koshi zone, Lower Arun region, Dhankuta District, Chhintang Panchayat, Sambhung and Pokhare, and Ankhisalla Panchayat, Dandagaon. Alternate names: Chhintang, Chintang, Chintang Rûng, Teli.  Dialects: Probably not intelligible with Bantawa [bap], although sometimes considered a dialect of it because of ethnic similarities.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Chhulung

[cur] 1,310 (2001 census). Koshi zone, Ankhisalla Panchayat, Dhankuta District, end of Chhintang Panchayat. Alternate names: Chhilling, Chholung, Chhûlûng Rûng, Chulung, Chülüng.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Chukwa

[cuw] 100 (Winter 1991). Koshi zone, Bhojpur District, Kulung Panchayat. Alternate names: Cukwa Ring, Pohing, Pohing Kha.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
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Darai

[dry] 10,200 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 14,859. Inner Terai, Narayani zone, Chitawan District; Gandaki zone, Tanahu District; Lumbini zone, Nawalparasi, Palpa districts; Gandaki zone, Gorkha District. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Darmiya

[drd] 1,200 in Nepal (2000). Mahakali zone, Darchula District, Dhauli or Darma Valley, 16 villages. Alternate names: Darimiya, Sauka, Shauka.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Almora 
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Dhanwar

[dhw] 31,800 (2001 census), decreasing. No monolinguals (Toba, Toba and Rai 2005). Ethnic population: 53,229. Narayani zone, Makwanpur, Rautahat districts; Janakpur zone, Sindhuli District; Eastern hills and plain, inner Terai and Terai south of Kathmandu. Alternate names: Danuwar, Danuwar Rai, Denwar, Dhanvar.  Dialects: Danuwar Done [dha] in Makwanpur and India and Danuwar Kachariya in Rautahat and elsewhere are probably distinct languages from Dhanwar [dhw]. Typological affinities with Northwestern zone, Dardic group.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Dhimal

[dhi] 17,300 in Nepal (2001 census). Population total all countries: 17,750. Ethnic population: 19,537. Mechi zone, Jhapa District, 24 villages; Koshi zone, Morang District, 51 villages; East and West dialects are separated by Kankai River in Jhapa. Also in India. Alternate names: Dhemal.  Dialects: Eastern Dhimal, Western Dhimal. Toto [txo] in India is a separate language with no inherent intelligibility between them. 75%–80% intelligibility between eastern and western dialect speakers. Lexical similarity: low with Toto [txo], 80%–82% between dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Dhimal 
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Dolpo

[dre] 9,000 (2003). 5,000 monolinguals (2003). Karnali zone, north Dolpa District, villages of Goomatara, Kola, Tachel, Kani, Bajebara, Laun, Chilpara, Bantari, Byas, above Dolpa up to Tibet. Beyond the mountains west of upper Kali Gandaki River Valley. Confined by the Dhaulagire Himal on the south and Tibet on the north. Includes the headwaters of Karnali River. About 24 small villages in Namgang, Panzgang, Tarap, and Chharbung subdistricts. Alternate names: Dolpa Tibetan, Dolpike, Phoke Dolpa.  Dialects: Dho Tarap, Phoksumdo Lake, Barbung River, and Charka-Dolpo Chu River areas are slightly different, but inherent intelligibility is very good. Most similar language is Lowa [loy]. Dho Tarap reportedly understood best by all speakers. Reportedly similar to Tichurong [tcn]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Lowa [loy]; 69% with Lhomi [lhm]; 68% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], Walungge [ola], and Kyerung [kgy]; 67% with Nubri [kte]; 66% with Helambu Sherpa [scp]; 62% with Jirel [jul] and Sherpa [xsr].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Dumi

[dus] 2,000 (2002 UNESCO). Sagarmatha zone, north Khotang District, hills near the middle of the Rawakhola Valley, Baksila, Saptesvara abutting Rava and Tap rivers near the confluence and upriver. May currently be spoken in only the village of Narung in the western part of this region. Alternate names: Dumi Bo’o, Dumi Bro, Lsi Rai, Ro’do Bo’, Sotmali.  Dialects: Brasmi, Kharbari, Lamdija, Makpa. Most similar to Khaling [klr], Koi [kkt]. Makpa dialect is markedly divergent. Lexical similarity: 78% with Lowa [loy]; 69% with Lhomi [lhm]; 68% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], Walungge [ola], and Kyerung [kgy]; 67% with Nubri [kte]; 66% with Helambu Sherpa [scp]; 62% with Jirel [jul] and Sherpa [xsr].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Dungmali

[raa] 220 (2001 census). Koshi zone; east Bhojpur District, northeast of the Singtang Lekh, bend of Arun River between its confluence with the Piukhuwa and the first confluence with Piluwa River. Alternate names: Arthare, Arthare-Khesang, Dungmali Pûk, Dungmali-Bantawa.  Dialects: Khesang (Khesange). The term ’Kiranti’ covers about 21 dialects, of which fewer than half are even partially intelligible. 82% cognate with Bantawa but morphology and phonology differ (Winter 1991).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Dura

[drq] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 3,397 (2001 census). Gandaki zone, Lamjung District, Dura Danda. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, West Bodish 
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Dzongkha

[dzo] 300 in Nepal (2007). Some in Kathmandu. Alternate names: Bhotia of Bhutan, Bhutanese, Drukha, Drukke, Jonkha, Zongkhar.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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Ghale, Kutang

[ght] 1,300 (1992). Gandaki zone, North Gorkha District, Buri Gandaki Valley from Nyak, up to and including Prok. Alternate names: Bhotte, Kuke.  Dialects: Bihi, Chak, Rana. Varieties spoken in Chhak and Kwak villages are similar to each other and different from all the other villages. Lexical similarity: 62%–76% among dialects, 39%–49% with Southern Ghale [ghe], 45%–61% with Northern Ghale [ghh], 18% with Banspur Gurung [gvr], 16%–23% with Tamang varieties, 13%–31% with Nubri [kte], 23%–27% with Tsum [ttz], 22%–27% with Kyerung [kgy], 19%–24% with Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Ghale, Northern

[ghh] 4,440 (2006 SIL). 400 monolinguals. Gandaki zone, Gorkha District, Buri Gandaki Valley. Alternate names: Lila, Ril-Lila.  Dialects: Khorla, Uiya, Jagat, Philim, Nyak. Nyak is the most diverse dialect. Philim have 94% intelligibility of Uiya. 75%–79% intelligibility of Barpak in Southern Ghale [ghe]. Dialect chain runs north and south. Lexical similarity: 73%–89% among dialects. Lexical similarity 65%–81% with Southern Ghale, 45%–61% with Kutang Ghale [ght], 29%–37% with Western Tamang [tdg], 21%–27% with Nubri [kte], 22%–25% with Tsum [ttz], 19%–23% with Kyerung [kgy], 19%–21% with Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Ghale, Southern

