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Languages of Papua New Guinea

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Papua New Guinea. 6,070,000. Papuan 78%, Melanesian 20%. National or official languages: Hiri Motu, Tok Pisin, English. 600 islands. Literacy rate: 32%–43%. Also includes Chinese, and languages of the Philippines and India. Information mainly from J. Anceaux 1961; L. Carrington 1996; K. Franklin 1968; A. Healey 1964; B. Hooley 1971; B. Hooley and K. McElhanon 1970; K. McElhanon 1970, 1978; M. Ross 1988; G. Sankoff 1968; R. Shaw 1973, 1981; SIL 1971-2008; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981; J. Z’Graggen 1969, 1971, 1975. Blind population: 12,500. The number of individual languages listed for Papua New Guinea is 841. Of those, 830 are living languages and 11 have no known speakers.
Abadi

[kbt] 4,300 (2007 SIL). Central Province, north of Galley Reach. Alternate names: Gabadi, Kabadi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 53% with Toura [don] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Gabadi 
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Abaga

[abg] 5 (1994 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,200 (1975 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon  Nearly extinct.
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Abau

[aau] 7,270 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Green River District, Sepik and Green rivers. Alternate names: Green River.  Classification: Sepik, Abau 
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Abom

[aob] 15 (2002 SIL). Western Province, a few older adults in Tewara, Lewada, and Mutam villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 14% with Bitur [mcc], 12% with Baramu [bmz], 11% with Makayam [aup], 9% with Wara [tci], 4% with Idi [idi] and Agob [kit].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio  Nearly extinct.
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Abu

[ado] 4,200 (2000 census). 820 Sabu, 3,380 Abu. Madang and East Sepik provinces; between Ramu, Sepik, and Angoram rivers; northwest of Madang. 22 villages. Alternate names: Adjora, Adjoria, Azao.  Dialects: Abu, Auwa, Sabu. Intelligibility between dialects sufficient to understand each others’ complex and abstract discourse. Most closely related to Banaro [byz] and Ap Ma [kbx]. Sabu in northeast language region. Auwa may be a different language.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass 
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Adzera

[adz] 28,900 (2000 census). Morobe Province, Markham District, upper Markham Valley. Alternate names: Acira, Atzera, Atsera, Azera.  Dialects: Related to Sukurum [zsu], Sarasira [zsa], Wampur [waz], and Mari [hob] (all Upper Markham subfamily).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper 
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Aeka

[aez] 3,400 (2007). Oro Province, Sohe District, Tamata Rural LLG. Dialects: Similar to Orokaiva [okv].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Aekyom

[awi] 8,000 (1987 UBS). Western Province, Kiunga area. Alternate names: Aiwin, Akium, Awin, West Awin.  Dialects: North Awin, South Awin, East Awin.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Awin-Pare 
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Agarabi

[agd] 27,000 (2000 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Alternate names: Agarabe, Bare.  Dialects: Similar to Gadsup [gaj].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa 
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Agi

[aif] 960 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei 
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Agob

[kit] 2,440 (2000 census). 1,437 Agob, 542 Ende, 457 Kawam. Western Province, Pahoturi River area, and south coast. Alternate names: Dabu.  Dialects: Agob, Ende, Kawam. One end of a dialect chain stretching to Idi [idi]. Ende and Kawam most similar to Agob. Distinct from, but related to, Idi (Tame).  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Pahoturi 
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Aighon

[aix] 2,000 (2003 SIL), increasing. Less than 5% monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,500. West New Britain Province, Gasmata and Mosa Rural LLGs, Akolet and Avau inland, between Avio and Amgen rivers, to north side of Whiteman Range. Alternate names: Aigon, Bao, Psohoh.  Dialects: Bao (Do), Apsokok (Psohoh, Sokhok, Psokhok, Psokok), Aighon. In the Kaulong [pss] (Pasismanua) dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 83% between Aighon and Bao dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua 
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Aiklep

[mwg] 3,700 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest coast and inland, Aviklo Island near Kandrian, Ais, Asailo, Yumielo, Analo villages. Alternate names: Agerlep, Eklep, Kaul, Moewehafen.  Dialects: Dialect subgroup with Gimi [gip] and Apalik [apo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe 
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Aimele

[ail] 140 (2000). Southwest corner of Southern Highlands Province, Mt. Bosavi area; Western Province, Lake Campbell area. Most moved to Western Province, Wawoi Falls area. Alternate names: Kware.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi 
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Ainbai

[aic] 100 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, south of Bewani station. 2 villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 30% with Manem [jet], 25% with Pagi [pgi].  Classification: Border, Bewani 
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Aiome

[aki] 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, west of Madang town, scattered. Alternate names: Ayom.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Middle Ramu 
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Ak

[akq] 75 (2000 S. Wurm). Sandaun Province, Kwieftim village. Dialects: Most similar to Namia [nnm] and Awun [aww].  Classification: Sepik, Yellow River 
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Akolet

[akt] 950 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, south coast, and islands around Awio Bay. Dialects: A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe 
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Akoye

[miw] 800 (1998 SIL), decreasing. Gulf Province, Kaberofe District, valleys between Nabo Range and Albert Mountains, Lohiki River. Most in a settlement in Kerema. Alternate names: Akoinkake, Akoyi, Angoya, Lohiki, Mai-Hea-Ri, Maihiri, Obi.  Dialects: Similar to Tainae [ago].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan 
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Akrukay

[afi] 250 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan 
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Alamblak

[amp] 1,530 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Angoram District. 9 villages on Middle Karawari and Wagupmeri rivers. Another dialect has 4 villages near Kuvanmas Lake. Dialects: Kuvenmas, Karawari.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Alamblak 
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Alekano

[gah] 25,000 (1999 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District, Goroka town area. Alternate names: Gafuku, Gahuku, Gahuku-Gama.  Dialects: Similar to Tokano [zuh], Dano [aso], Yaweyuha [yby], Siane [snp], Benabena [bef].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena 
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Ama

[amm] 480 (1990 census). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Waniap Creek, south of Sepik River, south of Namia, Ama (Wopolu I), Wopolu II (Nokonufa), Kauvia (Kawiya), Yonuwai villages; all on hills rising from the swamp. Alternate names: Sawiyanu.  Dialects: Dialects converged into 1.  Classification: Arai-Kwomtari, Arai (Left May) 
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Amaimon

[ali] 1,780 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Amaimon 
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Amal

[aad] 830 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, on Wagana River, near confluence with Wanibe Creek. Alternate names: Alai.  Classification: Sepik, Iwam 
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Amanab

[amn] 4,420 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Classification: Border, Waris 
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Amara

[aie] 1,170 (2000 D. Tryon). West New Britain Province, northwest coast. Alternate names: Bibling, Longa.  Dialects: Related to Mouk-Aria [mwh] and Lamogai [lmg].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Amara 
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Ambakich

[aew] 770 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,964 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Alternate names: Aion, Porapora.  Dialects: Northern (Antanau), Southern.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass 
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Ambrak

[aag] 290 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Nuku District. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei 
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Ambulas

[abt] 44,000 (1991 SIL). 27,000 in Wosera (1991 SIL), 9,000 in Maprik (1991 SIL), 8,000 in Wingei (1991 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District. Alternate names: Abelam, Abulas.  Dialects: Maprik, Wingei, Wosera-Kamu, Wosera-Mamu.  Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Amele

[aey] 5,300 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District, hills up from Astrolabe Bay, between Gum and Gogol rivers. 40 hamlets. Alternate names: Amale.  Dialects: Huar, Jagahala, Haija. Related to Gumalu [gmu], Sihan [snr], Isebe [igo], Bau [bbd], Panim [pnr].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum 
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Amol

[alx] 270 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Nuku District. Alternate names: Alatil, Aru, Eru.  Dialects: Arang Mol, Alang Mol.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei 
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Amto

[amt] 300 (2006 NTM). Sandaun Province, Amanab Rocky Peak districts, south of Upper Sepik River, toward Left May River headwaters on Samaia River, Amto, Habiyon, Amu villages. Dialects: Amto, Siawi.  Classification: Amto-Musan 
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Anam

[pda] 1,070 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Josephstaal area villages. Alternate names: Pondoma.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Pomoikan 
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Anamgura

[imi] 1,250 (1990 census). Madang Province, northwest of Josephstaal. Alternate names: Ikundun, Mindivi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Pomoikan 
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Andai

[afd] 400 (2005). East Sepik Province, Karawari Rural District. Mountain villages Arafundi and Wagupman rivers’ head, Kaiyam, Kupini, Awarem, Namata, Andambit, and part of Imboin villages. Alternate names: Pundungum, Wangkai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 58%–74% with Tapei [afp].  Classification: Arafundi 
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Andarum

[aod] 1,080 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Kanggape [igm].  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu 
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Andra-Hus

[anx] 1,310 (2000). Manus Province, Andra and Hus islands. Alternate names: Ahus, Ha’us.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Anem

[anz] 550 (2003 SIL). West New Britain Province, northwest coast and inland. Alternate names: Karaiai.  Classification: Yele-West New Britain, West New Britain 
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Aneme Wake

[aby] 650 (1990 SIL). Oro Province, Afore District, both sides of Owen Stanley Range; Central Province, north from Ianu along Foasi and Domara creeks. Alternate names: Abia, Abie.  Dialects: Mori, Buniabura, Auwaka, Jari, Doma. Lexical similarity: 65%–73% with Moikodi [mkp] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban 
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Angaataha

[agm] 2,100 (2003 BTA). Morobe Province, Menyamya District. Alternate names: Langimar, Angataha, Angaatiya, Angaatiha.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Angaatiha 
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Angal

[age] 18,600 (2000). Southern Highlands Province, Mendi area, north into Mendi Valley, west into Lai Valley, east bank, west of Mt. Giluwe. Alternate names: East Angal, Mendi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa 
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Angal Enen

[aoe] 22,000 (1995 UBS). Southern Highlands Province, south of Nipa, north of Erave River, east of Lake Kutubu, west of Lai Valley. Alternate names: Nembi, South Angal Heneng, South Mendi.  Dialects: Megi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa 
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Angal Heneng

[akh] 40,000 (1994 V. Schlatter). Southern Highlands Province, south of Margarima and Kandep, north of Lake Kutubu, west of Lai Valley. Alternate names: Agarar, Augu, Katinja, Wage, West Angal Heneng, West Mendi.  Dialects: Waola (Wala), Augu, Nipa, Ota.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa 
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Angor

[agg] 1,270 (1990 census). 836 in Nai, 430 in Samanai. Sandaun Province, Amanab District. 11 villages. Alternate names: Anggor, Senagi, Watapor.  Dialects: Nai (Central Angor), Samanai (Southern Angor).  Classification: Senagi 
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Angoram

[aog] 8,220 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, lower Sepik River area, Angoram District. Alternate names: Olem, Pondo, Tjimundo.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Angoram 
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Anjam

