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Languages of Peru

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Republic of Peru, República del Perú. 27,274,000. National or official language: Spanish. All languages are official languages in Peru. Literacy rate: 67%–79%. Immigrant languages: North Bolivian Quechua. Also includes Chinese (100,000). Information mainly from E. Loos 1973; D. Payne 1988, 1991; SIL 1951-2007; M. Wise 1983. Blind population: 30,000. Deaf population: 1,433,960. Deaf institutions: 73 or more. The number of individual languages listed for Peru is 104. Of those, 92 are living languages and 12 have no known speakers.
Abishira

[ash] Extinct. Puerto Elvira on Lake Vacacocha on Napo River. Alternate names: Abigira, Abiquira, Agouisiri, Auishiri, Avirxiri, Ixignor, Tequraca, Vacacocha.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Achuar-Shiwiar

[acu] 3,000 in Peru. Population total all countries: 5,000. Morona, Macusari, Tigre, Huasaga, and Corrientes rivers. Also in Ecuador. Alternate names: Achual, Achuale, Achuar, Achuara, Jivaro, Maina.  Dialects: Different from Shuar [jiv] (Jivaro) of Ecuador.  Classification: Jivaroan 
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Aguano

[aga] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 40 families in Santa Cruz de Huallaga. Lower Huallaga and upper Samiria rivers, right bank tributary of Marañon River. Alternate names: Aguanu, Awano, Santa Crucino, Uguano.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Aguaruna

[agr] 38,300 (2000), increasing. Almost no monolinguals. Western upper Marañon River area, Potro, Mayo, and Cahuapanas rivers. Alternate names: Aguajun, Ahuajun.  Dialects: Similar to Huambisa [hub], Achuar-Shiwiar [acu].  Classification: Jivaroan 
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Ajyíninka Apurucayali

[cpc] 4,000 (2000 SIL). Apurucayali tributary of Pachitea River. Alternate names: Ajyéninka, Apurucayali Campa, Ashaninca, Ashéninca Apurucayali, “Axininka Campa” , “Campa”.  Dialects: Not intelligible with other varieties of Ashéninka.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Amahuaca

[amc] 110 in Peru (2000 SIL), decreasing. 20 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 330. Ethnic population: 500 (300 in Peru and 200 in Brazil). Perhaps 50 in the border areas have not been contacted. Southeast Amazon Basin, scattered in Ucayali and Madre de Dios states on the following rivers: Sepahua, Curiuja, Curanja, Upper Ucayali, Inuya, Mapuya, Purus, Aguaytía, Yuruá, Las Piedras. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Amaguaco, Amawaka, Ameuhaque, Ipitineri, Sayaco.  Dialects: Most similar to Kashinawa [cbs] and Shipibo-Conibo [shp].  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Amahuaca 
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Amarakaeri

[amr] 500 (1987 SIL). Madre de Dios and Colorado rivers. Alternate names: Amaracaire, Amarakaire, “Mashco”.  Dialects: Kisambaeri. Harakmbet languages not Arawakan.  Classification: Harakmbet 
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Andoa

[anb] Extinct. Pastaza River. Alternate names: Gae, Gaye, Semigae, Shimigae.  Dialects: Distinct from Záparo [zro] (Kayapwe) of Ecuador, which now has no remaining speakers.  Classification: Zaparoan 
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Arabela

[arl] 50 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 500 (2002 SIL). Arabela River, tributary of Napo. 2 villages. Alternate names: Chiripuno, Chiripunu.  Classification: Zaparoan  Nearly extinct.
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Asháninka

[cni] 26,100 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 25,000 to 30,000 (2000 SIL). Apurimac, Ene, Perene, Tambo rivers and tributaries. Alternate names: Asháninca, “Campa”.  Dialects: Similar to Ashéninka varieties, Caquinte [cot] and Machiguenga [mcb].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ashéninka Pajonal

[cjo] 12,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2002 SIL). Central Gran Pajonal area. Alternate names: Ashéninca, Atsiri, “Campa” , Pajonal.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ashéninka Perené

[prq] 5,500 (2001 SIL). Upper Perené River (tributary of Pachitea River). Alternate names: Ashéninca Perené, “Perené Campa”.  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with other Ashéninka varieties.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ashéninka, Pichis

[cpu] 12,000 (2001 SIL). Pichis and tributaries except Apurucayali. Alternate names: Pichis Ashéninca, “Pichis Campa”.  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with other Ashéninka varieties.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ashéninka, South Ucayali