[ghe] 21,500 (2006). 2,000 monolinguals. Gandaki zone, Gorkha District, hills south of Macha Khola. Alternate names: Galle Gurung, Lila, Ril-Lila.  Dialects: Barpak, Kyaura, Laprak. Some intelligibility between Northern [ghh] and Southern Ghale. Dialect subgroup. Glover (1974:8–12) identifies a Ghale branch under Bodish intermediate between the Tibetan and Gurung branches. Lexical similarity: 75% –78% among dialects, 65%-81% with Northern Ghale, 39%–49% with Kutang Ghale [ght], 27%–30% with Banspur Gurung [gvr], 31% with Western Tamang [tdg], 20% with Nubri [kte] and Tsum [ttz], 18% with Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Gurung, Eastern

[ggn] 227,000 (2007), decreasing. 338,925 all Gurung languages in Nepal (2001 census). Western Dev. region, Gandaki zone, mainly Lamjung, Tanahu, and west Gorkha districts. Possibly Manang District. Alternate names: Daduwa.  Dialects: Lamjung Gurung, Gorkha Gurung, Tamu Kyi. Eastern and Western Gurung [gvr] do not have adequate intelligibility to handle complex and abstract discourse. Daduwa town seems central linguistically.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Gurung, Western

[gvr] 125,000 in Nepal (2007). Population total all countries: 201,300. Ethnic population: 543,571. Gandaki zone, Kaski, Syangja districts; Dhaulagiri zone, Parbat District. Possibly in Myanmar. Also in Bhutan, India. Alternate names: Gurung, Tamu Kyi.  Dialects: Southern Gurung (Syangja Gurung), Northwestern Gurung (Kaski Gurung). Dialect speakers may have enough mutual inherent intelligibility to understand complex and abstract discourse, but not enough with Eastern Gurung [ggn]. Related to Thakali [ths].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Helambu Sherpa

[scp] 7,570 (2000). Bagmati zone, Nuwakot and Sindhupalchok districts, Helambu area. Alternate names: Yholmo, Yohlmu Tam.  Dialects: Eastern Helambu Sherpa, Western Helambu Sherpa. Melamchi River divides dialects. Understand other dialects even for abstract and complex subjects, including possibly Tarke Ghyang, Khang-Kharka, Pahndang, but not Kagate [syw]. Lexical similarity: 66% with Dolpo [dre] and Walungge [ola], 65% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], Jirel [jul], and Kyerung [kgy], 63% with Lowa [loy] and Sherpa [xsr], 61% with Nubri [kte], 60% with Lhomi [lhm].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Hindi

[hin] 106,000 in Nepal (2001 census). South strip of low country. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani 
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Humla

[hut] 4,000 (2001 SIL). Seti zone, Bajura District; Karnali zone, Humla District, villages northwest from Simikot towards China border, villages slightly northeast of Simikot. Some in Kathmandu. Alternate names: Dangali, “Humla Bhotia” , Phoke.  Dialects: Limi, Upper Humla, La Yakba, Nyinba, Humli Khyampa. Dialects reportedly mutually intelligible.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Jerung

[jee] 2,000 (2004 J. Opgenort), decreasing. Janakpur zone, Sindhuli District, villages along west bank of the Bahadur Khola, south of Sunkosi River as far south as Mohantar village; Sagarmatha zone, Okhaldhunga District, around and above Melungkhola River mouth, roughly west of the Bhadare Khola, to south of the Dhad Khola, to north of Sunkosi River, and as far west as Amvot village. Alternate names: Jero Mala, Jerum, Jerunge, Jherung, Zero, Zero Mala, Zerum.  Dialects: Madhavpur, Balkhu-Sisneri, Ratnawati (Sindhuli). Linguistically most similar to Wambule [wme]. Alternate dialect analysis: Northern dialect spoken in Okhaldhunga District, Southern dialect in Sindhuli District. (2004 J. Opgenort).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Jhankot Sign Language

[jhs] Population is 10% of the village population. Midwest region, Karnali zone, Dolpo District, Jhankot village. Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Jirel

[jul] 7,070 (2000). Janakpur zone, Dolakha District, Jiri and Sikri valleys, eastern hills. Jiri is the main area. Also Chhyatrapa; Lumbini zone, Nawalparasi District; Bagmati zone, Sindhupalchok District; Narayani zone, Parsa District. Alternate names: Jiri, Jirial, Ziral.  Dialects: Accent differences, but not real dialects. Some comprehension of Lhasa Tibetan [bod] and some Tibetan dialects. Lexical similarity: 67% with Sherpa [xsr], 65% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 62% with Dolpo [dre] and Lowa [loy], 60% with Kyerung [kgy], 57% with Nubri [kte], Lhomi [lhm], and Walungge [ola], 54% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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Jumla Sign Language

[jus] 100% monolingual. Midwest region, Chandmnath VDC, Jumla District, Jumla Town. Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Jumli

[jml] 40,000 (2001 SIL). Karnali zone, Jumla District. Alternate names: Jumeli, Jumla, Jumleli, Khas Nepali, Sijali, Singja.  Dialects: Assi, Chaudhabis, Paachsai, Sinja. 73%–89% intelligible with standard Nepali [nep]. Not sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with standard Nepali [nep].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari 
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Kagate

[syw] 1,270 (2000). Janakpur zone, Ramechhap District, a ridge of Likhu Khola. Alternate names: Kagate Bhote, Shuba, Shyuba, Syuba.  Dialects: Differs from Helambu Sherpa [scp] by less use of the honorific system in verbs.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Kaike

[kzq] 790 (2001 census). Karnali zone, Dolpa District; Dhaulagiri zone. Alternate names: Khamkura, Tarali Kham.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Kanauri 
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Kayort

[kyv] 22,000 (2002). Koshi zone, Morang District, Dakuwa Danga, near Rajbanshi [rjs]. Dialects: Related to Bengali [ben].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Khaling

[klr] 18,000 in Nepal (2002 UNESCO), increasing. Sagarmatha zone, Solu Khumbu, Khotang districts; Koshi zone, Bhojpur, Sankhuwasawa, Terhathum districts; Mechi zone, Panchtar and Ilam districts. Also in India. Alternate names: Kaling, Khael Baat, Khael Bra, Khalinge Rai.  Dialects: Most similar to Dumi [dus], Koi [kkt].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Kham, Eastern Parbate

[kif] 7,500 (2003 SIL). Dhaulagiri zone, Baglung District, Nishel in Nisi, Bhalkot, Budhathok. Bhujel is in Kuku, Diza, Kang, Masbang, Musuri, and Sukurdung villages. Alternate names: Eastern Parbate, Nisel, Nishel Kham, Nisi, Nisi Kham.  Dialects: Bhujel Kham, Nishel Kham. Partially intelligible with Western Parbate [kjl] dialects. Lexical similarity: 79% between dialects, 71% with Western Parbate, 55% with Gamale [kgj], 44% with Sheshi [kip].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Kham 
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Kham, Gamale