[boj] 2,020 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay District. Alternate names: Bogadjim, Bogajim, Bogati, Bom, Lalok.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim 
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Ankave

[aak] 1,600 (1987 SIL). Gulf Province, Kerema District, valleys of Mbwei and Swanson rivers. Alternate names: Angave.  Dialects: Sawuve, Wiyagwa, Wunavai, Miyatnu, Ankai, Bu’u.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan 
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Anor

[anj] 980 (2000). Madang Province. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Middle Ramu 
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Anuki

[aui] 890 (2001 SIL). North coast, Cape Vogel, Milne Bay Province. Alternate names: Gabobora.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 49%–57% with Gapapaiwa [pwg] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Anuki 
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Ap Ma

[kbx] 7,000 (1990 UBS). Angoram District, East Sepik Province. Alternate names: Ap Ma Botin, Botin, Kambot, Karaube.  Dialects: Kambaramba.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Kambot 
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Apali

[ena] 980 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, upper Ramu River area, Aiome District. Alternate names: Apal, Emerum, Munga.  Dialects: Aki, Aci.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Emuan 
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Apalik

[apo] 370 (1979 census). West New Britain Province, islands off the south coast between Andru and Johanna rivers. Alternate names: Ambul, Palik.  Dialects: In a dialect chain with Gimi [gip] and Aiklep [mwg].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe 
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Arammba

[stk] 970 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Morehead SubProvince, southwest of Suki. Alternate names: Aramba, Serki, Serkisetavi, Upper Morehead.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda 
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Arapesh, Bumbita

[aon] 4,340 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 8,680. East Sepik Province, Maprik District, Torricelli Mountains, south of Wom, 13 villages. Alternate names: But Arapesh, Weri.  Dialects: Bonahoi, Urita, Timingir, Weril, Werir. Weril and Werir mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 30% with Bukiyip [ape].  Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh 
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Arawum

[awm] 60 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Siroi [ssd], Pulabu [pup], Kolom [klm], Lemio [lei].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau 
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Are

[mwc] 1,230 (1973 SIL). Milne Bay Province, tip of Cape Vogel. Alternate names: Mukawa.  Dialects: Similar to Gapapaiwa [pwg]. Lexical similarity: 47%–55% with Doga [dgg] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are 
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Ari

[aac] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Western Province Aramia River area, Ari and Serea villages. Dialects: Serea.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala  Nearly extinct.
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Aribwatsa

[laz] Extinct. Morobe Province, lower Wamped River. Alternate names: Lae, Lahe.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu 
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Aribwaung

[ylu] 1,000 (1994). Morobe Province, lower Markham Valley, Yalu village. Alternate names: Aribwaungg, Jaloc, Yalu.  Dialects: Similar to Musom [msu], Duwet [gve], Nafi [srf], Wampar [lbq].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu 
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Arifama-Miniafia

[aai] 3,470 (2000). 4 coastal locations: Cape Nelson and Collingwood Bay, Oro Province, Tufi District. 20 to 25 villages. Alternate names: Miniafia-Arifama.  Dialects: Arifama, Miniafia. Lexical similarity: 39% with Ubir [ubr].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are 
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Arop-Lokep

[apr] 3,020 (2000 census), increasing. Few monolinguals. Vitiaz Strait, Siassi chain, 4 islands. Arop on Long Island and Crown Island, Madang Province, Saidor District; Lokep on Tolokiwa Island and the northwest tip of Umboi Island, Morobe Province, Siassi District. Alternate names: Arop-Lukep, Lukep, Moromiranga, Siasi, Siassi, Tolokiwa.  Dialects: Arop (Poono), Lokep (Lukep, Lokewe).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap 
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Arop-Sissano

[aps] 1,150 (1998). Sandaun Province, Aitape District, Arop village. Alternate names: Arop.  Dialects: Related to Sissano [sso], Malol [mbk], and Sera [sry].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau 
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Aruamu

[msy] 8,000 (1990 UBS). Madang Province, west of Bogia. Alternate names: Ariawiai, Makarub, Makarup, Mikarew, Mikarew-Ariaw, Mikarup.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Mikarew 
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Aruek

[aur] 740 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, north of Kombio. Alternate names: Djang.  Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio 
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Aruop

[lsr] 700 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province. 6 villages. Alternate names: Lau’u, Lauisaranga.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei 
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Asaro’o

[mtv] 1,250 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, southeast of Saidor. At least 4 villages. Alternate names: Morafa.  Dialects: Related to Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], Yagomi [ygm].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup 
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Asas

[asd] 330 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Alternate names: Kow.  Dialects: Related to Sinsauru [snz], Sausi [ssj], Kesawai [xes], Dumpu [wtf].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia 
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Askopan

[eiv] 1,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). South central Bougainville Province mountains. Alternate names: Eivo, Eivo 1.  Dialects: Similar to Rapoisi [kyx].  Classification: North Bougainville, Rotokas 
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Atemble

[ate] 60 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province. Alternate names: Atemple, Atemple-Apris.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Atan 
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Au

[avt] 8,000 (2000 census). 20% monolingual. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, Torricelli Mountain foothills. 19 villages. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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’Auhelawa

[kud] 1,200 (1998 SIL). 30% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Normanby Island, Sehuleya District. Alternate names: ’Urada, Kurada, Nuakata, Ulada.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 52% with Duau [dva] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic 
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Auwe

[smf] 410 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, Simog and Watape villages. Alternate names: Simog.  Classification: Border, Waris 
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Avau

[avb] 620 (2002 SIL). West New Britain Province, south coast and islands around Gasmata. Alternate names: Awau.  Dialects: Gasmata.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe 
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Awa

[awb] 2,050 (2003 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa and Kainantu districts. Alternate names: Mobuta.  Dialects: Tauna, Ilakia, Northeast Awa, South Awa.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa 
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Awad Bing

[bcu] 1,450 (2000 SIL). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay area, west of Saidor. 7 villages. Alternate names: Awad Gey, Biliau, Bing, Samang, Semang, Sengam.  Dialects: Biliau, Yamai, Suit, Galeg, Yori. Distinct from, but similar to, Mindiri [mpn] and Wab [wab].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe 
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Awar

[aya] 1,090 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, Hansa Bay coast. 3 villages. Dialects: Awar, Nubia.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Bosmun-Awar 
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Awara

[awx] 1,870 (2007 census), increasing. 35% monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,865. Morobe Province, Lae District, near the Wantoat. Dialects: Some dialect variation within Awara. Wantoat [wnc], Wapu dialect of Wantoat, and Awara are part of a language chain, with Awara at the western end. Lexical similarity: 60%–70% with Wantoat [wnc] and Wapu dialect of Wantoat.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Wantoat 
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Awiyaana

[auy] 11,100 (2000). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu, Okapa districts. 15 villages. Alternate names: Auyana.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa 
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Awtuw

[kmn] 510 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Autu, Kamnum.  Dialects: Related to Karawa [xrw], Pouye [bye].  Classification: Sepik, Ram 
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Awun

[aww] 400 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, east of Namia, Yakeltim village. Alternate names: Awon.  Dialects: Related to Namia [nnm], Ak [akq].  Classification: Sepik, Yellow River 
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Ayi

[ayq] 430 (2000 census). Southeast corner of Sandaun Province, Wan Wan Division. 3 villages. Dialects: Similar to Pasi [psq].  Classification: Sepik, Tama 
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Bagupi

[bpi] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 125. Madang Province. Dialects: Related languages: Rapting [rpt], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Murupi [mqw], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Mosimo [mqv], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Matepi [mqe], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], Wagi [fad].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman  Nearly extinct.
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Bahinemo

[bjh] 550 (1998 NTM). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Hunstein Range, south of Sepik River. 4 villages. Alternate names: Bahenemo, Gahom, Inaru, Wogu, Yigai.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo 
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Baibai

[bbf] 340 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Classification: Arai-Kwomtari, Kwomtari, Fas 
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Baimak

[bmx] 650 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, west of Madang City. Dialects: Related to Gal [gap].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Baluan-Pam

[blq] 1,000 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Baluan and Pam islands. Dialects: Baluan, Pam. Dialects are similar; Baluan is the larger.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands 
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Bamu

[bcf] 6,310 (2000 census). 964 Gama. Western Province, Bamu River mouth and upriver. Alternate names: Bamu Kiwai.  Dialects: Gama, Lower Bamu, Sisiame, Upper Bamu (Middle Bamu), Nuhiro. Gama dialect may be a separate language. Closely related to Kiwai; less closely to Waboda [kmx]. Lexical similarity: below 80% between Gama and Lower Bamu, the most similar other Bamu dialect.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian 
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Banaro

[byz] 2,480 (1991 SIL). Madang and East Sepik provinces. 2 villages. Alternate names: Banar, Banara.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass 
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Bannoni

[bcm] 1,000 (Lincoln 1977). Bougainville Province, southwest Bougainville, Empress Augusta Bay coast, between Aruma and Puriata rivers. Alternate names: Banoni, Tsunari.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni 
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Barai

[bbb] 800 (2003 SIL). Inland Oro Province, Afore District, Managalas Plateau. Birarie in Umuate, Naokanane, Itokama, Madokoro villages. Dialects: Birarie, Muguani. Lexical similarity: 50% with Ese [mcq].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic 
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Baramu

[bmz] 850 (2000 census). Western Province, south bank of lower Fly River; Baramura, Tirio (Madiri), Tirio 2, and Tapila villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 33% with Bitur [mcc], 32% with Makayam [aup], 27% with Wara [tci].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio 
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Bargam

[mlp] 3,750 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District, North Coast Road just opposite Karkar Island. Alternate names: Mugil, Saker.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Mugil 
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Bariai

[bch] 1,380 (1998 SIL). West New Britain Province, east of Cape Gloucester, northwest coast. Alternate names: “Kabana”.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with Kove [kvc], 76% with Lusi [khl].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai 
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Bariji

[bjc] 460 (2000). Oro Province, Bariji River south bank. Alternate names: Aga Bereho.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 49% with Moikodi [mkp].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban 
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Barok

[bjk] 2,120 (1985). New Ireland, south central, east and west coasts. 15 villages. Alternate names: Kanalu, Kanapit, Kolube, Komalu, Kulubi.  Dialects: Usen, Barok.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak 
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Baruga

[bjz] 2,230 (2003 SIL). 796 Tafota, 987 Bareji, 444 Mado. Oro Province, Tufi District, in Musa and Bariji (Bareji) River flood plains. Gaina [gcn], Bariji [bjc], and Yareba [yrb] on south border. The Okeina dialect of Ewage-Notu [nou], Ambe Tofo, Korafe-Mokorua, Miniafia-Arifama, Ubir [ubr], and Maisin [mbq] on east border. Dyke Ackland Bay is north. Dialects: Bareji, Baruga, Mado, Tafota Baruga. Lexical similarity: 56%–61% with Korafe-Yegha [kpr], Gaina [gcn] and Dogoro [dgx] (Dutton 1971), 43% with Ewage dialect of Ewage-Notu [nou].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Baruya