[cpy] 13,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 14,000 (2002 SIL). Upper Ucayali River and tributaries (Southernmost part of Ucayali Department). Dialects: Most closely related to Pajonal Ashéninka [cjo].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ashéninka, Ucayali-Yurúa

[cpb] 7,000 in Peru (2001 SIL). Population total all countries: 7,870. Ucayali River tributaries (Pachitea, Arruya, Shahuaya, Sheshea, Cohengua, Inuya), Yurúa River. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Ucayali Ashéninca.  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with other Ashéninka varieties.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Aushiri

[avs] Extinct. Napo River right bank tributaries, Escuelacocha. Alternate names: Auxira.  Classification: Zaparoan 
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Aymara, Central

[ayr] 442,000 in Peru (2000). Lake Titicaca area, Puno. Classification: Aymaran 
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Aymara, Southern

[ayc] 219,000 (2006). From Lake Titicaca toward ocean. Dialects: Important verb forms and vocabulary differences from Central Aymara [ayr]. Dialect intelligibility needs investigation in Tacna and Moquegua (Landerman 1984).  Classification: Aymaran 
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Bora

[boa] 2,330 in Peru (2000). Population total all countries: 3,390. Northeast Yaguasyacu, Putumayo, Ampiyacu River area. 5 villages. Also in Brazil, Colombia. Alternate names: Mirana.  Dialects: Miraña. Distinct from Bora Muinane [bmr] but related. 94% intelligibility with Miraña dialect.  Classification: Witotoan, Boran 
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Cahuarano

[cah] 5 (1976 SIL). Nanay River. Classification: Zaparoan  Nearly extinct.
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Candoshi-Shapra

[cbu] 3,000 (1981 SIL). Morona, Pastaza, Huitoyacu, Chapuli rivers. Alternate names: Candoshi, Candoxi, Kandoshi, Murato.  Dialects: Chapara (Shapra), Kandoashi. May be distantly related to Arawakan; probably not Jivaroan.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Capanahua

[kaq] 390 (2000). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 400 (2000 W. Adelaar). Tapiche-Buncuya rivers area. Alternate names: Kapanawa.  Dialects: Pahenbaquebo. Most similar language is Shipibo [shp]. Lexical similarity: 50%–60% with Shipibo.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Caquinte

[cot] 300 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 300. Poyeni, Mayapo, and Picha rivers. Upper Poyeni River, which flows into Tambo Yori and Agueni rivers which become Mipaya River flowing into the Urubamba; a few on Sensa and Vitiricaya rivers, affluents of the Urubamba. Alternate names: “Cachomashiri” , Caquinte Campa, Poyenisati.  Dialects: Most similar to Asháninka [cni].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Cashibo-Cacataibo

[cbr] 5,000 (1999). Some women over 50 monolingual. Aguaytía, San Alejandro, Súngaro rivers. Alternate names: Cachibo, Cacibo, Cahivo, Caxibo, Hagueti, Managua.  Dialects: Cacataibo de Mariscal, Cacataibo de Sinchi Roca, Cashibo.  Classification: Panoan, Western 
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Chamicuro

[ccc] 2 (2000 W. Adelaar). Ethnic population: 10 to 20 (2000 W. Adelaar). Pampa Hermosa, Huallaga tributary. Alternate names: Chamicolo, Chamicura.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Western Maipuran  Nearly extinct.
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Chayahuita

[cbt] 11,400 (2000). Paranapura, Cahuapanas, Sillay, Shanusi rivers. Alternate names: Balsapuertino, Cahuapa, Chawi, Chayabita, Chayawita, Chayhuita, Paranapura, Shayabit, Tshaahui.  Dialects: Chayahuita, Cahuapana. Not intelligible with Jebero [jeb].  Classification: Cahuapanan 
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Cholón

[cht] Extinct. Huallaga River valley from Tingo María to Valle. Alternate names: Seeptsa, Tinganeses.  Dialects: Ruhlen says it is Andean. Adelaar says it is in the Hibito-Cholon family.  Classification: Hibito-Cholon 
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Cocama-Cocamilla