[kgj] 13,100 (2000). 1,000 monolinguals. Rapti zone, Rolpa District, Gam Khola, western hills, Gam, Huiching, Jhyalgung, Cholbang, Tamali, Harbang, Dangadhara, Sherma, Gaipa, Ghusbang, Phalabang villages. Alternate names: Gamale.  Dialects: Tamali, Ghusbanggi. Only 30% intelligibility with Western Parbate [kjl] due to radical differences in verbal morphology. Lexical similarity: 71% with Western Parbate (most similar), 55% with Eastern Parbate [kif] and Sheshi [kip], 45% with Bhujel [kif].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Kham 
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Kham, Sheshi

[kip] 20,000 (2003). Rapti zone, Rukum District, western hills, Jangkot, Kotgaon (Tapnang), Rimsek, Korcabang, Dangdung, Hwama, Dhangsi, Bhabang, and Ghapa villages. Alternate names: Sheshi.  Dialects: Tapnanggi, Jangkoti. 30% intelligibility levels with Gamale Kham [kgj], and even less with Western Parbate [kjl]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Gamale Kham (most similar), 51% with Western Parbate, 46% with Eastern Parbate [kif].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Kham 
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Kham, Western Parbate

[kjl] 24,500 (2003 SIL), increasing. West central, Rapti Zone, Rukum, Rolpa districts. Taka-Shera is the center. Alternate names: Kham-Magar, Takale, Takale Kham, Western Parbate.  Dialects: Takale, Maikoti, Mahatale, Lukumel, Wale, Thabangi. Greatest similarities between Eastern [kif] and Western Parbate [kjl]. The Parbate, Sheshi, and Gamale groups are all inherently unintelligible. Mahatale and Miruli are 2 dialects whose position within the Kham linguistic group has not been decided. Lexical similarity: 71% with Gamale Kham [kgj], Eastern Parbate; 58% with Bhujel Kham, 51% with Sheshi [kip]. 25% with Magar and Gurung, slightly below 25% with the Tibetan group, 15% with the Rai and Limbu groups.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Kham 
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Koi

[kkt] 2,640 (2001 census), decreasing. Sagarmatha zone, northeast Khotang District, Sungdel Panchayat near Rawakhola headwaters. 2 villages. Alternate names: Kohi, Koi Bo’o, Koyi, Koyu, Koyu Bo’.  Dialects: Sungdel, Behere. Most similar to Dumi [dus] and Khaling [klr].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Kulung

[kle] 18,700 in Nepal (2001 census). Sagarmatha zone, Solu Khumbu District, east hills, Hongu Valley, Mahakulung region, Hongu Khola area, Bumng (Bung), Pilmu, Cheskam Sadhi, Gudel, and Namlu villages; Koshi zone, Sankhuwasawa District, Baliyamnang, Phedi Khola, Wasepla, Mangtewa, Yaphu, Chayeng, Walung, and Sheduwa villages; Terhathum, Panchthar, Ilam districts. Mainly found in drainages of Sangkhuwa and Siswa rivers, which flow into Arun River. Also in some Terai areas. Also in India. Alternate names: Kholung, Khulung, Khulunge Rai, Kulu Ring.  Dialects: Sotang (Sotaring, Sottaring), Mahakulung, Tamachhang, Pidisoi, Chhapkoa, Pelmung, Namlung, Khambu. 100% intelligibility between Kulung and Sota Ring because only some words are pronounced differently. Related to Sampang [rav] and Nachering [ncd].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Kumhali

[kra] 6,530 (2001 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 99,389. Lumbini zone, Nawalparasi District, south of the Darai [dry]; small pockets in Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts; Narayani zone, Chitawan District; Gandaki zone, Gorkha District. Alternate names: Kumali, Kumbale, Kumhale, Kumkale.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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Kurmukar

[kfv]   Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Kurux, Nepali

[kxl] 28,600 (2001 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 41,764 Dhagar (Jhagar). East Terai, Janakpur zone, Dhanusa District, Nausaya Bigha area; India border area, Sarlahi to Jhapa districts. Alternate names: Dhangar, Jangad, Janghard, Jhanger, Oraon, Orau, Uraon.  Dialects: Different from Kurux [kru] of India and Bangladesh.  Classification: Dravidian, Northern 
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Kusunda

[kgg] 7 (2005 SIL). 87 reported in 2001 census, living in Pyuthan, Dang and Tanahun. Ethnic population: 164. Gandaki zone, Tanahu District, west hills, Satto Bhatti west of Chepetar, and possibly the jungle south of Ambhu; Kireni, near Kumhali. Alternate names: Kusanda.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Kyerung

[kgy] 4,790 in Nepal (2000). Population total all countries: 4,890. Bagmati zone, Rasuwa District, Langtang region, Rasua Garbi, Birdim, Thangjet, Syabru, and Syabrubensi villages; large concentrations in Kathmandu. Also in China. Alternate names: Gyirong, Kyirong.  Dialects: Similar to Lhasa Tibetan [bod]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Dolpo [dre], Walungge [ola], Lhomi [lhm], and Lowa [loy], 65% with Nubri [kte] and Lhasa Tibetan, 63% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 60% with Jirel [jul], 57% with Sherpa [xsr].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Lambichhong

[lmh] 500 (Winter 1991). Arun River east bank, between Mugakhola and Sinuwakhola; Koshi zone, Dhankuta District, Muga and Pakhribas panchayats. Alternate names: Lambicchong, Lambichong, Lambitshong.  Dialects: Ethnically related to the Bantawa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Lepcha

[lep] 2,830 in Nepal (2001 census). Ethnic population: 3,660. Mechi zone, Ilam District. Alternate names: Lapche, Nünpa, Rong, Rongke, Rongpa.  Dialects: Ilammu, Tamsangmu, Rengjongmu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Lepcha 
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Lhomi

[lhm] 5,660 in Nepal (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 7,980. Koshi zone, Sankhuwasawa District, Chepuwa VDC, Chepuwa, Chyamtang, Gumba, Chhumusur, Rukuma (or Ridak) villages; Hatiya VDC, Hatiya, Hungung, Pharang, Syaksila, Simbung (or Shembung), Namase (or Namuchhe), Shiprung villages; some in Kathmandu. Also in China, India. Alternate names: Kar Bhote, Kath Bhote, Lhoket, Shing Saapa.  Dialects: The dialect may be different across the Tibet border. Lexical similarity: 69% with Dolpo [dre], 68% with Lowa [loy], 66% with Walungge [ola], 65% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod] and Kyerung [kgy], 64% with Nubri [kte], 60% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 58% with Sherpa [xsr], 57% with Jirel [jul].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Limbu

[lif] 334,000 in Nepal (2001 census). Population total all countries: 421,500. Limbuwan (preferred term for the Limbu area), Eastern hills, east of Arun River; Koshi zone, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha, Terhathum, Dhankuta, and Morang districts; Mechi zone, Taplejung, Panchthar, Ilam, and Jhapa districts. Possibly migrant workers in Myanmar. Also in Bhutan, India. Alternate names: Yakthung Pan.  Dialects: Taplejunge (Tamorkhole, Taplejung), Panthare (Pantharey, Panchthare, Panchthar, Panthare-Yanggrokke-Chaubise-Charkhole), Phedappe, Chattare (Chhattare, Chhathar, Chatthare, Chatthare Yakthungba Pan, Yakthung Pan). Related to Northern Lorung [lbr] and Yakha [ybh]. Chaubise and Panthare dialects are similar; Phedappe and Taplejunge are similar. Chattare is poorly understood by other dialect speakers. The dialect spoken in Sikkim, India, is same as Panthare. Inherent intelligibility among dialect speakers 80%–90%. Lexical similarity: above 80% among the dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Lingkhim