[byr] 6,600 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Marawaka District. Alternate names: Barua, Yipma.  Dialects: Wantakia, Baruya, Gulicha, Usirampia (Wuzuraabya).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan 
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Bau

[bbd] 3,060 (2000). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Sihan [snr], Gumalu [gmu], Isebe [igo], Amele [aey], Panim [pnr].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum 
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Bauwaki

[bwk] 520 (2000 census). Central Province, Amau (Mori River), into Oro Province. Alternate names: Bawaki.  Dialects: Dutton (1971) says this is a bridge language between the Mailuan and Yareban families. Lexical similarity: 66% with Aneme Wake [aby] (most similar), 39% with Domu [dof].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan 
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Beami

[beo] 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Province, east of Nomad, into Southern Highlands Province. Alternate names: Bedamini, Bedamuni, Mougulu.  Dialects: Komofio, North Beami.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi 
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Bebeli

[bek] 1,050 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, Stettin Bay, Cape Hoskins area. Alternate names: Banaule, Beli, Benaule, Kapore, Yangura.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe 
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Beli

[bey] 2,200 (2000). 1,400 in area and 53 outside. Sandaun Province, west of Mehek. Alternate names: Akuwagel, Makarim, Mukili.  Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Beli 
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Benabena

[bef] 45,000 (1998 NTM). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Alternate names: Bena.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena 
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Bepour

[bie] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 125. Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Mauwake [mhl], Moere [mvq].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kumilan  Nearly extinct.
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Berinomo

[bit] 350 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, April River, Bitara and Kagiru villages. Alternate names: Bitara.  Dialects: Bitara, Kagiru (Apowasi).  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo 
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Biangai

[big] 1,400 (1991 SIL). 50% monolingual. Morobe Province, Wau District, Bulolo River headwaters. 7 villages. Dialects: Ngowiye, Yongolei.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa 
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Biem

[bmc] 2,200 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Viai, Blupblup, Kadovar, and Bam islands east of Wewak. Alternate names: Bam.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam 
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Bikaru

[bic] 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East Sepik Province, April River headwaters. Alternate names: Bugalu, Pikaru.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio 
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Bilakura

[bql] 30 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related languages: Usan, Yaben [ybm], Yarawata [yrw], Parawen [prw], Ukuriguma [ukg].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan  Nearly extinct.
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Bilbil

[brz] 1,250 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, coast just south of Madang town. Alternate names: Bilibil.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern 
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Bilur

[bxf] 2,300 (2000). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula, southeast of Cape Gazelle. 9 villages. Alternate names: Birar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic 
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Bimin

[bhl] 2,250 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Bak-Bimin District; Western Province. Dialects: Bim, Nimtep Weng. Similar to Faiwol [fai].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain 
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Bina

[bmn] Extinct. Central Province, north of Baibara. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric 
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Binahari

[bxz] 630 (2000 census). Central Province, both sides of a range of hills inland from Cloudy Bay. Dialects: Neme (Nemea), Ma. Lexical similarity: 70% with Morawa [mze] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan 
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Binandere

[bhg] 7,000 (2007 SIL). Oro Province; along Eia, Gira, Mamba, and Kumusi rivers; between Sowara and Iwaia villages on coast; a few in Morobe Province. Alternate names: Ioma Binandere.  Dialects: Binandere, Tainya Dawari (Ambasi), Yewa Buie. Lexical similarity: 50%–54% with Suena [sue] and Zia [zia].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Bine

[bon] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Western Province, Daru District, south of Fly River. Alternate names: Oriomo, Pine.  Dialects: Kunini, Boze-Giringarede, Sogal, Masingle, Tate, Irupi-Drageli, Sebe.  Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly 
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Binumarien

[bjr] 360 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Alternate names: Binamarir, Binumaria.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora 
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Bipi

[biq] 1,200 (1990 SIL). Manus Province, west coast, Maso, Matahei, and Salapai villages, Bipi and Sisi islands. Alternate names: Sisi-Bipi.  Dialects: Similar to Loniu [los].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West 
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Bisis

[bnw] 450 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Hunstein Range, Ambunti District, next to the Bahinemo, between Lower Salumei River and Chambri Lake. 3 villages. Alternate names: Yambiyambi.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo 
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Bisorio

[bir] 260 (2003 SIL). 50 to 100 Pikaru. East Sepik Province; Karawari, Wagupmeri, and Korosameri rivers’ headwaters; Bisorio, Iniai, Gadio villages. Alternate names: Iniai, Inyai-Gadio-Bisorio.  Dialects: Pikaru (Bikaru). Lexical similarity: 70% with Nete [net].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga 
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Bitur

[mcc] 860 (2000 census). Western Province, southern bank and hinterland of Fly River; Upiara, Bisuaka, Petom, Tewara and Kasimap villages. Alternate names: Bituri, Dudi, Mutum, Paswam.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 52% with Makayam [aup], 35% with Wara [tci], 33% with Baramu [bmz].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio 
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Biwat

[bwm] 3,040 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, lower and middle Yuat River. Alternate names: Munduguma, Mundugumor.  Dialects: Related to Kyenele [kql], Changriwa [cga], Mekmek [mvk], Bun [buv].  Classification: Yuat 
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Biyom

[bpm] 380 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, southeast of Gende. Alternate names: Sasime.  Dialects: Related to Isabi, Tauya, Faita.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Biyom-Tauya 
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Blafe

[bfh] 670 (2003 SIL). Western Province, west of Nambo language. Indorodoro town is center. Alternate names: Indorodoro, Tonda.  Dialects: Mblafe, Ránmo. Different from but related to Wara [tci].  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda 
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Bo

[bpw] 85 (1998 NTM). Heart of Western Range: Sandaun Province, Bo, Kobaru, Kaumifi, Nigyama Umarita villages; East Sepik Province near Sandaun Province border, near Right May River. Alternate names: Po, Sorimi.  Dialects: Kaboru, Nikiyama, Umuruta.  Classification: Left May 
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Bogaya

[boq] 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Province; base of northern neck of Southern Highlands Province. Alternate names: Bogaia, Pogaya.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Duna-Bogaya 
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Boikin

[bzf] 31,300 (2003 SIL). 30% monolingual. East Sepik Province, Yangoru District. Alternate names: Boiken, Nucum, Yangoru, Yengoru.  Dialects: West Boikin, Central Boikin, East Boikin, Munji, Haripmor, Kwusaun, Kunai, Island Boikin.  Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Bola

[bnp] 13,700 (2000 census). 2,253 Harua. West New Britain Province, northeast coast, Willaumez Peninsula. Harua on east side of Kimbe. Alternate names: Bakovi, Bola-Bakovi.  Dialects: Harua (Karua, Xarua, Garua, Mai), Bola. Harua developed from people resettled on an oil palm plantation.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez 
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Bongu

[bpu] 850 (2000 census). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay, Rai Coast. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim 
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Bonkiman

[bop] 180 (1991 SIL). 40% monolingual. Madang and Morobe provinces. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna 
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Borong

[ksr] 2,070 (2000 census). Morobe Province, Finschhafen District, central Huon Peninsula between the Kuat and Burum rivers, south of Mindik airstrip. 5 villages and 5 hamlets; Lae and other towns. Alternate names: Kosorong, Naama.  Dialects: Kosorong, Yangeborong.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern 
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Boselewa

[bwf] 610 (1999 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,525. Milne Bay Province, Fergusson Island north shore. Alternate names: Bosalewa, Bosilewa, Mwani’u.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Galeya [gar] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau 
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Bosmun

[bqs] 1,300 (2004 PBT). 20% monolingual. Madang Province, Bogia District, west of Ramu River. 5 villages. Alternate names: Bosman, Bosngun.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Bosmun-Awar 
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Bo-Ung

[mux] 40,900 (2000 census). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District; Tambul and Lower Kaugel districts. Alternate names: Mbo-Ung, Mboung, Tembalo.  Dialects: Miyemu (Miyem), Mara-Gomu, Tembalo (Tembaglo).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Kaugel 
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Bragat

[aof] 460 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. 4 villages. Alternate names: Alauagat, Yauan.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei 
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Brem

[buq] 1,190 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, including Bunabun village. Alternate names: Barem, Bububun, Bunabun, Bunubun.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Isumrud 
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Breri

[brq] 1,100 (1986 PBT). Madang Province, lower Ramu Valley, west of Madang town. Alternate names: Kuanga.  Dialects: Related to Kominimung [xoi], Igana [igg], Inapang [mzu].  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan 
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Buang, Mangga

[mmo] 3,000 (1986 SIL). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, mid-upper Snake River area. Alternate names: Kaidemui, Manga Buang.  Dialects: Lagis, Kwasang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang 
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Buang, Mapos

[bzh] 10,500 (2000). 30% monolingual. Morobe Province, Mumeng District, middle Snake River area. 10 villages. Alternate names: Central Buang, Mapos.  Dialects: Wagau, Mambump, Buweyeu, Wins, Chimbuluk, Papakene, Mapos. Lexical similarity: 61% between Mambump dialect and Mangga Buang [mmo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang 
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Budibud

[btp] 310 (2000). 15% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Lachlan Islands, east of Woodlark Island. Alternate names: Nada.  Dialects: Most closely related to Muyuw [myw]. Lexical similarity: 65% with Muyuw.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila 
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Bugawac

[buk] 9,690 (1978 K. McElhanon). 40% monolingual. Morobe Province, Huon Gulf coast. Alternate names: Bukaua, Bukawa, Bukawac, Kawa, Kawac, Yom Gawac.  Dialects: Eastern Bugawac, Central-Eastern Bugawac, Central Bugawac, Central-Western Bugawac, Western Bugawac, South-Western Bugawac. Similar to Yabem [jae].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North 
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Buhutu

[bxh] 1,350 (2003 SIL), increasing. 20% monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,350. East tip of Papua, Milne Bay Province, Sagarai Valley, Alotau (Rabaraba) District. Alternate names: Bohutu, Buhulu, Siasiada, Yaleba.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Suau [swp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic 
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Bukiyip

[ape] 16,200 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, west Yangoru District, Torricelli Mountains. Alternate names: Bukiyúp, Mountain Arapesh.  Dialects: Coastal Arapesh, Bukiyip (Mountain Arapesh). Lexical similarity: 60% with Mufian [aoj].  Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh 
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Bulgebi

[bmp] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 125. Madang Province, southeast of Saidor. Dialects: Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], Yagomi [ygm].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup  Nearly extinct.
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Bulu

[bjl] 910 (2000 census). West New Britain Province, Willaumez Peninsula. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez 
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Bun

[buv] 480 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Changriwa [cga], Mekmek [mvk], Biwat [bwm], Kyenele [kql].  Classification: Yuat 
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Buna

[bvn] 750 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Angoram District. Dialects: Kasmin, Masan. Apparently 2 dialects: 1 in Kasmin, Boig, Waskurin, and Arapang villages; 1 in Masan, Mangan, and Garien villages.  Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg 
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Bunama