[cod] 2,000 in Peru (2000 W. Adelaar). Few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 2,050. Ethnic population: 15,000 in Peru (2000 W. Adelaar). Northeast lower Ucayali, lower Marañon, and Huallaga rivers area. Also in Brazil, Colombia. Alternate names: Cocama, Huallaga, Kokama, Pampadeque, Pandequebo, Ucayali, Xibitaoan.  Dialects: Cocamilla, Cocama. Most similar to Omagua [omg].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Culina

[cul] 400 in Peru (2002 Boyer), increasing. Primarily monolingual. Ethnic population: 400. Southeast, near Brazilian border, upper Purus and Santa Rosa rivers. Alternate names: Kollina, Kulina, Kulino, Kulyna, Kurina, Madihá, Madija.  Classification: Arauan 
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Ese Ejja

[ese] 470 in Peru (2000). Ethnic population: 400 to 500 in Peru (2000 SIL). Tambopata and Heath rivers around Maldonado. Alternate names: “Chama” , Ese Eja, Ese Exa, Ese’ejja, Huarayo, Tambopata-Guarayo, Tiatinagua.  Classification: Tacanan, Tiatinagua 
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Hibito

[hib] Extinct. Bobonaje River, Jelache tributary, Huayabamba tributary entering Huallaga on west. Alternate names: Chibito, Ibito, Jibito, Xibita, Zibito.  Classification: Hibito-Cholon 
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Huachipaeri

[hug] 310 (2000). 12 Sapiteri, 10 Toyeri, 20 Arasairi, 50 Manuquiari, 36 to 50 Pukirieri (Puncuri). Upper Madre de Dios and Keros rivers. Alternate names: Huachipaire, “Mashco” , Wacipaire.  Dialects: Huachipaire, Sapiteri, Toyeri (Toyoeri, Tuyuneri), Arasairi. Similar to Amarakaeri [amr]. Sapiteri integrating with the Amarakaeri. Toyeri is similar to Sapiteri. Some Kisambaeri (Amarakaeri dialect) have integrated with the Toyeri and others with the Sapiteri. Manuquiari may be a subgroup of Toyeri or Huachipaeri. Pukirieri may be a subgroup of Toyeri or Arasairi. Arasairi is distinct from Amarakaeri or Huachipaeri; similar to Sapiteri.  Classification: Harakmbet 
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Huambisa

[hub] 9,330 (2000). Morona and Santiago rivers. Alternate names: Huambiza, Wambisa.  Dialects: Similar to Aguaruna [agr] and Achuar-Shiwiar [acu].  Classification: Jivaroan 
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Huitoto, Murui

[huu] 1,000 in Peru (1995 SIL), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 7,800. Northeast Peru, southwest Colombia. Ampiyacu, Putumayo, and Napo rivers; north of Amazon River between Iquitos, Peru and Leticia, Colombia on the south, Caquetá River north. Also in Colombia. Alternate names: Bue, Witoto.  Dialects: Mica.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Minica-Murui 
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Huitoto, Nüpode

[hux] 100 (1991 SIL).  Alternate names: Muinane Huitoto, Nipode Witoto.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Nipode 
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Iñapari

[inp] 4 (1999 SIL). Piedras River, mouth of Sabaluyo, near Puerto Maldonado. Alternate names: Inamari.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus  Nearly extinct.
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Iquito

[iqu] 35 (2002 SIL), decreasing. 1 monolingual. Ethnic population: 500. Loreto Province, Pintoyacu, Nanay, and Chambira rivers; San Antonia and Atalaya. Alternate names: Amacacore, Hamacore, Ikito, Iquita, Puca-Uma, Quiturran.  Dialects: Pintuyacu. Similar to Cahuarano [cah].  Classification: Zaparoan  Nearly extinct.
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Isconahua

[isc] 82 (2000). Callaria River. Alternate names: Iscobaquebu.  Dialects: Most closely related to Shipibo [shp].  Classification: Panoan, North-Central  Nearly extinct.
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Jaqaru

[jqr] 740 (2000 W. Adelaar). 725 Jaqaru, 11 Kawki. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Lima Department, Yauyos Province, Tupe (Jaqaru) and Cachuy villages (Cauqui). Alternate names: Aru, Haq’aru, Haqaru, Haqearu.  Dialects: Cauqui (Kawki, Cachuy). Lexical similarity 73% with Aymara [ayr], 79% between Cauqui dialect and Aymara.  Classification: Aymaran 
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Jebero