[lii] 97 (2001 census). Mechi zone, Ilam District, Sumbek Panchayat Yokpi. Original homeland apparently near lower Dudhkosi River. Alternate names: Limkhim, Lingkhim Rai, Linkhim.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western  Nearly extinct.
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Lorung, Northern

[lbr] 3,750 (2007), decreasing. Koshi zone, middle Sankhuwasabha District, between middle Arun Valley and the Sabhakhola. Alternate names: Lohorong, Lohrung, Lohrung Khanawa.  Dialects: Biksit (Bikshi). A Rai group. Related to Yamphu [ybi], Yamphe [yma], Southern Lorung [lrr], and Yakha [ybh]. Ethnic subgroups are Kipa and Loke Lorung, but they do not appear to speak different dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Lorung, Southern

[lrr] 1,250 (2007). Koshi zone, Dhankuta District, south of the Tamorkhola, between the Jaruwakhola east and the Raghuwkhola west, Bodhe, Maunabuduke, and Rajarani panchayats. Alternate names: Lohorong, Lohrung, Lohrung Khap, Lohrung Khate, Yakkhaba Lorung.  Dialects: Gess. A Rai group. Related to Yamphu [ybi], Yamphe [yma], Northern Lorung [lbr], and Yakha [ybh].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Lowa

[loy] 7,500 (2001 census). 5,000 Upper Mustang and 2,500 Baragaunle. Dhaulagiri zone, Mustang District, north central upper Kali Gandaki River area; high valleys north of the middle-range Thakali, Gurung and Magar areas. Bahragaun in Kagbeni, Muktinath, Dzong VDCs; Upper Mustang in Ghimi, Tsarang, Lo Monthang, Surkhang, Chhosher, Chunnup VDCs, and Samar village in Chuksang VDC, a few in Karnali zone, Dolpa District. Alternate names: Glo Skad, Lo Montang, Loba, Lopa, Loyu, Mustangi.  Dialects: Baragaunle (Baragaun, Baragaon, Bhoti Gurung), Upper Mustang (Lowa). Similar to Dolpo [dre]. High intelligibility between dialects reported. Lexical similarity: 79%–88% between dialects, 59%–71% with Dolpo, 54%–57% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], 58%–67% with Mugom [muk].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Lumba-Yakkha

[luu] 1,200 (2000). Koshi zone, North Dhankuta District, Arkhaule Jitpur and Marek Katahare panchayats, Lakhshmikhola area. Alternate names: Yakkhaba Cea.  Dialects: Related to Yakha [ybh], Chhulung [cur], Chhintange [ctn], Lambichhong [lmh].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Magar, Eastern

[mgp] 462,000 in Nepal (2001), increasing. Population total all countries: 555,000. Ethnic population: 1,622,421 ethnic Magar (2001 census). Gandaki zone, Tanahu District, east of Bagmati River, central mountains, Okhaldhunga, Taplejung, Bhojpur, Dhankuta, Chainpur, Terhathum, Ilam, and Letang are main centers. Also in Bhutan, India. Alternate names: Magari, Manggar.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Magar 
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Magar, Western

[mrd] 308,000 (2001), increasing. 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,622,421 ethnic Magar (2001 census) which includes both Eastern and Western Magar. Bheri zone, Surkhet, Banke, and Dialekh districts, West of Pokhara, Tansen highway; Gandaki zone, Pokhara (Kaski) and Syangja districts; Koshi zone, Morang and Dhankuta districts; Lumbini zone, Nawalparasi District. Surkhet District is center. Alternate names: Magar, Magar Nuwakot, Magari, Manggar.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Magar 
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Maithili

[mai] 2,800,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. 489 Kisan. Narayani zone, Rautahat District; Janakpur zone, Sarlahi, Mahottari, Dhanusa districts; Sagarmatha zone, Siraha, Saptari districts; Koshi zone, Sunsari District. Alternate names: Apabhramsa, Bihari, Maitili, Maitli, Methli, Tirahutia, Tirhuti, Tirhutia.  Dialects: Bajjika, Bantar, Barei, Barmeli, Kawar, Kisan, Kyabrat, Makrana, Musar, Sadri, Tati, Dehati, Bajjika.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Majhi

[mjz] 21,800 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 42,200. Ethnic population: 72,614. Janakpur zone, Sindhuli and Ramechhap districts; Bagmati zone, Sindhupalchok and Kabhre Palanchok districts; Sagarmatha zone, Okhaldhunga and Khotang districts; Koshi zone, Dhankuta District; Narayani zone; Lumbini zone; along Tama Kosi and Sun Kosi River valley. Also in India. Alternate names: Manjhi.  Dialects: Mantali, Sitkha, Rajgaun.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Manangba

[nmm] 3,740 (Pohle 1988). Gandaki zone, Manang District, Nyeshang area, Marsyangdi River, 7 villages; Kathmandu and Pokhara. Alternate names: Manang, Manangbhot, Manangbolt, Manange, Manangi, Northern Gurung, Nyeshang, Nyishang.  Dialects: Pisang, Manang. Very high intelligibility of Manang dialect by Pisang residents. Manangba may be distinct from Northern Gurung, which is spoken in Manang District. Very different from Eastern Gurung [ggn]. Lexical similarity 94% or greater between all varieties of Manangi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Marwari

[rwr] 22,600 in Nepal (2001 census). Ethnic population: 43,971. Mechi zone, Jhapa District; Koshi zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Narayani zone, Parsa District; some in Kathmandu. Alternate names: Marwadi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari 
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Meohang, Eastern

[emg] Ethnic population: 3,000. East, Koshi zone, Sankhuwasabha District, upper Arun Valley east of the river. Sunsari in Sunsari District, Bhaludhunga, Bishnupaduka Panchayat; Dibum (Dibung) in Mangtewa Panchayat; Mulgaon-Wangtang in Yaphu Panchayat. Alternate names: Mewahang, Newahang, Newahang Jimi, Newang, Newange Rai.  Dialects: Sunsari, Dibum, Mulgaon-Wangtang. Structurally different from Western Meohang [raf].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Meohang, Western

[raf] Ethnic population: 3,000. East, Koshi zone, Sankhuwasabha District, upper Arun Valley west of Arun River. Bala is in Bala village, Sankhuwasabha Panchayat; Bumdemba in Sishuwakhola Panchayat. 2 villages. Alternate names: Mewahang, Newahang, Newahang Jimi, Newang, Newange Rai.  Dialects: Bala (Balali), Bumdemba. Structurally different from Eastern Meohang [emg].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Mugom