[bdd] 4,000 (1993 SIL). Milne Bay Province, south Normanby Island, Esa’ala District. Alternate names: Kelelegeia.  Dialects: Bunama, Barabara, Sawatupwa, Lomitawa, Sipupu, Weyoko, Meudana, Kerorogea, Kumalahu, Kasikasi, Sawabwala. Lexical similarity: 66% with Mwatebu [mwa], 75% with most Dobu [dob] dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau 
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Bungain

[but] 3,600 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Yaugiba is 1 village. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg 
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Burui

[bry] 260 (2000). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sepik Plains south of Maprik, Burui village, north of Pagwi. Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Burum-Mindik

[bmu] 8,250 (2000 census). 1,000 are monolingual. 5,500 in Somba, 4,500 in Siawari. Morobe Province, Finschhafen District, Central Huon Peninsula, south of Cromwell Range, Burum River valley and west slopes of Kuat River. 30 villages. Many in towns, 1,000 in Lae, scattered in Port Moresby area. 3 airstrips: Ogeramnang, Mindik, Nomanene. Alternate names: Bulum, Burum, Mindik, Somba-Siawari.  Dialects: Somba, Siawari. Lexical similarity: 92% between dialects.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Bwaidoka

[bwd] 6,500 (2000 SIL). 50% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, south tip of Goodenough Island; Bolubolu District, west Fergusson Island. Alternate names: Bwaidoga.  Dialects: Mataitai, Wagifa, Kilia, Lauwela, Bwaidoga, Faiyava, Belebele I, Bebebele Ii, Kalauna, Kiliva. Lexical similarity: 72% with Iduna [viv] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga 
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Bwanabwana

[tte] 2,400 (2007 SIL), increasing. 30% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Bwanabwana District, Engineer Islands, Laseinie Islands, Ware Island, Kitai Island; some villages in Basilaki Island southeast regions. Alternate names: Tubetube.  Dialects: Wale (Wari, Ware), Kwalaiwa. Lexical similarity: 52% with Duau [dva] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic 
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Chambri

[can] 1,700 (1991). East Sepik Province, marsh dwellers east and north of Sepik Hill area, southeast shore and island in Chambri Lake. 4 villages. Alternate names: Tchambuli, Tshamberi.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Chambri 
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Changriwa

[cga] 690 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related languages: Mekmek [mvk], Kyenele [kql], Biwat [bwm], Bun [buv].  Classification: Yuat 
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Chenapian

[cjn] 180 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Sepik River west of Wogamusin. 1 village. Alternate names: Chenap, Tsenap, Zenap.  Classification: Sepik, Wogamusin-Chenapian 
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Chuave

[cjv] 23,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 4,290 Sua (1962 Wurm). Simbu Province, Chuave District. Alternate names: Tjuave.  Dialects: Elimbari, Kebai, Gomia, Chuave, Sua. Kebai dialect is distinct but intelligible.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu 
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Daantanai’

[lni] 600 (2007 SIL). Bougainville Province, Kieta District, Crown Prince Range east slope, Kreiowo and Tavatava rivers headwaters, east-south-east of Koromira Point, Piruneu’ and Warana villages. Alternate names: Lantanai.  Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi 
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Dadibi

[mps] 10,000 (1988 SIL). 10% monolingual. South Simbu Province, Karimui District; east corner of Southern Highlands Province. 28 villages. Alternate names: Daribi, Karimui.  Dialects: Erave. Villages in Karimui and Negabo areas have minor dialect differences from standard Dadibi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Teberan 
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Daga

[dgz] 9,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 10,000. Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District; Central Province, Abau District. Alternate names: Dimuga, Nawp.  Dialects: Upper Daga, Lower Daga.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan 
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Dambi

[dac] 710 (2000). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Dialects: Some intelligibility with Kumalu [ksl].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng 
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Danaru

[dnr] 260 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Sop [urw], Urigina [urg], Sumau [six].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka 
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Dano

[aso] 30,000 (1987 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Alternate names: Asaro, Upper Asaro.  Dialects: Upper Asaro, Lunube Mado, Bohena, Amaizuho, Kongi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena 
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Daonda

[dnd] 170 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District near Imonda. Classification: Border, Waris 
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Dawawa

[dww] 2,500 (1994 SIL). 20% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, west and inland from Wedau. Alternate names: Dawana.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 58% with Kakabai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Kakabai 
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Dedua

[ded] 5,620 (2000 Census), increasing. No monolinguals above age 20. Ethnic population: 5,261 in rual area and 3,800 in urban areas (One village in Dedua area does not identify with Dedua people). Morobe Province, Sialum District, Masaweng and Tewae rivers headwaters, south of Mt. Besenona. Dialects: Dzeigoc, Fanic.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern 
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Degenan

[dge] 790 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Dingana.  Dialects: Related to Asaro’o, Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], Yagomi [ygm].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup 
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Dera

[kbv] 690 in Papua New Guinea. Sandaun Province, Amanab District, both sides of Faringi River. Alternate names: Dra, Kamberataro, Kamberatoro, Komberatoro, Mangguar.  Dialects: North Kamberataro, South Kamberataro, Mengau, Lihen, Duka-Ekor.  Classification: Senagi 
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Dia

[dia] 1,840 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Alu, Galu, Metru.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Dibiyaso

[dby] 1,950 (2000 census). Western Province, Makapa, Pikiwa, and Bamustu, via Balimo villages. Alternate names: Bainapi, Dibiasu, Pikiwa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 19% with Turumsa [tqm], 15% with Doso [dol].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi 
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Dima

[jma] 750 (2001 SIL). 15% monolinguals. Milne Bay Province, east of Moi Bay coast area almost to Posaposa Harbor, and Ruaba River area. Alternate names: Dimadima, Jimajima.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 41% with Daga [dgz] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan 
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Dimir

[dmc] 3,820 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Bosiken, Boskien.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Isumrud 
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Diodio

[ddi] 2,180 (2000). 20% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Goodenough Island west coast. Dialects: Iauiaula, Utalo, Awale, Central Diodio. Lexical similarity: 66% with Bwaidoka [bwd] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga 
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Dobu

[dob] 10,000 (1998 SIL). 60% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Esa’ala District, Sanaroa, Dobu, parts of Fergusson and Normanby islands. 500 villages. Alternate names: Dobuan.  Dialects: Galubwa, Sanaroa, Ubuia, Central Dobu, Loboda (Roboda, Dawada-Siausi). Lexical similarity: 56% with Molima [mox] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau 
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Doga

[dgg] 200 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 330. Milne Bay Province, Cape Vogel north coast. Alternate names: Magabara.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 7%–55% with Are [mwc] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are 
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Doghoro

[dgx] 270 (2000 census). Oro Province, Tufi District, Musa and Bariji (Bareji) River flood plains, Bendorode and Sebagha villages. Alternate names: Dogoro.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Dom

[doa] 12,000 (1994 NTM). Simbu Province, mainly south of Wahgi River from Kundiawa west of Sinasina area. Dialects: Era.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu 
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Domu

[dof] 950 (2000). Central Province, coast east of Cape Rodney and inland. Alternate names: Dom.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66% with Bauwaki [bwk] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan 
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Domung

[dev] 2,000 (1991 SIL). Tapen, Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna 
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Doromu-Koki

[kqc] 1,500 (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500. Central Province, Inland Rigo District, south of Mt. Obree, west of Mt. Brown. Alternate names: Doram, Doromu.  Dialects: Koki, Kokila, ’Origo. Lexical similarity: 63% with Maria [mds] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Manubaran 
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Doso

[dol] 700 (1973 D. Shaw). Western Province, Aramia River and Wawoi Falls areas, near the Kamula. Classification: Unclassified 
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Duau

[dva] 3,550 (1991 SIL). 20% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Sawabwala, Normanby islands. Dialects: Mwalukwasia, Somwadina, Guleguleu (Guragureu), Dawada, Siausi. Diverse dialects. No central or dominant dialect. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bunama [bdd], 52% with Mwatebu [mwa], Auhelawa [kud], and Bwanabwana [tte].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau 
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Duduela

[duk] 470 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Kwato [kop], Ogea [eri], Uya [usu], Rerau [rea], Jilim [jil], Yangulam [ynl].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru 
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Dumpu

[wtf] 510 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bebei and Dumpu villages. Alternate names: Watifa, Watiwa.  Dialects: Related to Sinsauru [snz], Asas [asd], Sausi [ssj], Kesawai [xes].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia 
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Dumun

[dui] 35 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province. Alternate names: Bai.  Dialects: Related to Yabong [ybo], Ganglau [ggl], Saep [spd].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon  Nearly extinct.
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Duna

[duc] 11,000 (1991 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, Lake Kopiago and Koroba districts; Western Highlands Province. Alternate names: Yuna.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Duna-Bogaya 
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Duwet

[gve] 400 (Holzknecht 1988). Morobe Province, Busu River area. Alternate names: Guwet, Guwot, Waing.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu 
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Edolo

[etr] 1,670 (2000 census). 60% monolingual. Southern Highlands Province, Tari District; Western Province, Nomad District, southwest of Mt. Sisa. 16 villages. Alternate names: Edolo Ado, Etolo, Etoro.  Dialects: Eastern Edolo, Western Edolo. Lexical similarity: 38% with Beami [beo].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi 
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Eitiep

[eit] 500 (2003 SIL), decreasing. East Sepik Province, southwest of Kombio; Sandaun Province, across Bongos River. Dialects: Similar to Kombio [xbi].  Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio 
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Elepi

[ele] 330 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Samap coast area. Alternate names: Samap.  Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg 
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Elkei

[elk] 1,640 (2000 census). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Olkoi.  Dialects: At least 3 dialects.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Elu

[elu] 220 (1983 SIL). Manus Province, Manus Island north coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Enga

[enq] 165,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 12,000 in Sau (1990 UBS). Enga Province. Maramuni nomadic in lower reaches of central range. Alternate names: Caga, Tchaga, Tsaga.  Dialects: Kandepe, Layapo, Tayato, Mae (Mai, Wabag), Maramuni (Malamuni), Kaina, Kapona, Sau (Sau Enga, Wapi), Yandapo, Lapalama 1, Lapalama 2, Laiagam, Sari. Mae is standard dialect; all understand it. Layapo is between Mae and Kyaka [kyc].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga 
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English

[eng] 50,000 in Papua New Guinea (1987).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Erave

[kjy] 10,000 (2000 census). Southern Highlands Province. Alternate names: Kewa South, Pole, South Kewa.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa 
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Ere

[twp] 1,030 (1980 census). Manus Province, south coast, Drabitou, Lohe, Londru, Metawari, Pau, Piterait, Taui-Undrau, Hatwara, and Loi villages. Alternate names: Londru, Nane.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Ese

[mcq] 10,000 (2000 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Oro Province, Popondetta District, southeast of the Omie [aom], east of the Barai [bbb]. Alternate names: “Managalasi” , “Managulasi”.  Dialects: Muaturaina, Chimona, Dea, Akabafa, Nami, Mesari, Averi, Afore, Minjori, Oko, Wakue, Numba, Jimuni, Karira.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic 
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Ewage-Notu