[jeb] 2,500 (2006). Ethnic population: 2,000 to 3,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Jebero District. Alternate names: Chebero, Xebero, Xihuila.  Classification: Cahuapanan 
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Kashinawa

[cbs] 1,600 in Peru (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 2,000. Ethnic population: 5,000. Curanja and Purus rivers. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Cashinahua, Caxinawa, Caxinawá, Kashinahua, Kaxinawá, Kaxynawa.  Dialects: Possibly most similar to Sharanahua [mcd].  Classification: Panoan, Southeastern 
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Machiguenga

[mcb] 10,100 (2000). Urubamba, Camisea, Picha, Manu, Timpia, Tigompinia, Kompiroshiato, and Mishagua rivers. Alternate names: Mañaries, Matsiganga, Matsigenka.  Dialects: Most similar to Nomatsiguenga [not]. There are minor dialects.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Mashco Piro

[cuj] 60 (1976 SIL). Completely monolingual. Manu Park, Madre de Dios Deparment. Cujar, Purus, Tahuamanu, Mishagua, and Piedras rivers. Alternate names: Cujareno, Cujareño, “Mashco”.  Dialects: About 60% inherent intelligibility with Yine [pib].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus 
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Matsés

[mcf] 1,400 in Peru (2006 SIL). Population total all countries: 2,200. Yaquerana. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Magirona, Majuruna, Maxirona, Maxuruna, Mayiruna, Mayoruna, Mayuzuna.  Dialects: Different from Mayo or Maya and Marúbo [mzr] of Brazil.  Classification: Panoan, Northern 
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Muniche

[myr] 3 (1988 SIL). Paranapura River, Muniches town. Alternate names: Munichi, Munichino, Otanabe, Otanave.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Nanti

[cox] 480 (2002 Michael). Headwaters of Camisea and Timpia rivers. Alternate names: “Cogapacori” , “Kogapakori”.  Dialects: Most closely related to Machiguenga [mcb], but have remained separate.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Nomatsiguenga

[not] 6,500 (2003 SIL). 5,500 to 6,000 monolinguals. Junín Department, between rivers Ene and Perene, Anapati River system in the foothills. Alternate names: “Nomatsiguenga Campa”.  Dialects: Most similar to Machiguenga [mcb].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ocaina

[oca] 54 in Peru (2000). Population total all countries: 66. Ethnic population: 150 in Peru (2000 W. Adelaar). Northeast Peru, Yaguasyacu, Ampuyacu, and Putumayo rivers. Also in Colombia. Alternate names: Okaina.  Dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo’tsa.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Ocaina 
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Omagua

[omg] 10 to 100 in Peru (1976 SIL). Ethnic population: 627 (1976). Omaguas near Iquitos. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Agua, Anapia, Ariana, Cambeba, Cambeeba, Cambela, Campeba, Canga-Peba, Compeva, Kambeba, Macanipa, Omagua-Yete, Pariana, Umaua, Yhuata.  Dialects: Most similar to Cocama-Cocamilla [cod].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III  Nearly extinct.
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Omurano

[omu] Extinct.  Alternate names: Humurana, Mayna, Numurana, Roamaina, Umurano.  Classification: Zaparoan 
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Orejón

[ore] 190 (1976 SIL). Ethnic population: 405. Yanayacu, Sucusari, Algodon, and Putumayo rivers. Alternate names: Coto, Koto, Mai Ja, Orechon, Oregon, Payagua, Tutapi.  Dialects: Nebaji.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Southern 
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Panobo

[pno] Extinct. Ucayali River mixed with the Shetebo. Alternate names: Huariapano, Manoa, Pana, Pano, Pelado, Wariapano.  Classification: Panoan, Unclassified 
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Peruvian Sign Language

[prl]   Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Pisabo

[pig] 600 (2006). Matses territory, between Tapíche and Blanco rivers. Alternate names: Pisagua, Pisahua.  Classification: Panoan, Northern 
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Quechua

[que] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 10,098,161. 
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Quechua, Ambo-Pasco

[qva] 90,000 (1998 SIL), decreasing. 20% monolinguals. Ethnic population: 90,000. Huánuco Department, Ambo Province, Huacar, San Francisco de Mosca, and San Rafael districts. Pasco Department, Pasco Province, Chaupimarca, Huachón, Huariaca, Ninacaca, Pallanchacra, San Francisco de Asís de Yarusyacán, Simón Bolívar, Ticlacayán, Tinyahuarca, Vicco, and Yanacancha districts. Alternate names: San Rafael-Huariaca Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Arequipa-La Unión