[muk] 6,500 in Nepal (2006 SIL). Population total all countries: 7,000. Karnali zone, Mugu, Jumla districts; some in Kathmandu. Also in India. Alternate names: Mugali, Mugu, Mugum.  Dialects: Karani, Mugali. Intelligibility 89%–93% between dialect speakers (possibly even higher). Definitely sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Similar to Humla [hut], Dolpo [dre], Lowa [loy]. Lexical similarity: 85% between dialects, 56%–57% with Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Mundari

[unr] 7,780 in Nepal (2006). Ethnic population: 660 Munda. Mechi zone, Jhapa District; Koshi zone, Morang District. Alternate names: Horo, Mandari, Mondari, Munari, Munda.  Dialects: Hasada, Latar, Naguri, Kera.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari 
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Musasa

[smm] 50,000 (2003). 20,000 Musasa and 30,000 Musasa Bantar. Ethnic population: 172,434 in Nepal. Janakpur zone, Sindhuli, Dolakha, Mahotari, Dhanusa districts; Koshi zone, Morang, Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha zone, Siraha, Saptari districts. Alternate names: Musahar, Rishaidep.  Dialects: Bantar. Similar to Saptari [thq].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Naaba

[nao] 770 (2006). Koshi zone, Sankhuwasabha District, Kimathanka VDC, Kimathanka village, Hatiya VDC, Dangok and Pharang villages; Piibu, Chumusur, Ridak villages; 1 village called Tsanga, across the border in China. Alternate names: Naapa, Naapaa, Naba, Nawa Sherpa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Unclassified 
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Nachering

[ncd] 3,550 (2001 census). Sagarmatha zone, upper northeast Khotang District near Rawakhola Valley, Lidim Khola River slopes area, headwaters and tributaries to Aiselukharke south. Alternate names: Bangdale, Bangdel Tûm, Bangdile, Mathsereng, Nacchhering, Nacering Ra, Nachering Tûm, Nasring.  Dialects: Dimali, Parali, Hedangpa (Sangpang), Bangdale (Hachero, Achero, Hangkula), Kharlali, Rakheli. Related to Kulung [kle] and Sampang [rav]. High comprehension of Kulung among northern Nachering and Sampang among southern Nachering.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Nar Phu

[npa] 800 (2002 M. Noonan). Gandaki zone, Manang District, Nar Valley north of Manang Valley, Nar (Nargaon) and Phu (Phugaon) villages. Alternate names: Nar-Phu.  Dialects: Nar (Nar-Mä, Lower Nar), Phu (Nar-Tö, Upper Nar). Related to Chantyal [chx], Gurung, Manangba [nmm], Tamang and Thakali [ths]; part of a dialect continuum with Manangba [nmm] and probably intelligible with it.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Nepalese Sign Language

[nsp] 5,743 (2001 census).  Dialects: Developed from local and introduced signs. Related to Indian [ins] and Pakistan Sign [pks] Languages.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Nepali

[nep] 11,100,000 in Nepal (2001 census). Population total all countries: 13,875,700. East and adjacent south central regions. Also in Bhutan, Brunei, India, United States. Alternate names: Eastern Pahari, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Nepalese, Parbatiya.  Dialects: Baitadi, Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura), Doteli (Dotali, Gaunle), Soradi, Acchami, Darjula. Dialects listed may be quite distinct from Standard Nepali.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari 
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Newar

[new] 825,000 in Nepal (2001 census). Many women are monolingual. Population total all countries: 839,000. Ethnic population: 1,256,737 including 1,245,232 Newar plus 11,505 Pahari. Widespread. Kathmandu Valley and thoughout Nepal. Fewer far west. Also in India. Alternate names: Nepal Bhasa, Newal Bhaye, “Newari”.  Dialects: Dolkhali (Dolakha), Sindhupalchok Pahri (Pahri, Pahari), Totali, Citlang, Kathmandu-Patan-Kirtipur, Bhaktapur, Baglung. Dialects Dolkhali of Dolakha and Pahri of Sindhupalchok may be separate languages (Genetti 1994:2–3), especially Dolakha (Genetti 2006). Dolakha, Totali, and Pahari are conservative linguistically. Kirtipur is similar to Kathmandu. Baktapur people can mostly understand Kathmandu. Some vocabulary differences between Hindus and Buddhists.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Newari 
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Nubri

[kte] 2,000 (2001 census). Gandaki zone, North Gorkha District, Buri Gandaki River upper reaches, west of and including Prok village, between Himal Chuli and Manaslu Himal west and Ganesh Himal east. Sama considered regional center. Alternate names: Kutang Bhotia, Larkye.  Dialects: Sama, Lho, Namrung, Prok. Only moderately intelligible with Kyirong Tibetan (74%). The most distinct variety reportedly spoken in Samdo village. Sama is somewhat divergent. Tsum reportedly not intelligible with Nubri. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% among dialects. Prok is more distinct. 71%–78% with Tsum, 66% to 74% with Kyirong Tibetan [kgy]; 67% with Dolpo [dre]; 65% with Lowa [loy], 59%–64% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 64% with Olangchung Gola [gol] (Walungge) and Lhomi [lhm]; 61% with Helambu Sherpa [scp]; 57% with Jirel [jul]; 55% with Sherpa [xsr]; 21%–27% with Northern Ghale [ghh], 20% to 23% with Southern Ghale [ghe], 14%–31% with Kutang Ghale [ght], 14% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], Western Gurung [gvr], and Banspur Tamang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Palpa

[plp] 7,560 (2000). Lumbini zone, Palpa town. Alternate names: Pahari-Palpa.  Dialects: This language stands midway between Nepali [nep] (Eastern Pahari) and Kumaoni [kfy] (Central Pahari). Sometimes considered a Kumaoni or Nepali dialect.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari 
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Phangduwali

[phw]  Directly above Mugakhola headwaters, Koshi Zone, Dhankuta District, Pakhribas Panchayat, Phangduwa village (Winter 1991:79). Alternate names: Phangduvali, Phangduwali Poti.  Dialects: Linguistically between Yakha [ybh] and Belhariya [byw].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Pongyong

[pgy]  Mechi zone, Ilam District, Kannyam Panchayat, Ambikau. Alternate names: Kulung Pun, Ponyon Kulung, Samakulung.  Dialects: Similar to Kulung [kle], Sampang [rav].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
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Puma

[pum] 4,310 (2001 census), decreasing. Sagarmatha zone, Khotang District, Diplung, Chisapani, Devisthan, Manwabote, Panwasera, Rila; Udayapur District, Beltar, Basaha, Chandandi, Apraha villages; Rapcha Range northwest slopes, highest peaks to Sawa Khola Valley, directly south of the Khotang Bajar. Alternate names: Puma Kala, Puma La, Puma Pima.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Rajbanshi

[rjs] 130,000 (2001 census). Mechi zone, Jhapa District; Koshi zone, Morang District. Alternate names: Koch, Koche, Rajbangsi, Rajbansi.  Dialects: Western Rajbanshi, Eastern Rajbanshi, Central Rajbanshi, Tajpuria.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Raji