[nou] 12,900 (1988 SIL). Oro Province, Popondetta District, coast between Bakumbari and Pongani. Alternate names: Ewage, Notu.  Dialects: Ewage-Notu, Yega (Gona, Okeina, Okena).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Faita

[faj] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Biyom [bpm], Isabi [isa], Tauya [tya].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Faita  Nearly extinct.
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Faiwol

[fai] 4,500 (1987 SIL). Western Province, Tabubil District, Fly and Palmer rivers headwaters. Alternate names: Angkiyakmin, Faiwolmin, Fegolmin, Wokeimin.  Dialects: Angkiyakmin, Faiwolmin, Wopkeimin. Many dialects.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain 
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Fas

[fqs] 2,500 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Amanab and Aitape districts, Fas, Fugumui, Kilifas, Utai, Wara Mayu villages. Alternate names: Bembi.  Dialects: Eastern Fas, Western Fas. Small dialect differences.  Classification: Arai-Kwomtari, Kwomtari, Fas 
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Fasu

[faa] 1,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 750 Fasu, 300 Namuni, 150 Some. Southern Highlands Province, Nipa District, south into Gulf Province and west to Kikori River in Western Province. Alternate names: Namome.  Dialects: Some, Kaibu (Kaipu), Namome (Namumi, Namuni).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West Kutubu 
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Fembe

[agl] 350 (1986 SIL). Western Province, Upper Strickland River. Alternate names: Agala, Sinale.  Dialects: Most similar to Odoodee [kkc], Konai [kxw].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland 
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Finongan

[fag] 1,300 (2002 SIL). 3% monolingual. Morobe Province. Alternate names: Finungwa, Finungwan.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap 
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Fiwaga

[fiw] 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Southern Highlands Province, northeast of Tama. Alternate names: Fimaga, Fiwage.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Kutubu 
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Foi

[foi] 2,800 (1980 UBS). South Highlands Province, east and south of Lake Kutubu and Mubi River. Alternate names: Foe, Mubi River.  Dialects: Ifigi, Kafa, Kutubu, Mubi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Kutubu 
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Foia Foia

[ffi] 180 (2000 census). Western Province, Middle Fly District, Bibisa village. Alternate names: Foiafoia, Foyafoya.  Dialects: Similar to Minanibai [mcv]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Minanibai, 52% with Mubami [tsx], 59% with Hoyahoya [hhy], 54% with Hoia Hoia [hhi].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai 
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Folopa

[ppo] 3,000 (1985 SIL). Gulf Province, Baimuru District, Kerabi Valley; Southern Highlands Province. 20 villages. Alternate names: Foraba, Podoba, Podopa, Polopa.  Dialects: Ro (Keai, Worugl), Bara (Harahui, Harahu), Sesa (Mamisa, Songu, Ibukairu), Kewah, Tebera, Aurei, Waraga, Pupitau, Boro, Suri, Siligi, Sopese, Keba-Wopasali. Most similar to Dadibi [mps].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Teberan 
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Forak

[frq] 280 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District, west and inland from Seure on the coast, Mamgak village. Dialects: Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], Yagomi [ygm].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup 
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Fore

[for] 17,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Dialects: Pamusa (South Fore), North Central Fore.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Fore 
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Fuyug

[fuy] 14,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 14,000. Central Province, Goilala District, Owen Stanley Range. Alternate names: Fuyuge, Fuyughe, Mafufu.  Dialects: Central Udab, Northeast Fuyug, North-South Udab, West Fuyug. Lexical similarity: 35% with Biangai [big], 33% with Kunimaipa [kup], 29% with Weri [wer], 27% with Tauade [ttd].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Fuyug 
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Gabutamon

[gav] 330 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, west southwest of Gali. Dialects: Related to Yupna, Ma [mjn].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna 
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Gadsup

[gaj] 22,100 (2000 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Dialects: Oyana (Oiyana), Gadsup. Related to Ontenu [ont].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa 
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Gaikundi

[gbf] 1,200 (2000). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sepik Plains south of Maprik, east of Pagwi. Alternate names: Gaikunti.  Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Gaina

[gcn] 1,410 (1971 T. Dutton). 1,000 in Bareji, 130 in Gaina. Oro Province, next to Baruga [bjz], Iwuji village area. Dialects: Bareji (Baredji), Gaina. Lexical similarity: 61% with Doghoro [dgx] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Gal

[gap] 340 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Gogol River. Alternate names: Baimak, Weim.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Galeya

[gar] 3,410 (2000). 30% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, northeast coast, Fergusson Island. Alternate names: Garea.  Dialects: Wadalei, Gameta, Urua, Basima, Sebutuia, Garea (Galeya). Lexical similarity: 61% with Boselewa [bwf] (most similar). Galeya and Basima dialects have 80% lexical similarity.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau 
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Ganglau

[ggl] 470 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Yabong [ybo], Dumun [dui], Saep [spd].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon 
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Gants

[gao] 1,880 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Alternate names: Gaj.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon 
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Gapapaiwa

[pwg] 3,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Milne Bay Province, Makamaka District, Cape Vogel south coast, inland on Ruaba River. Alternate names: Gapa, Manape, Paiwa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 73% with Ghayavi [bmk] (Boanaki dialect most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are 
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Garus

[gyb] 2,650 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay. Alternate names: Ate, Em, Kurupi.  Dialects: Related to Bagupi [bpi], Matepi [mqe], Mosimo [mqv], Murupi [mqw], Rapting [rpt], Samosa [swm], Silopi [xsp].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Gedaged

[gdd] 6,950 (2003 SIL). Madang Province; Sek, Yabob, Karkar, and Bagabag islands, Astrolabe Bay, Madang coastal villages area. Alternate names: Bel, Graged, Mitebog, Ragetta, Rio, Sek, Star, Star-Ragetta, Szeak-Bagili, Tiara.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern 
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Gende

[gaf] 8,000 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Bundi District near Bundi. Alternate names: Bundi, Gendeka, Gene.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gende 
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Ghayavi

[bmk] 2,810 (2000). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Weraura Local Government Area, north coast Goodenough Bay, Uga west to Wadobuna east, including Rabaraba. Alternate names: Boanai, Boanaki, Boianaki, Boinaki, Galavi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 76% with Gapapaiwa [pwg] (most similar), 46% with Wedau [wed].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are 
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Gimi

[gim] 22,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Alternate names: Labogai.  Dialects: East Gimi, West Gimi (Gouno).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Fore 
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Gimi

[gip] 3,700 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest coast and inland, Johanna River to Anu River. Alternate names: Loko.  Dialects: Dialect continuum with Aiklep [mwg] and Apalik [apo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe 
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Ginuman

[gnm] 1,440 (2000). Milne Bay Province, Mt. Simpson to Naraka coast. Alternate names: Dime.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 42% with Kanasi (Dombosaina village) [soq].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan 
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Girawa

[bbr] 4,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, Ramu District. Alternate names: Bagasin, Begasin, Begesin.  Dialects: Related to Munit [mtc], Kein [bmh].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kokon 
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Gitua

[ggt] 760 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,085. Morobe Province, Huon Peninsula north coast. Alternate names: Gitoa, Kelana.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam 
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Gizrra

[tof] 1,050 (2002 SIL). Western Province, South Fly Area, north-northeast of Torres Strait island of Saibai, Kulalae, Ngomtono, Barnap, Kupere, Waidoro villages. Alternate names: Gizra.  Dialects: Western Gizra, Waidoro.  Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly 
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Gnau

[gnu] 1,330 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Namblo Census Division, northwest of Maimai. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Gobasi

[goi] 1,100 (1993 ECP). Western Province. Alternate names: Nomad.  Dialects: Gobasi (Bibo), Honibo, Oibae (Oiba). Related to Samo [smq], Kubo [jko].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland 
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Gogodala

[ggw] 22,000 (2004 SIL). Western Province, north bank of Fly River, Aramia River. 301 villages. Alternate names: Gogodara.  Dialects: Most similar to Ari [aac].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala 
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Golin

[gvf] 51,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Simbu Province, Gumine District. Alternate names: Gollum, Gumine.  Dialects: Yuri, Kia (Kiari), Golin, Keri, Marigl. Similar to Dom [doa].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu 
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Gorakor

[goc] 2,740 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, including Yanta. Dialects: Yanta. In Mumeng language chain. Some intelligibility with Patep [ptp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng 
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Gorovu

[grq] 15 (2000 S. Wurm), decreasing. East Sepik Province, Ramu River, Bangapela village. Alternate names: Gorova, Yerani.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass  Nearly extinct.
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Guhu-Samane

[ghs] 12,800 (2000 census). Morobe Province, Lae District, some in Oro Province, Kanoma and Sidema villages northward. Alternate names: Bia, Mid-Waria, Muri, Paiawa, Tahari.  Dialects: Sekare. Lexical similarity: 18% with Suena [sue] and Zia [zia] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Guhu-Samane 
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Gumalu

[gmu] 580 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Sihan [snr], Amele [aey], Isebe [igo], Bau [bbd], Panim [pnr].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum 
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Gumawana

[gvs] 470 (2000 census), increasing. 10% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Esa’ala District, Amphlett Islands; about 25 islands north of Fergusson. 7 villages. Alternate names: Domdom, Gumasi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 48% with Galeya [gar], 47% with Dobu [dob] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Gumawana 
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Guntai

[gnt] 350 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District. Dialects: Kan.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda 
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Guramalum

[grz] 3 (1987 SIL). New Ireland Province. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai  Nearly extinct.
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Guriaso

[grx] 160 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Classification: Arai-Kwomtari, Kwomtari, Kwomtari, Guriaso 
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Gusan

[gsn] 790 (1980 census). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap 
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Guya

[gka] 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, 20 km west of Seure. Alternate names: Guiarak, Guyarak.  Dialects: Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Gwahatike [dah], Yagomi [ygm].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup 
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Gwahatike

[dah] 1,570 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District, several villages south of Saidor. Alternate names: Dahating, Gwatike.  Dialects: Gwahatike, Gwahamere, Gora, Gwapti. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Yagomi [ygm].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup 
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Gweda

[grw] 26 (2001 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Maramatana Local Council Area, Garuwahi village. Alternate names: Garuwahi.  Dialects: Most similar to Haigwai [hgw]. Lexical similarity: 71% with Wa’ema [wag], 69% with Taupota [tpa], 68% with Naura dialect of Haigwai [hgw], 67% with Kapulika dialect of Haigwai, 64% with Topura dialect of Wedau [wed], 63% with Tawala [tbo], 53% with Wedau.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota  Nearly extinct.
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Hahon

[hah] 1,300 (Lincoln 1977). Northwest Bougainville Province. Alternate names: Hanon.  Dialects: Kurur, Ratsua, Aravia.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz 
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Haigwai