[qxu] 18,600 (2000). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 32,000. Arequipa Department, La Unión Province, Cotahuasi District; Apurímac Department, Antabamba Province. Alternate names: Arequipa Quechua, Cotahuasi Quechua.  Dialects: Cotahuasi, Northern Arequipa, Highland Arequipa, Antabamba (Apurímac). More similar linguistically to Cusco than to Ayacucho. Very similar to Eastern Apurímac [qve].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, Ayacucho

[quy] 900,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 300,000 monolinguals. Southwest Ayacucho region and Lima. Alternate names: Chanka.  Dialects: Andahuaylas, Huancavelica. Lexical similarity 96% with Surcubamba, Puquio, and Cusco [quz].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, Cajamarca

[qvc] 30,000 (2000 D. Coombs). Cajamarca, Chetilla, and Los Baños districts. Western dialect in Chetilla District; Eastern dialect in Porcón and areas around Cajamarca valley. Dialects: Western Cajamarca, Eastern Cajamarca. Relatively minor dialect differences. Lexical similarity: 94% with Lambayeque [quf] (most similar), 92% with Pacaraos [qvp].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, A 
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Quechua, Cajatambo North Lima

[qvl] 7,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 2,800 monolinguals. Northeast Lima Department: Copa, Cajatambo, Huancapón, northern Manas districts; northeast Gogor and southeast Ancash departments: Pacllón, La Primavera, Mangas (south of Llamac River and east of Pativilca River) districts. Dialects: 74% intelligibility of Huamalíes Quechua [qvh].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Chachapoyas

[quk] 7,000 (2003 SIL). 100 to 300 monolinguals (2003). Ethnic population: 7,000. Amazonas Department, Chachapoyas and Luya provinces. Alternate names: Amazonas.  Dialects: Lamud (West Chachapoyas), Grenada-Mendoza (East Chachapoyas), La Jalca (South Chachapoyas), Llakwash Chachapoyas. Most similar to San Martín Quechua [qvs].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Quechua, Chaupihuaranga

[qur] 20,500 (1972 census), decreasing. 8,200 monolinguals. West Pasco Department; Yanahuanca, Villcabamba, Tapoc, Chacayan, Paucar, San Pedro de Pillao, Goyllarisquizqa, Chinche districts; sparsely populated high country, more densely populated valleys. Alternate names: Daniel Carrion, Yanahuanca Pasco Quechua.  Dialects: Many related Quechua dialects intersect here: Junín [qvn], Ambo-Pasco [qva], Santa Ana de Tusi [qxt], Cajatambo [qvl], Huamalies-Dos de Mayo Huanuco [qvh]. Further intelligibility studies may be needed.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Chincha

[qxc] 6,000 (2000 SIL). Northeast Chincha Province, Ica; northwest Castrovirreyna Province, Huancavelica; southeast Yauyos Province, Lima. Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, A 
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Quechua, Chiquián Ancash

[qxa] 10,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Southeast Ancash Department, Bolognesi Province, Chiquián District, western Bolognesi west of Pativilca River and north of Llamac River, and east Ocros, Corpanqui Valley border. Western Ocros may be included, but the dialect is somewhat different. Dialects: Possibly intelligible with Cajatambo Quechua [qvl]. Some contact with Cajatambo and very little with Huamalíes [qvh]. 73% intelligibility with Huamalíes.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Classical

[qwc] Extinct. Central Peru. Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, Corongo Ancash

[qwa] 4,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 1,700 monolinguals (2000 SIL). North Ancash Department, Corongo Province, Aco, Corongo, Cusca, La Pampa, and Yanac districts. Most in Aco and Cusca. Dialects: Most closely related to Huaylas [qwh] and Sihuas [qws] Quechua. Some contact with Sihuas, Northern Conchucos [qxn], and Huaylas by road.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Cusco

[quz] 1,500,000 (1989 UBS). 300,000 to 500,000 monolinguals. Total Quechua in Peru 3,500,000 to 4,400,000 including Quechua I 750,000, Quechua II 2,675,000 (2000 Adelaar). Ethnic population: 1,500,000. Departments of Cusco, half of Puno, and northeast Arequipa. Alternate names: Cuzco, Cuzco Quechua, Qheswa, Quechua Cusco, Quechua de Cusco-Collao, Quechua Qosqo-Qollaw, Runasimi Qusqu Qullaw.  Dialects: Caylloma Quechua, Eastern Apurímac Quechua, Puno Quechua. Some dialect differences, but not as distinct as elsewhere. Substantial phonological and morphological differences with Ayacucho Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, Eastern Apurímac