[rji] 2,410 (2001 census), decreasing. Bheri zone, Surkhet, Banke and Bardiya districts; Seti zone, Kailali, Achham districts; Mahakali zone, Kanchanpur District; Rapti zone, Dang District. Alternate names: Rajibar.  Dialects: Similar to Rawat [jnl] and Raute [rau]. Sharma (1990) concludes that Raji in India is a Munda language with borrowing from Tibeto-Burman and Indo-Aryan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Magar 
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Raute

[rau] 280 (2000), decreasing. 130 nomadic Raute. Ethnic population: 658. Mainly west, Seti zone, Achham, Doti districts; Bheri zone, Surkhet, Jajarkot, Banke districts; Rapti zone, Pyuthan District; Karnali zone, Jumla, Dolpa districts. Since 2001 nomadic movement limited to Surkhet and Jajarkot districts. Alternate names: Harka Gurung, Khamchi, Rautye.  Dialects: May be a dialect of Rawat [jnl].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Rawat

[jnl] 23,000 in Nepal (2000). Population total all countries: 23,670. Lowlands, Mahakali zone, Darchula, Baitadi, and Dadeldhura districts, mainly 2 or 3 resettlement villages. Also in India. Alternate names: Dzanggali, Jangali, Janggali, Jhangar.  Dialects: Very similar to Raute [rau] and Raji [rji]. Related to Rongpo [rnp]. Indo-Aryan but vocabulary includes Tibetan elements (Gurung 1998).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Janggali 
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Saam

[raq] 23 (2001 census). Mechi zone, South Ilam District. Alternate names: Saam Rai, Saama Kha, Samakha.  Dialects: Bungla, Sambya.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
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Sampang

[rav] 12,000 (2001). Sagarmatha zone, Khotang District, Khartamchha, Baspani, Patekha, Phedi village District councils; Koshi zone, Bhojpur District; Dingla northeast to Kharpa southwest. Upper ridges south and east of Rawakhola Valley and adjoining ridges northeast at middle Arun River headwaters (main tributaries). Scattered in Dharan, Ilam, Kathmandu and the Terai. Alternate names: Sampange Rai, Sangpang, Sangpang Gîn, Sangpang Gun, Sangpang Kha.  Dialects: Tana, Halumbung (Wakchali), Samarung, Bhalu, Tongeccha, Phali, Khartamche, Khotang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Santali

[sat] 40,300 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 42,698. Koshi zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Mechi zone, Jhapa District. Alternate names: Har, Hor, Sainti, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Santhal, Santhali, Satar, Sentali, Sonthal.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali 
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Seke

[skj] 700 (2002 SIL). Dhaulagiri zone, Mustang District, Chuksang, Tsaile, Tangbe, Tetang, Gyakar villages; Jomsom and Pokhara. Dialects: Tangbe, Tetang, Chuksang. Related to Gurung. Some similarities with Thakali [ths] and Manangba [nmm]. Very different from Lowa [loy]. Tangbe do not understand the Chuksang dialect very well, but Chuksang understand Tangbe. Reportedly understand Gurung but Gurung do not understand Seke.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Sherpa

[xsr] 50,000 in Nepal (2000 SIL), decreasing. Population total all countries: 86,200. Ethnic population: 154,622 (2001 census). Sagarmatha zone, Solu Khumbu District, mountains north. Khumbu is north from Namche Bazaar. Solu is south including Gumdi, Sete, Junbesi, Phaplu, and Sallery villages. Rolwaling area, Janakpur zone north border, Dolakha and Ramechap districts, and Taplejung, Mechi zone. Possibly in Lukla. Also in Bhutan, China, India, South Korea, United States. Alternate names: Serwa, Sharpa, Sharpa Bhotia, Xiaerba.  Dialects: Khumbu, Solu, Ramechap (Western). 95% comprehension of Solu dialect by Western and Khumbu. Lexical similarity: 90% between Solu and Khumbu dialects; 67% with Jirel [jul]; 65% with Helambu Sherpa [scp]; 62% with Lowa [loy] and Dolpo [dre]; 58% with Lhomi [lhm] and Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 57% with Kyerung [kgy]; 55% with Nubri [kte] and Walungge [ola].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern 
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Sonha

[soi] 14,700 (2000). Seti zone, Kailali District, along Karnali River; Bheri zone, Surkhet District along Bheri River; Mahakali zone, along Mahakali River; Kanchanpur District, Mahendranagar tahsil. Alternate names: Sonahaa, Sunha.  Dialects: Similar to Dangura Tharu [thl] with 80% intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 69% with Rana Tharu [thr], 73% with Kathoriya Tharu [tkt], 72% with Dangaura Tharu. Sonha and Kathoriya [tkt] form a lexical bridge between Rana and Dangaura varieties of Tharu.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified 
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Sunwar

[suz] 40,000 (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 95,254. Janakpur zone, Ramechhap and Dolakha districts, east hills; Sagarmatha zone, northwest Okhaldhunga District. Alternate names: Koyktsa, Koynts Lo, Kwoico Lo, Mukhiya, Sonowal, Sonowar, Sunbar, Sunuwar, Sunwari, Kiranti-Koits.  Dialects: Surel. Related to Bahing [bhj], and more distantly to Thulung [tdh], Wambule [wme], Jerung [jee]. Most similar to Hayu [vay].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Sunwari 
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Tamang, Eastern

[taj] 759,000 in Nepal (2000), increasing. Population total all countries: 773,000. Kathmandu and northeast, east, and south. Most districts east, Outer-Eastern in Janakpur zone, east Sindhupalchowk, Ramechhap, Dolakha districts. Central-Eastern in Bagmati zone, Kabhre District, west Sindhupalchowk, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Kathmandu, east Nuwakot districts, and districts south of those. Southwestern in Narayani zone, west Makwanpur and Chitawan districts, and districts south and southwest of those. Also in Bhutan, India, Myanmar. Dialects: Outer-Eastern Tamang, Central-Eastern Tamang, Southwestern Tamang. Central-Eastern is most widely understood among all tested to date: 85% by both Trisuli and Rasuwa Western Tamang [tdg], 93%–98% by Outer-Eastern, 87% by Southwestern Tamang [tsf]. Comprehension of Outer-Eastern was 58% by Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 64%–75% by Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 67%–54% by Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 88%–93% by Central-Eastern Tamang [taj], and 90%–98% among its own varieties. Southwestern Tamang [tsf] may be a bridge between Eastern and Western Tamang. Lexical similarity: 88%–99% among Outer Eastern varieties; 89%–100% among Central Eastern; 79%–93% between Outer Eastern and Central Eastern, 77%–82% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 86%–93% between Southwestern and Central-Eastern, 74%–80% between Eastern and Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 69%–81% with Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 72%–80% with Northwestern Dhading Tamang [tmk], 63%–77% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Tamang, Eastern Gorkha