[hgw] 1,060 (2000 census). 15% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Huhu Local Government Area, inland from Milne Bay head between Hagita and Waigani estates and mountains west. Alternate names: Garaghwaghi, Kapulika, Naura.  Dialects: Naura, Kapulika. The Naura dialect and Gweda [grw] agree that Gweda is most similar to Haigwai. Lexical similarity: 68% between the Naura dialect and Gweda, 65% between Kapulika dialect and Taupota [tpa], 52% with Wedau [wed], 48% with Maiwala [mum].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota 
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Hakö

[hao] 5,000 (1982 SIL). Bougainville Province, North Bougainville District, northeast Buka Island. Alternate names: Haku.  Dialects: Lontes.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia 
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Halia

[hla] 20,000 (1994 SIL). Bougainville Province, North Bougainville District, east coast of Buka Island and of Selau Peninsula, Cartaret Islands. Alternate names: Tasi.  Dialects: Hanahan, Hangan, Touloun (Tulon, Tulun), Selau. Tryon says distinct from Takuu [nho] (Nukuria) and Luangiua (Ontong Java [ojv]) in Solomon Islands. Users have contact with Luangiua.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia 
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Hamtai

[hmt] 45,000 (1998 Tom Palmer). Gulf Province, Kukipi District, Tauri River inland east to Ladedamu River; Morobe Province, Lae District, Kodama Range into Bulolo-Watut divide, to Mt. Grosse and north to Mt. Taylor. Alternate names: Hamday, Kamea, Kapau, “Kukukuku” , Watut.  Dialects: Wenta, Howi, Pmasa’a, Hamtai, Kaintiba.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan 
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Hanga Hundi

[wos] 7,200 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Pagwi District. 16 villages. Alternate names: Kwasengen, West Wosera.  Dialects: Similar to Ambulas [abt].  Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Haruai

[tmd] 2,000 (2000 SIL). Many monolingual. Madang Province, southwest corner, southwest Mid-Ramu (Simbai) District, west Schrader Range, west of the Kobon. Alternate names: Harway, Taman, Waibuk, Wiyau, Wiyaw, Wovan.  Dialects: North Waibuk (Hamil), Central Waibuk (Mambar), South Waibuk (Arama). Related to Pinai-Hagahai [pnn], though not inherently intelligible. Word taboo practiced, but does not seem to impede intelligibility among related language varieties. Lexical similarity: 37% with Pinai-Hagahai, 35% with Kobon [kpw].  Classification: Piawi 
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Hermit

[llf] Extinct. Western Manus Province, Hermit Islands, Luf and Maron islands. Alternate names: Agomes, Luf, Maron.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West 
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Hewa

[ham] 2,150 (1986 SIL). 1,600 monolinguals. 290 in Yoliapi (1982 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, Koroba District; Enga Province, Lagaip District; Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Lagaip River area, mountains north of Duna [duc] and Ipili [ipi] areas, south of Lagaip River northward to Central Range high peaks (political and physical boundary between Sepik region and the highlands). Alternate names: Sisimin.  Dialects: Upper Lagaip, Central Lagaip, Lower Lagaip, North Hewa.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio 
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Heyo

[auk] 2,710 (2000 census). 10% monolinguals. Sandaun Province, Nuku District. Alternate names: Arima, Arinua, Arinwa, Lolopani, Ruruhip, Wan Wan.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Yahang [rhp].  Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper 
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Hoia Hoia

[hhi] 80 (2000 census). Western Province, Middle Fly District, Ukusi-Koparamio village. Alternate names: Ukusi-Koparamio Hoyahoya, Hoiahoia.  Dialects: Similar to Minanibai [mcv]. Lexical similarity: 52% with Minanibai, 47% with Mubami [tsx], 54% with Foia Foia [ffi], 71% with Hoyahoya [hhy].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai 
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Hote

[hot] 2,240 (2000 census). 1,909 Hote and 328 Misim. Morobe Province, Lae District, Francisco River area. Alternate names: Ho’tei, Hotec, Malei.  Dialects: Hote, Misim (Musim, Ombalei). Lexical similarity: 90% between Hote and Misim dialects; 70% with Yamap [ymp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote 
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Hoyahoya

[hhy] 95 (2000 census). Western Province, Middle Fly District, Matakaia village. Alternate names: Hoya Hoya, Matakaia Hoyahoya, Hoiahoia.  Dialects: Similar to Minanibai [mcv]. Lexical similarity: 52% with Minanibai, 52% with Mubami [tsx], 59% with Foia Foia [ffi], 71% with Hoia Hoia [hhi].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai 
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Hula

[hul] 3,240 (2000 census). Central Province, Hood Peninsula. Alternate names: Vula’a.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara 
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Huli

[hui] 70,000 (1991 UBS). Southern Highlands Province, Tari area; Enga Province south fringe. Alternate names: Huli-Hulidana, Huri.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Huli 
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Humene

[huf] 940 (2000). Central Province, Sogeri Plateau lower plateau; adjacent plain between Gaire and Kapakapa villages. Manugoro is principal village. Dialects: Lagume (Lakume, Manukolu), Humene. Lexical similarity: 65%–74% with Kwale [ksj] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Kwalean 
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Hunjara-Kaina Ke

[hkk] 8,770 (2000 census). Oro Province, Kokoda Rural LLG. Dialects: Hunjara, Kaina Ke. Similar to Orokaiva [okv].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Iamalele

[yml] 2,800 (1987 SIL). 40% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Bwaidoka District, west Fergusson Island. Alternate names: Yamalele.  Dialects: Didigavu, Gwabegwabe, Masimasi, Central Yamalele, Southern Yamalele. Lexical similarity: 64% with Koluwawa [klx] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga 
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Iatmul

[ian] 8,440 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti and Angoram districts, Sepik River, Tambunum to Japandai, Kundungay area villages. Alternate names: Big Sepik, Gepma Kwudi, Gepma Kwundi, Ngepma Kwundi.  Dialects: Nyaura, Palimbei.  Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Idi

[idi] 1,610 (2000 census). 774 Idi, 834 Tame. Western Province, northwest of Agob [kit], east of Nambo [ncm]. Alternate names: Diblaeg, Dimisi, Dimsisi, Tame.  Dialects: Tame, Idi. One end of a dialect subgroup stretching to Agob. Distinct from but similar to Agob.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Pahoturi 
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Iduna

[viv] 6,000 (1984 SIL). Milne Bay Province, north coast, Goodenough Island, Esa’ala District. Alternate names: Vivigana, Vivigani.  Dialects: Waibula, Ufaufa, Idakamenai, Belebele, Kalauna, Goiala, Ufufu, Central Vivigani. Lexical similarity: 72% with Bwaidoka [bwd] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga 
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Igana

[igg] 200 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, west of Josephstaal. Dialects: Related to Romkun [rmk], Breri [brq], Kominimung [xoi], Akrukay [afi], Inapang [mzu].  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan 
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Ikobi-Mena

[meb] 650 (1977 SIL). 350 Ikobi, 300 Mena (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Gulf Province, south of Kibirowi Island, upper Omati and Middle Turama rivers areas. Alternate names: Ikobi Kairi, Kasere, Kopo-Monia, Meni, Wailemi.  Dialects: Meni, Mena, Pimuru, Gorau, Utabi. Most similar is Omati [mgx] (Mini). Wurm and Hattori treat Ikobi and Mena dialects as separate languages.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Turama-Omatian 
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Imbongu

[imo] 42,500 (2000 census). 15% monolingual. Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu District. Alternate names: Au, Aua, Awa, Ibo Ugu, Imbo Ungo, Imbo Ungu, Imbonggo.  Dialects: Awa (Aua, Au).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Kaugel 
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Imonda

[imn] 250 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, near Imonda airstrip. Classification: Border, Waris 
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Inapang

[mzu] 1,830 (2007). East Sepik Province; Madang Province, Josephstaal subdistrict. Alternate names: Midsivindi.  Dialects: Itutang.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan 
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Inoke-Yate

[ino] 10,000 (1993 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Alternate names: Inoke, Jate, Yate.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria 
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Ipiko

[ipo] 200 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, up Pie River beyond Baimuri, Ipiko, and Pahemuba villages. Alternate names: Epai, Higa, Ipikoi.  Dialects: Somewhat related to Minanibai [mcv] and Mubami [tsx].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Ipiko 
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Ipili

[ipi] 26,000 (2002 SIL), increasing. 50% monolinguals. Enga Province, Porgera patrol post area. Alternate names: Ipili-Paiela, Ipili-Payala.  Dialects: Porgera, Paiela, Tipinini. Paiela and Pogera have minor lexical differences; Tipinini is like Enga [enq].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga 
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Isabi

[isa] 280 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Alternate names: Maruhia.  Dialects: Related languages: Biyom [bpm], Tauya [tya], Faita [faj].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Isabi 
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Isaka

[ksi] 420 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province near coast. Alternate names: Krisa.  Dialects: Related to Rawo [rwa], Puari [pux], Warapu [wra].  Classification: Sko, Krisa 
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Isebe

[igo] 910 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, Gum River north bank, west of Madang Town. Alternate names: Balahaim.  Dialects: Isebe, Urukun, Mirkuk. Related to Sihan [snr], Gumalu [gmu], Amele [aey], Bau [bbd], Panim [pnr].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum 
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Iteri

[itr] 480 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Rocky Peak Mountains. Alternate names: Alowiemino, Iyo, Laro, Rocky Peak, Yinibu.  Classification: Arai-Kwomtari, Arai (Left May) 
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Iwal

[kbm] 1,500 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Lae District, between Wau and Salamaua. Alternate names: Kaiwa.  Dialects: Similar to Yabem [jae].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Kaiwa 
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Iwam

[iwm] 3,000 (1998 NTM). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sepik River, Mowi and Iyomempwi villages; May River villages and surrounding lakes and tributaries to Premai village. Alternate names: May River.  Dialects: Similar to Amal [aad] and Sepik Iwam [iws].  Classification: Sepik, Iwam 
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Iwam, Sepik

[iws] 2,500 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sepik River villages, lagoons north and south, Iniok village downstream to Leonard Schultze River. Alternate names: Yawenian.  Classification: Sepik, Iwam 
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Iyo

[nca] 6,900 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Finisterre Mountains south slopes along Nahu (Gusap) and Bure rivers; north slopes along Kipuro (Yangdala) and Kasang (Mot) rivers. Alternate names: Bure, Nabu, Naho, Nahu, Ndo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 54% with Rawa [rwo].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot 
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Jilim

[jil] 650 (2000 census). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Kwato [kop], Ogea [eri], Uya [usu], Duduela [duk], Rerau [rea], Yangulam [ynl].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru 
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Juwal

[mwb] 1,440 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, south southeast of Wewak. Alternate names: Mambe, Muniwara, Tumara, Tumaru.  Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg 
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Kaiep

[kbw] 300 (1993 SIL). Ethnic population: 430. East Sepik Province, Kep, Taul coast area. Alternate names: Samap.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru 
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Kairak