[qve] 200,000 (2002 SIL). 80,000 monolinguals (30% in towns, 60%–70% in remote areas, especially at high altitudes). Ethnic population: 200,000. Apurímac Department: Abancay, Grau, Cotabambas, Antabamba Ayamaraes, and Andahuaylas provinces; Arequipa Department: La Unión Province. Alternate names: Apurímac Quechua, Quechua del Este de Apurímac.  Dialects: Abancay, Antabamba, Cotabambas. Arequipa-La Unión Quechua [qxu] very similar to the Antabamba dialect.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, Huallaga Huánuco

[qub] 40,000 (1993 SIL). 66% monolingual. Northeast Huánuco Department, Huánuco City. Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo Huánuco

[qvh] 72,400 (2000). 20,000 to 30,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 80,000 to 110,000. Northwest Huánuco Department. Dialects: Monzón, Huamalíes, Northern Dos de Mayo. Lexical similarity: 96% with Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha Quechua [qvm].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Huaylas Ancash

[qwh] 336,000 (2000). Less than 20,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 300,000. Central Ancash Department, Huaraz, Carhuaz, Caraz provinces; Callejón de Huaylas. Alternate names: Huaraz Quechua.  Dialects: Huaraz, Yungay, Huailas (Huaylas). Parker says not intelligible with Cusco [quz], Ayacucho [quy], Huaylla Wanca Quechua [qvw], Cajamarca [qvc], Chachapoyas Quechua [quk], or San Martín Quechua [qvs].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Huaylla Wanca

[qvw] 250,000 (2002 SIL). South Junín Department, Huancayo and Concepción provinces. Alternate names: Huanca Huaylla Quechua, Southern Huancayo Quechua.  Dialects: Waycha (Huaycha, Central Huancayo), East Waylla, West Waylla.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Jauja Wanca

[qxw] 23,000 (1962 census). Ethnic population: 77,727 (2000 WCD). Central Junín Department, Jauja Province. Alternate names: Huanca Jauja Quechua, Shausha Wanka Quechua.  Dialects: Considerable phonological differences with North Junín [qvn].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Lambayeque

[quf] 20,000 (1998 SIL). Lambayeque region; Inkawasi, Kañaris, and Miracosta districts, and Penachí and Santa Lucía communities; adjacent areas of other departments (Cajamarca, Piura). Alternate names: Ferreñafe.  Dialects: Incahuasi, Cañaris. Lexical similarity: 94% with Cajamarca Quechua [qvc].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, A 
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Quechua, Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha

[qvm] 83,400 (1993 census). 14,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 114,000 (1993 census). Southwest and south central Huánuco Department, Obas, Aparicio Pomares, Cahuac, Chavinillo, Chacabamba, Jacas Chico, Rondos, San Francisco de Asis, Jivia, Baños, Queropalca, Jesús, San Miguel de Cauri, Yarumayo, Margos, and San Pedro de Chaulán districts. Dialects: Literature can be adapted from Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo [qvh]. Lexical similarity 90% with Panao [qxh], 85% with Corongo Ancash [qwa], Sihuas [qws], Monzón Ancash, North Junín [qvn], Ulcumayo Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Napo Lowland

[qvo] 8,000 in Peru. Population total all countries: 14,000. Napo River region; communities on the Putumayo; Madre de Dios. Also in Colombia, Ecuador. Alternate names: Kicho, Lowland Napo Quichua, Napo, Napo Kichua, Napo Lowland Quichua, Quijo, Quixo, Runa Shimi, Santa Rosa Quechua, Santarrosino, Yumbo.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Quechua, North Junín

[qvn] 60,000 (1998). 7,000 monolinguals (1972 census). North Junín Department, Junín, Carhuamayo, Ondores, San Pedro de Cajas districts, southeast of Pasco. Alternate names: Junín Quechua, Tarma-Junín Quechua.  Dialects: 2 dialects in Tarma Province which differ from the town of Junín. Lexical similarity 97% with Cajatambo [qvl], 96% with Arequipa-La Unión Quechua [qxu].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Northern Conchucos Ancash