[tge] 3,980 (2000). Gandaki zone, North Gorkha District, south and east of Jagat. Dialects: Kasigaon, Kerounja. Lexical similarity: 89% between dialects, 76%–77% with Northwestern (Dhading) Tamang [tmk], 77%–79% with Western (Trisuli) Tamang [tdg], 72%-73% with Western (Rasuwa) Tamang [tdg], 70%–73% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 63%–73% with Eastern Tamang [taj] dialects (Varenkamp 1996), 50% with Banspur Gurung [gvr], 31%–37% with Northern [ghh] and Southern Ghale [ghe], 18%–23% with Kutang Ghale [ght], 14%–16% with Nubri [kte], Tsum [ttz], and Kyerung [kgy], 12%–14% with Tibetan [bod] (1992 J. Webster).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Tamang, Northwestern

[tmk] 55,000 (1991 census). Bagmati zone, Nuwakot District, central mountainous strip. Migrations to the Terai. Dialects: Dhading. Lexical similarity: 94% with Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 82%–83% with Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 76%–78% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 76%–77% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 72%–80% with Eastern Tamang [taj].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Tamang, Southwestern

[tsf] 109,000 (1991 census). Narayani zone, west Makwanpur and Chitawan districts, and south and southwest. Possibly in Bagmati zone, west and northwest Kathmandu District area. Migrations to the Terai. Dialects: Preliminary results: 86% intelligibility with Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 87% by Central-Eastern Tamang [taj], 54%–67% by Outer-Eastern Tamang [taj]. Relationship within Tamang still needs evaluation. Southwestern Tamang has 80% lexical similarity with Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 76%–78% with Western Rasuwa dialect [tdg], 78% with Northwestern Tamang [tmk], 70%–73% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 77%–93% with Eastern Tamang [taj].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Tamang, Western

[tdg] 323,000 (2000). Bagmati zone, west Nuwakot, Rasuwa, Dhading; Gandaki zone, parts of Gorkha District; districts west and possibly southwest, central mountainous strip. Migrations to the Terai. Alternate names: Murmi.  Dialects: Trisuli (Nuwakot), Rasuwa, Northwestern (Dhading), Southwestern. Preliminary results showed 86% intelligibility with Rasuwa dialect, 81%–88% with Central-Eastern [taj], 78%–88% with Outer-Eastern [taj], 86% with Southwestern [tsf]; 80% of Rasuwa with Trisuli, 13% with Outer-Eastern [taj]. Lexical similarity: 94% between Trisuli dialect and Northwestern Tamang [tmk], 82%–83% with Rasuwa, 80% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 77%–79% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 82%–83% between Rasuwa and Northwestern [tmk], 78% with Southwestern [tsf], 72% with Eastern Gorkha [tge], 69%–81% between Western varieties and Eastern Tamang varieties.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Thakali

[ths] 6,440 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 12,973 (2001 census). Dhaulagiri zone, Mustang District, Thak Khola, mid Kali Gandaki Valley, with Annapurna Himal on one side and Dhaulagiri Himal on the other, Tatopani village south to Jomosom north. Many live outside the area. Tukche is cultural center. Tukche dialect is in Tukche village and villages south to Ghasa; also in Jomsom. Syang in Syang, Thini, Chhairo and Chimang. Alternate names: Panchgaunle, Thaksya.  Dialects: Tukche (Thaksatsae, Thaksaatsaye), Marpha, Syang (Yhulkasom). Thakali dialects have 91%–97% inherent intelligibility. The Tukche dialect is most easily understood by others. Lexical similarity: 41%–46% with Gurung, 46%–51% with Tamang (1994 J. Webster). Thakali dialects in 4 villages have 75%–86% mutual lexical similarity.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tamangic 
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Thangmi

[thf] 24,200 in Nepal (2007 SIL), decreasing. Population total all countries: 25,000. Ethnic population: 35,000. Most in Janakpur zone, Dolakha District; villages in Bagmati zone, Sindhupalchok District, west of the Sun Kosi; a few villages in Ramechhap along the Sailung Khola. Also in China, India. Alternate names: Thami, Thangmi Kham, Thangmi Wakhe, Thani.  Dialects: Eastern Thangmi (Dolakha), Western Thangmi (Sindhupalchok). Related to Baraamu [brd] (Grierson-Konow). Some cognates with Dolakha dialect of Newar [new]. Dolakhi and Sindhupalchok dialects mutually incomprehensible. Differ in phonology, nominal and verbal morphology and lexicon.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Western Himalayish, Eastern 
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Tharu, Chitwania

[the] 228,000 in Nepal (2001). 60,121 Chitwan, 92,779 Nawalparasi, 74,888 Rupandehi. Narayani zone, Chitawan District; Lumbini zone, Nawalparasi District. Also in India. Alternate names: Chitawan Tharu, Chituan Tharu, Nawalparasi Tharu.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Tharu, Dangaura

[thl] 500,000 in Nepal (2003), increasing. 10%–15% monolingual. Population total all countries: 674,000. Rapti zone, Dang-Deokhuri District; areas in the Tarai; Bheri zone, Bardiya, Banke, Surkhet districts; Seti zone, Kailali District; Mahakali zone, Kanchanpur District. Also in India. Alternate names: Chaudary Tharu, Chaudhari Tharu, Dangauli, Dangha, Dangora, Dangura.  Dialects: Kailali (Malhoriya), Deokhuri (Deokhar, Deokri), Dang, Banke, Bardiya, Surkhet, Kanchanpur. 68%–91% intelligibility of Rana Tharu [thr], 95% to 97% of Kathoriya [tkt]. Some intelligibility difficulty with speakers from India. Possibly Eastern Hindi Group. Lexical similarity: 74%–79% with Kathoriya, 72%–74% with Sonha [soi], 63%–72% with Rana Tharu, 61%–67% with Chitwania [the], 58%–65% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified 
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Tharu, Kathoriya

[tkt] 106,000 in Nepal (2006). Seti zone, Kailali District. Also in India. Alternate names: Kathariya, Khatima Tharu.  Dialects: Differences in speech between Nepal and India dialects. Possibly Eastern Hindi Group. Lexical similarity: 79% with Dangaura [thl] and Rana [thr], 66% with Hindi, 66%–69% with Buksa [tkb], 63% with Chitwania [the].  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified 
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Tharu, Kochila

[thq] 258,000 in Nepal (2003). Koshi zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha zone, Saptari, Udayapur, and Siraha districts; Janakpur zone, Mahottari, Sarlahi, Dhanusa districts. Also in India. Dialects: Saptari, Morangiya, Udayapur, Sunsari, Siraha, Mahottari, Sarlahi, Dhanusa. Each District has a different variety.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Tharu, Rana

[thr] 336,000 in Nepal (2006). Population total all countries: 486,000. Mahakali zone, Kanchanpur District; Seti zone, Kailali District. Also in India. Alternate names: Rana Thakur.  Dialects: 96%-99% intelligibility among dialects, 90% with Kathoriya [tkt], 51%–88% reported with Dangaura [thl]. Differences with India dialects. Lexical similarity: 83%–97% among dialects, 73%–79% with Buksa, 74%–79% with Kathoriya, 70%–73% with Sonha [soi], 63%–71% with Dangaura, 56%–60% with Chitwania [the], 68%–72% with Hindi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified 
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Thudam