[ckr] 750 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Classification: East New Britain, Baining 
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Kairiru

[kxa] 3,200 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Wewak District, Kairiru, Yuo, Karesau islands, mainland coastal villages between Cape Karawop and Cape Samein; north and west Mushu Island. Dialects: Similar to Kaiep [kbw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru 
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Kakabai

[kqf] 900 (2003 SIL). 15% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Weraura and Suau Local Government Areas, inland villages, Papua eastern tip. Alternate names: Igora.  Dialects: North Kakabai, South Kakabai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Kakabai 
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Kaki Ae

[tbd] 510 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,275. Gulf Province, southeast of Kerema. Alternate names: Lorabada, Lou, Raepa Tati, Tate, Tati.  Dialects: Different from Torricelli [tei] (Lou) in East Sepik Province or Lou [loj] in Manus Province.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Tate 
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Kalam

[kmh] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Ramu District; Western Highlands Province, Hagen District, Jimi River north side into Kaironk Valley. Alternate names: Aforo, Karam.  Dialects: Related to Gants [gao], Kobon [kpw].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon 
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Kalou

[ywa] 1,370 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Sepik Iwam area, northwest of Hauna. Alternate names: Yawa.  Classification: Sepik, Tama 
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Kaluli

[bco] 2,500 (1994 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, into Western Province, Mt. Bosavi north and west slopes. Alternate names: Bosavi.  Dialects: Ologo, Kaluli, Walulu, Kugenesi. No significant dialect differences. Similar to but different from Kasua [khs].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi 
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Kamano

[kbq] 63,200 (2000 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Henganofi districts. Alternate names: Kamano-Kafe.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria 
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Kamasa

[klp] 7 (2003 SIL). Morobe Province, Katsiong census unit area. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan  Nearly extinct.
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Kamasau

[kms] 960 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Wewak District. Segi in Kamasau, Tring, and Wau villages; Hagi in Kenyari; Ghini in Yibab, Wandomi, and Wobu. Alternate names: Wand Tuan.  Dialects: Hagi, Segi, Ghini.  Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg 
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Kambaira

[kyy] 140 (1971 S. Wurm). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Kambaira 
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Kamula

[xla] 800 (1998 SIL). Western Province, Wawoi Falls area, Kamiyami (Wasapea) villages, Aramia River area, Keseki and Somokopa. Alternate names: Wawoi.  Dialects: Pare [ppt] is most similar (Reesink 1976).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kamula 
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Kanasi

[soq] 2,200 (1998 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, from Mt. Thomson, both sides main range river valleys. Alternate names: Sona.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 51% with Ginuman [gnm] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan 
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Kandas

[kqw] 480 (1972 Beaumont). Ethnic population: 685. New Ireland Province, southwest coast, Watpi, King, and Kait villages. Alternate names: King.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai 
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Kandawo

[gam] 4,000 (2003 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District, upper Jimi headwaters, Mt. Wilhelm slopes. Alternate names: Narake.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Jimi 
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Kanggape

[igm] 1,080 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, west of Tanggu. Alternate names: Igom.  Dialects: Related to Andarum [aod], Tanggu [tgu], Tanguat [tbs].  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu 
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Kaniet

[ktk] Extinct. Manus Province, Anchorite and Kaniet Islands, western. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western 
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Kaningra

[knr] 300 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 75. East Sepik Province, Blackwater River just south of Kuvanmas Lake. 2 villages. Alternate names: Kaningara.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Alamblak 
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Kaninuwa

[wat] 360 (2001). 10% monolingual. Ethnic population: 514. Milne Bay Province, Sivesive village, another small one; 2 villages north of Goodenough Island. Alternate names: Kaokao, Wataluma.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 51% with Iduna [viv] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are 
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Kanite

[kmu] 8,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Dialects: Similar to Keyagana [kyg], Inoke-Yate [ino].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria 
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Kapin

[tbx] 2,350 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, Bulolo District, hills southwest of Mumeng, 5 villages; Wau and Lae settlements. Alternate names: Katumene, Sambio, Taiak, Tayek.  Dialects: Kapin, Garawa (Gawawa). May be part of the Mumeng language chain.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang 
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Kapriman

[dju] 1,640 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Blackwater River and Korosameri River. 6 villages. Alternate names: Mugumute, Wasare.  Dialects: Kapriman, Karambit.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo 
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Kara

[leu] 5,000 (1998 SIL). New Ireland Province, north New Ireland District. Alternate names: Lemakot, Lemusmus.  Dialects: East Kara, West Kara, Lauan-Nonopai, Ngavalus-Lossuk, Luburua.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik 
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Karami

[xar] Extinct. Gulf Province, Western Province border, northeast of Tao-Suamoto. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai 
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Karawa

[xrw] 63 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, Pulwa (Bulawa) village. Alternate names: Bulawa.  Dialects: Related to Awtuw [kmn], Pouye [bye]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Pouye.  Classification: Sepik, Ram  Nearly extinct.
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Kare

[kmf] 380 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kare 
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Karkar-Yuri

[yuj] 1,140 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, Papua, Indonesia border area. Alternate names: Karkar, Yuri.  Dialects: North Central Yuri, Auia-Tarauwi, Usari.  Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern 
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Karnai

[bbv] 920 (2000 D. Tryon). Morobe Province, 4 mainland villages near Wasu, 3 on southwest Umboi Island; Madang Province, east of Saidor, 2 or 3 villages. Alternate names: “Barim”.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap 
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Karore

[xkx] 550 (2003 SIL). West New Britain Province, Kandrian District, between Andru and Johanna rivers. Dialects: Dialect chain with Kaulong [pss].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua 
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Kasua

[khs] 600 (1990 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, east and south of Mt. Bosavi; Western Province, northeast corner; Gulf Province, northwest corner. 6 villages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi 
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Kâte

[kmg] 6,130 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province, Finschhafen District. Alternate names: Kai, Kâte Dong.  Dialects: Magobineng (Bamota), Wamora (Wamola), Wemo, Parec, Wana. Dialects listed may be separate languages.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern 
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Kaulong

[pss] 4,000 (2000 D. Tryon). West New Britain Province, Kandrian District, southwest hinterland. Alternate names: Kowlong, Pasismanua.  Dialects: Kaulong, East Inland Kaulong. A dialect subgroup. Miu [mpo], Aighon [aix], and Senseng [ssz] treated as dialects by Wurm and Hattori.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua 
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Kawacha

[kcb] 12 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 40. Morobe Province, east of Ampale, Katsiong census unit area. Alternate names: Kawatsa.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan  Nearly extinct.
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Kayan

[kct] 600 (2004 PBT). Madang Province, Bogia District, coast east of Ramu River. 1 village. Alternate names: Kaian.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Watam 
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Keapara

[khz] 19,400 (2000 D. Tryon). Central Province, coast east of Hood Peninsula to Lalaura west of Cape Rodney. 3 villages. Alternate names: Keopara, Kerepunu.  Dialects: Babaga, Kalo, Keapara (Keopara), Aroma (Arona, Aloma, Galoma), Maopa, Wanigela, Kapari, Lalaura. Dialect continuum to Hula [hul].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara 
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Kein

[bmh] 1,750 (2000 census). Madang Province, Trans-Gogol District. Alternate names: Bemal.  Dialects: Related to Girawa [bbr], Munit [mtc].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kokon 
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Kela

[kcl] 2,150 (1980 census). Morobe Province, Huon Gulf south coast, between Salamaua and Kui, Paiawa River. 10 villages. Alternate names: Gela, Kelana, Laukanu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North 
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Kele

[sbc] 600 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, south coast inland, Buyang, Droia, Kawaliap, Koruniat, Tingau. Alternate names: Gele’.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Kenati

[gat] 950 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Wonenara District, Wonenara area. 3 villages. Alternate names: Aziana, Ganati, Kenathi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu 
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Keoru-Ahia

[xeu] 5,970 (2000 census). Keoru: 5071, Ahia: 706, Pairi: 194. Gulf Province, west of Kerema, Purari River mouth east to Bairu River. Alternate names: Ahia, Ahiave, Haura, Haura Haela, Horo, Houro, Hovoiroro, Hovoyo, Ke’oru, Keuro, Keuru, Kouri, Lavau, Lower Ahia, O’o Moko, Pairi, Velepa.  Dialects: Keoru, Pairi, Ahia (Aheave).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Western 
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Kerewo

[kxz] 2,200 (1975 Wurm). Gulf Province, Omati River west bank, east and inland to Samoa village. Alternate names: Kerewa, Kerewa-Goari.  Dialects: Gibario (Goaribari).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian 
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Kesawai

[xes] 770 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Kesawi, Koromu, Namuya.  Dialects: Related to Sinsauru [snz], Asas [asd], Sausi [ssj], Dumpu [wtf].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia 
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Kewa, East

[kjs] 45,000 (2000 census). Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu and Kagua districts. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa 
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Kewa, West

[kew] 45,000 (2000 census). Southern Highlands Province, Kagua and Mendi districts. Alternate names: Pasuma.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa 
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Keyagana

[kyg] 12,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa and Henganofi districts. Alternate names: Ke’yagana, Keiagana, Keigana.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria 
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Khehek

[tlx] 1,600 (1991 SIL). Manus Province, Soparibeu District, Ndrehet (the center), Levei, Bucho villages. Alternate names: Levei-Drehet, Levei-Ndrehet.  Dialects: Levei (Lebei, Lebej), Drehet (Khehek, Chehek, Chechek), Bucho. In the Levei area a dialect is closely related the Bucho dialect in the south is spoken. Distinct from Tulu-Bohuai [rak].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West 
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Kibiri

[prm] 1,100 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, Kikori District, near Aird Hills, Kikori River tributaries, Tipeowo, Doibo, Paile, Babaguina, Ero, Wowa villages. Alternate names: Polome, Porome.  Dialects: Aird Hills (Kibiri), Porome. Unrelated to other Gulf Province languages.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian 
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Kilivila

[kij] 20,000 (2000 D. Tryon). 60% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Trobriand Islands. Alternate names: Kiriwina.  Dialects: Kitava, Vakuta, Sinaketa. Various dialects. Lexical similarity: 68% with Muyuw [myw]. Kitava Island has 80% lexical similarity.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila 
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Kilmeri

[kih] 1,970 (2004 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,823 (2004 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District near Ossima. 15 villages. Alternate names: Kilmera.  Dialects: Western Kilmeri (Isi), Eastern Kilmeri (Ossima).  Classification: Border, Bewani 
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Kinalakna

[kco] 220 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Kire

[geb] 2,420 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, lower Ramu, Garati village area. Alternate names: Gire, Giri, Kire-Puire.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Mikarew 
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Kis

[kis] 220 (2000 D. Tryon). East Sepik Province, south southeast of Samap, inland from the coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam 
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Kiwai, Northeast