[qxn] 250,000 (2002 SIL). 65,000 monolinguals (1994 census). East Ancash Department, Pomabamba to San Luis, and Huacrachuco in northwest Huánuco Department; possibly north Marañon area. Alternate names: Conchucos Quechua, Northern Conchucos Quechua.  Dialects: Related to Southern Conchucos [qxo], Huamalíes [qvh], Sihuas [qws].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Pacaraos

[qvp] 250 (1984 W. Adelaar). Ethnic population: 900. East central Lima Department, Pacaraos village. Dialects: Divergent lexically, morphologically, and phonologically from other Quechua. By its archaic features it occupies an important position relative to the reconstruction of Proto-Quechua. Lexical similarity 94% with Huarí, Cajatambo [qvl], North Junín [qvn], and Carás Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, A 
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Quechua, Panao Huánuco

[qxh] 50,000 (2002 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals. East central Huánuco Department. Alternate names: Pachitea Quechua.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 98% with Arequipa-La Unión [qxu], 96% with Cajatambo Quechua [qvl].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Puno

[qxp] 500,000. 100,000 monolinguals (2002). Puno Department, northeast Arequipa Department, Moquegua Department highland area. Alternate names: Quechua Collao, Quechua Qollaw.  Dialects: North Bolivian Quechua, Cailloma Quechua. Mutually intelligible with Cusco Quechua [quz] and North Bolivian Quechua [qul]: possibly sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, San Martín

[qvs] 15,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 43,982 (2000 WCD). Loreto Department, San Martín region, Sisa, Lamas, and other districts, and along Ucayali River. Lamas town is cultural center. Alternate names: Lama, Lamano, Lamista, Lamisto, Motilón, Ucayali.  Dialects: Several minor dialects.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Quechua, Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco

[qxt] 10,000 (1993 SIL). Pasco Department, southeast Daniel Carrión Province. Dialects: Probably dialect of Chaupihuaranga Quechua [qur].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Sihuas Ancash

[qws] 6,500 (2002 SIL), decreasing. 3,000 monolinguals. Ancash Department, Sihuas Province, districts west of Sihuas River and north of Rupac River: southern Quiches, Alfonso Ugarte, Huayllabamba, Sihuas, and western Ragash. Dialects: Most closely related to Northern Conchucos [qxn] and Corongo Quechua [qwa]. Initial intelligibility testing shows intelligibility with Corongo Quechua [qwa] on the high end of marginal. Intelligibility with Northern Conchucos [qxn] appears lower.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Southern Conchucos Ancash

[qxo] 250,000 (1994 census), increasing. 80,000 monolinguals. East Ancash Department, Chavín to San Luis to Llamellín; northwest Huánuco Department: Huacaybamba, Huacrachuco, San Buenaventura, and Pinra districts, much of southern Marañon Province. Alternate names: Conchucos Quechua, Southern Conchucos Quechua.  Dialects: Related to Northern Conchucos [qxn], Huamalíes [qvh], Huaylas [qwh].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Southern Pastaza

[qup] 1,550 (2000). 20% monolinguals. North jungle, Anatico Lake, Pastaza and Huasaga rivers, along Ñucuray River and Manchari. Alternate names: Inga.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Quechua, Yauyos

[qux] 6,500 (2003 SIL). Lima Department, Yauyos Province; Ica Department, Chincha Province, north section; Huancavelica Department, Castrovirreyna Province, northeast corner. Dialects: San Pedro de Huacarpana, Apurí, Madean-Viñac (Madeán), Azángaro-Huangáscar-Chocos (Huangáscar), Cacra-Hongos, Tana-Lincha (Lincha), Tomás-Alis (Alis), Huancaya-Vitis, Laraos. Not a single language, but a cover term for a highly differentiated linguistic area with many one-village varieties.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, A 
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Quichua, Northern Pastaza

[qvz] 2,000 in Peru. Alamos, Tigre River. Alternate names: Alama, Bobonaza, Tigre Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Remo

[rem] Extinct. Between Tapiche and Calleria rivers. If they exist, they are in Brazil at Moa River headwaters; but there is no evidence of their existence in Brazil. Alternate names: Rheno.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Resígaro

[rgr] 14 (1976 SIL). Northeast Peru, Loreto Department, Bora and Ocaina villages. Alternate names: Resígero.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland  Nearly extinct.
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Secoya