[thw] 1,800 (2000). Koshi zone, Sankhuwasabha District, Chepuwa VDC, Thudam village. Alternate names: Thudam “Bhote”.  Dialects: Reportedly very similar to Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Unclassified 
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Thulung

[tdh] 30,000 in Nepal (2003), decreasing. Population total all countries: 33,310. Sagarmatha zone, southeast Solukhumbu District, east hills; Okhaldhunga District, 6 or 7 villages; Koshi zone, Bhojpur District, 1 village; west of the slopes’ highest ridges to Dudhkosi, north of Nechedanda and Halesidanda ranges, east of upper Solu River, and south of the Kakukhola and the confluence of Ingkhukhola and Dudhkosi. Also in India. Alternate names: Tholong Lo, Thulu Luwa, Thululoa, Thulung Jemu, Thulung La, Thulunge Rai, Toaku Lwa.  Dialects: Northern Thulung, Southern Thulung, Central Thulung, Eastern Thulung. Related to Lingkhim [lii], Bahing [bhj], Wambule [wme], Jerung [jee]. High number of cognates with Khaling [klr]. Listed dialects are mutually intelligible although the people themselves don’t refer to these dialect names.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Tibetan

[bod] 5,280 in Nepal (2001 census). Mainly Kathmandu and Pokhara. Scattered refugee communities along China border. Alternate names: Bhotia, Bod Skad, Central Tibetan, Phoke, Poke, Zang Wen.  Dialects: Utsang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Tichurong

[tcn] 2,420 (2000). Karnali zone, Dolpa District, Thuli Bheri River basin. Alternate names: Ticherong.  Dialects: Similar to Dolpa Tibetan [bod].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Tilung

[tij] 310 (2001 census). Sagarmatha zone, Halesidanda Range, outer west Khotang District, between Dudhkosi and Sunkosi. Alternate names: Tiling, Tilling, Tilung Blama.  Dialects: Choskule, Dorunkecha. Choskule and Dorungkecha dialects may be related languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Tseku

[tsk] 4,790 in Nepal (2000). Mechi zone, Panchthar District. Alternate names: Tsuku, Tzuku.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Tsum

[ttz] 4,790 (2000). Gandaki zone, north Gorkha District, Tsum area, the region drained by the Shiar Khola north of Ganesh Himal. Chekampar (Chokong) is prestige village. Alternate names: Tsumge.  Dialects: 71%–78% intelligibility of Nubri [kte], 66% with Kyerung [kgy]; 60%–66% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 22%–25% with Northern Ghale [ghh], 22% with Southern Ghale, 23%–27% with Kutang Ghale, 14% with Southern Ghale [ghe]; 6% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 14% with Western Gurung [gvr], 15% with Banspur Tamang. Divided into upper region, ‘Yarba’, and lower region, ‘Ushug’.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Waling

[wly] Extinct. Koshi zone, Bhojpur District, Khairang Panchayat. Alternate names: Walung, Walüng.  Dialects: Related to Dungmali [raa].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Walungge

[ola] 15,600 in Nepal (2000). 3,500 in the original area. Mechi zone, Taplejung District, Tamar valley, Walungchung, Yangma, Gunsa, Lilip, and Lungtung, some smaller villages; Amjilesa, and Kambachen. Also in India. Alternate names: Olangchung Gola, Tokpe Gola, Walung, Walungchung Gola, Walunggi Keccya.  Dialects: Similar to Tibetan dialect in Tingay District of Tibet. Lexical similarity: 71% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], 68% with Dolpo [dre], Lowa [loy], and Kyerung [kgy], 66% with Lhomi [lhm] and Helambu Sherpa [scp], 64% with Nubri [kte], 57% with Jirel [jul], 55% with Sherpa [xsr].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central 
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Wambule

[wme] 5,000 (Opgenort 2004), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Sagarmatha zone, Udayapur, south Okhaldhunga and west Khotang districts. Dudhkosi tributary sources below Thatan River north and west, by Sworungkola east. Alternate names: Ambule, Chaurasia, Chaurasya, Chourase, Chourasia, Ombule, Tsaurasya, Umbule.  Dialects: Bonu, Ubu. Most similar to Jerung [jee]. Dialects appear to have adequate mutually inherent intelligiblity. Jerung [jee] and Umbule are mutually intelligible (Opgenort 2004).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Western 
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Wayu

[vay] 1,740 (2001 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,821 (2001 census) to 2,826 (2000). Janakpur zone, Ramechhap District, Mudajor and Sukajor villages; Sindhuli District, Manedihi village. Alternate names: Hayu, Vayu, Wayo.  Dialects: Distinct from Chepang [cdm].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwari, Chepang 
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Yakha

[ybh] 14,600 in Nepal (2001 census). Population total all countries: 15,410. Ethnic population: 17,003. Koshi zone, Terhathum District, Sankhuwasawa District, Dhankuta District. East of middle Arun River between Hinuwankhola north and Leguwakhola south. Northern Yakha is in south Sankhuwasawa District and adjoining strip of land in extreme north Dhankuta District; Southern Yakha in Dhankuta District; Eastern Yakha in Mechi zone, Ilam and Panchthar districts. Also in India. Alternate names: Dewansala, Yakkha, Yakkhaba, Yakkhaba Cea, Yakkhaba Sala, Yakthomba.  Dialects: Northern Yakha, Southern Yakha, Eastern Yakha. Dialects have minimum diversity. Related to Lumba-Yakkha [luu], Phangduwali [phw], Chhintange [ctn], Chhulung [cur], Belhariya [byw], Northern Lorung [lbr], Limbu [lif], and Athpahariya [aph].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Yamphe

[yma] 1,720 (2001 census). Koshi zone, north Sankhuwasabha District, both sides of upper Arun River, Makalu Panchayat. To the south, the Jaljale Himal east of the Arun and the Apsuwakhola west of the Arun; north as far as Leksuwakhola and Barun rivers. Alternate names: Newahang Yamphe, Yakkhaba, Yamphe Kha, Yamphu.  Dialects: Sibao-Yamphe, Pa-O. Related to Yamphu [ybi], but distinct in grammar and phonology.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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Yamphu

[ybi] 1,720 (2001 census), decreasing. 20 Tomyang villages in Ibadeviar of Num Village Development Committee (VDC). Koshi zone, Sankhuwasabha District, Pathibhava, Makalu, Num VDCs. Eastern hills, upper Arun Valley, Matsayapokhari Panchayat, extreme north Lorung area, directly southwest of Jaljale Mountains; Mechi zone, Bhojpur District. Alternate names: Yamphe, Yamphu Kha, Yamphu Rai, Yakkhaba Khap, Yanphu.  Dialects: Tomyang (Chongka). Related to Yamphe [yma] but different grammatically and phonologically. (2007 M. Pokharel). 82% similarity with Tomyang (2007 M. Pokharel).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern 
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