[sey] 140 in Peru. North Peru, Boca de Angusilla and Santa Marta, a small River off Napo River near Ecuador border. Alternate names: Angotero, Encabellao.  Dialects: Angotero, Piojé.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Northern, Siona-Secoya 
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Sensi

[sni] Extinct. Right bank of Ucayali River. Alternate names: Mananahua, Senti, Tenti.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Sharanahua

[mcd] 450 in Peru (2000 SIL). 70% monolinguals. 200 to 300 Mastanahua. Population total all countries: 453. Upper Purus River area. Also in Brazil. Dialects: Marinahua (Marinawa), Chandinahua, Mastanahua. Similar to Yaminahua [yaa] Chitonahua dialect, Yora [mts].  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Shipibo-Conibo

[shp] 26,000 (2003 SIL). Northeast middle Ucayali River area, Painaco, Requena, Sur Bolognesi, Pisqui (on the other side of Contamana). Dialects: Shipibo (Alto Ucayali), Conibo (Coniba), Pisquibo, Shetebo (Setebo, Setibo, Xitibo, Manoita), Shipibo del Madre de Dios.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Spanish

[spa] 20,000,000 in Peru (1995).  Alternate names: Castellano, Español.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Spanish, Loreto-Ucayali

[spq] 2,800 (2006). Loreto and Ucayali river areas. Alternate names: Jungle Spanish.  Dialects: Other speakers have limited comprehension of colloquial standard Spanish.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Taushiro

[trr] 1 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 20. Off Tigre River, Aucayacu River, Ahuaruna River tributary. Alternate names: Pinche, Pinchi.  Dialects: Possibly Zaparoan. Ruhlen says it is related to Candoshi-Shapra [cbu].  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Ticuna

[tca] 8,000 in Peru (2000 SIL). Northeast Amazon River region, from Chimbote in Peru to San Antonio do Iça in Brazil. Alternate names: Tikuna, Tukuna.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Urarina

[ura] 3,000 (2002 SIL). Loreto Department: Urarinas District, Pucayacu, Chambira, and Urituyacu rivers. Alternate names: Itucali, Shimacu, Simacu.  Dialects: Several dialects with minor differences. Ruhlen and others classify it as Andean.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Yagua

[yad] 5,690 in Peru (2000). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. Northeast Amazon River region, Loreto, from Iquitos to Brazil border. Also in Colombia. Alternate names: Llagua, Nijyamïï Nikyejaada, Yahua, Yava, Yegua.  Dialects: 2 dialects.  Classification: Peba-Yaguan 
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Yameo

[yme] Extinct. Marañon and Amazon rivers from the mouth of the Tigre to the Nanay River. Classification: Peba-Yaguan 
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Yaminahua

[yaa] 750 in Peru (2003 SIL). 400 Yaminahua (1998 SIL), 200 Mastanahua (1981 SIL), 150 Chitonahua. Population total all countries: 1,390. Yuruá, Mapuya, and Mishagua. Also in Bolivia, Brazil. Alternate names: Jaminawá, Yamanawa, Yaminawa, Yuminahua.  Dialects: Yaminahua, Chitonahua (Morunahua, Moronahua, Foredafa, Horudahua, Horunahua). Most similar to Sharanahua [mcd].  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Yanesha’

[ame] 9,830 (2000). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Central and east Pasco region; Junín, western jungle, headwaters of Pachitea and Perene rivers. Alternate names: Amage, Amagues, Amaje, Amajo, Amoishe, Amueixa, Amuese, Amuesha, Amuetamo, Lorenzo, Omage.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Western Maipuran 
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Yine

[pib] 4,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 4,000 to 5,000. Ucayali and Cusco departments, east central Urubamba River area; Ucayali and Loreto departments, along Ucayali River (Conatmana and Pucallpa); Department of Madre de Dios, Madre de Dios River. Alternate names: Chontaquiro, Contaquiro, Pira, “Piro” , Pirro, Simiranch, “Simirinche”.  Dialects: Machinere [mpd] in Brazil is different enough to need separate literature.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus 
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Yora

[mts] 380 (1998 SIL). Manu Park, Panagua River; Mishagua River. May be some in Brazil. Alternate names: Manu Park Panoan, Nahua, Parquenahua, Yoranahua, Yura.  Dialects: Similar to Yaminahua [yaa], Sharanahua [mcd].  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yora 
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