[kiw] 4,400 (1986 W. Foley). 1,300 in Kope, 700 in Gibaio, 1,700 in Urama, 700 in Arigibi. Gulf Province. Alternate names: Gibaio.  Dialects: Gibaio, Kope (Gope, Era River), Urama, Arigibi (Anigibi).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian 
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Kiwai, Southern

[kjd] 9,700 (1975 Wurm). 3,800 in Coast, 1,000 in Daru, 4,500 in Island Kiwai, 400 in Doumori. Western Province, Fly River Delta. Dialects: Doumori, Coast Kiwai, Southern Coast Kiwai, Daru Kiwai, Eastern Kiwai, Island Kiwai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian 
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Kobol

[kgu] 720 (2000 census). Madang Province. Alternate names: Koguman.  Dialects: Related to Pal [abw].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Omosan 
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Kobon

[kpw] 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Madang Province, Middle Ramu District; Western Highlands Province, Kaironk River, lower Jimi River area north of Mt. Hagen. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon 
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Koiali, Mountain

[kpx] 4,000 (2000 census). 50% monolingual. Central Province, Port Moresby District, north of Koita, Koiari, and Barai. One village is Efogi. Alternate names: Mountain Koiari.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 50%–57% with Grass Koiari [kbk] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric 
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Koiari, Grass

[kbk] 1,700 (2000 S. Wurm). 10% monolingual. Central Province, east of Port Moresby to coast. Alternate names: Koiari.  Dialects: Hogeri, Lahada, Omani. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Koitabu [kqi] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric 
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Koitabu

[kqi] 2,700 (2000 S. Wurm). Central Province, Port Moresby area. Alternate names: Koita.  Dialects: West Koita, East Koita. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Grass Koiari [kbk] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric 
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Koiwat

[kxt] 800 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, between Munguma and Nagam rivers, Koiwat, Kamangaui, Seraba, and Paiambit villages. Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Kol

[kol] 4,000 (1991 SIL). 1,300 Sui, Kol (1987). East New Britain Province, Pomio District, Open Bay inland to Waterfall Bay coast. Most on island’s south side. Alternate names: Kola, Kole.  Dialects: Sui, Kol (Nakgaktai).  Classification: Language isolate 
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Kolom

[klm] 470 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau 
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Koluwawa

[klx] 900 (1998 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Fergusson Island northwest tip. Alternate names: Kalokalo, Kao Kao.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Iamalele (most similar) [yml], and then Bwaidoka [bwd].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga 
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Komba

[kpf] 15,000 (2000 SIL). Morobe Province, Kabwum District. Selepet [spl] northwest, Timbe [tim] west, Saruwaget Mountains south, Cromwell Mountains east. Alternate names: Neng Den.  Dialects: East Komba, Central Komba, West Central Komba, Border Komba, West Komba.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Kombio

[xbi] 2,970 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Small groups in West New Britain, Vanimo and Lae areas and a few elsewhere. Approximately 2,400 live in Kombio area. East Sepik Province, Dreikikir District, Torricelli Mountains. 31 villages. Alternate names: Endangen.  Dialects: North Kombio (Mwi), West-Central Kombio (Wampukuamp), South Kombio (Yanimoi), East Kombio (Wampurun). Mwi dialect is more distinct from the others and users have some difficulty in comprehension between dialects. 7–8 central villages each have unique idiolect versions.  Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio 
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Kominimung

[xoi] 320 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Romkun [rmk], Breri [brq], Igana [igg], Akrukay [afi], Inapang [mzu].  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan 
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Konai

[kxw] 600 (1991 SIL). Western Province, Upper Strickland River west side. Alternate names: Mirapmin.  Dialects: Most similar to Odoodee [kkc] and Fembe [agl].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland 
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Konomala

[koa] 800 (1985 SIL). New Ireland Province, southeast coast. 8 villages. Dialects: Laket, Konomala.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai 
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Kopar

[xop] 540 (2000 census). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Murik [mtf].  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Nor 
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Korafe-Yegha

[kpr] 3,630 (2003 SIL). A very few old women are monolingual. 2,755 in Korafe and 850 in Yegha live in the area. Oro Province, Tufi District, Cape Nelson headlands (fjord system). Alternate names: Kailikaili, Kaire, Korafe, Korape, Korafi, Kwarafe.  Dialects: Korafe, Yegha (Yega, Mokorua). Yega dialect is distinct from Yega dialect of Ewage-Notu [nou]. Gaina [gcn] may also be a dialect. Lexical similarity: 43% with Baruga [bjz], 61% with Ewage dialect of Ewage Notu [nou] (Dutton 1971).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Korak

[koz] 510 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Kowan 
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Koro

[kxr] 400 (1983 SIL). Manus Province. Dialects: Similar to, and possibly intelligible with, Papitalai [pat].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Koromira

[kqj] 2,500 (2007 SIL). 2,300 Koromira and 200 Koianu. Bougainville Province, Kieta District, central mountains and southeast coast, between Metong and Luluai rivers. Dialects: Koromira, Koianu.  Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi 
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Kosena

[kze] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Okapa districts. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa 
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Kovai

[kqb] 5,000 (2007 SIL). Morobe Province, Siassi District, Umboi or Rooke Island. 13 villages. Alternate names: Kobai, Kowai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Kovai 
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Kove

[kvc] 6,750 (1994 SIL). West New Britain Province, northwest coast. 24 villages, most on small coastal islands. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai 
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Kowaki

[xow] 25 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Mawak [mjj], Pamosu [hih], Musar [mmi], Wanambre [wnb].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran  Nearly extinct.
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Kuanua

[ksd] 61,000 (1991 SIL). East New Britain Province, Rabaul District, Gazelle Peninsula. Alternate names: Blanche Bay, Gunantuna, New Britain Language, Tinata Tuna, Tolai, Tuna.  Dialects: Vunadidir, Rapitok, Raluana, Vanumami, Livuan, Matupit, Kokopo, Kabakada, Nodup, Kininanggunan, Rakunei, Rebar, Watom, Masawa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai 
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Kube

[kgf] 6,000 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Dindiu District, east Mongi River headwaters, lower Kua River valley east slopes, Foris River valley. Alternate names: Hube, Mongi.  Dialects: Kurungtufu, Yoangen (Yoanggeng).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern 
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Kubo

[jko] 1,000. Western Province, Lake Murray District, Upper Strickland Census District, north half, east of Strickland River, north of the Samo. Dialects: Related to Samo [smq], Gobasi [goi].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland 
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Kumalu

[ksl] 2,580 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Alternate names: Kumara.  Dialects: A member of Mumeng language subgroup. Some intelligibility with Dambi [dac].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng 
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Kuman

[kue] 115,000 (2000 census), increasing. Few monolinguals. Simbu Province, northern third, into Western Highlands Province, Minj SubProvince. Alternate names: Chimbu, Simbu.  Dialects: Kuman, Nagane (Genagane, Genogane), Yongomugi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu 
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Kumukio

[kuo] 550 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province. Alternate names: Kumokio.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Kuni

[kse] 2,400 (2000 census). Central Province, Kairuku and southwest Goilala districts, towards Port Moresby, south of Mekeo. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 52% with Lala [nrz], 47% with Mekeo [mek], 40% with Waima [rro], the most similar varieties.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear 
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Kuni-Boazi

[kvg] 4,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. Western Province, Lake Murray District. Alternate names: Boadji, Boazi, Bwadji, Kuini, Kuni.  Dialects: Kuni, Wamak, Khoamak, Sengeze, Ingias, Aewa. Related to Zimakani [zik] and Marind [mrz].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Boazi 
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Kunimaipa

[kup] 8,200 (2000 census). 1,429 in Morobe Province (1978 K. McElhanon). Central Province, northern Goilala District; Morobe Province, Wau District. Dialects: Karuama, Kâte (Hate), Gajili (Gajila, Gazili, Hazili).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa 
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Kunja

[pep] 290 (2003 SIL). Western Province, extreme southwest. Alternate names: Lower Morehead, Peremka, Thundai-Kanza.  Dialects: Gambadi, Semariji, Kánchá, Kámá. Related to Kanum, Arammba [stk], Rema [bow], Wara [tci].  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda 
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Kuot

[kto] 2,400 (2002 SIL). New Ireland Province, northwest coast. 9 villages. Alternate names: Kuat, Panaras.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Kurti

[ktm] 3,000 (2002 SIL). Manus Province, north central coast. Alternate names: Kuruti, Kuruti-Pare, Ndrugul.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Kwanga

[kwj] 10,000 (2001 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, beyond west boundary; Makru-Klaplei Division, Nuku District; Saundaun Province, east of Mehek. 40 villages. Alternate names: Gawanga, Kawanga.  Dialects: Apos, Bongos (Bongomamsi, Bongomaise, Nambi), Tau (Kubiwat), Wasambu, Yubanakor (Daina). 2 main dialects, 5 subdialects.  Classification: Sepik, Nukuma 
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Kwato

[kop] 780 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Alternate names: Waupe.  Dialects: Related to Uya [usu], Ogea [eri], Duduela [duk], Rerau [rea], Jilim [jil], Yangulam [ynl].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru 
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Kwoma

[kmo] 3,000 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sepik and Sanchi river areas. 12 villages. Alternate names: Washkuk.  Dialects: Kwoma (Washkuk), Nukuma.  Classification: Sepik, Nukuma 
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Kwomtari

[kwo] 600 (1998 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, north of Namia. 6 villages. Dialects: West Central Kwomtari, Ekos-Yenabi-Maragin.  Classification: Arai-Kwomtari, Kwomtari, Kwomtari, Nuclear Kwomtari 
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Kyaka

[kyc] 15,400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Enga Province. Alternate names: Baiyer, Enga-Kyaka.  Dialects: Yaramanda.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga 
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Kyenele

[kql] 1,250 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Yuat River, Giling village. Alternate names: Bulang, Kenen Birang, Kenying, Keñele, Keyele, Kyenying-Barang, Miyak.  Classification: Yuat 
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Label

[lbb] 140 (1979 census). New Ireland Province, southwest coast, Nasko and Tampakar villages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai 
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Labu

[lbu] 1,600 (1989 SIL). 800 in Labu-Butu. Morobe Province, Markham River coast area. 3 communities: Labu-Butu, Labu-Miti, and Labu-Tali. Alternate names: Hapa, Labo, Labu’.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Labu 
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Laeko-Libuat

[lkl] 720 (2003 SIL). 518 in area and 20 outside. Sandaun Province, Torricelli Mountains, west of Mehek. Alternate names: Laeko, Laeko-Limbuat.  Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Laeko-Libuat 
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Lala

[nrz] 3,000 (2007 SIL). Central Province, between Kuni and Waima, just inland from the coast, south of Yule Island. Alternate names: Ala’ala, Nala, Nara, Pokau.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 57% with Toura [don] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear 
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Lamogai

[lmg] 3,650 (1980 Johnston). West New Britain Province, northwest interior, 2 regions on south coast. Alternate names: Akiuru, Mulakaino.  Dialects: Ibanga (Ivanga), Pulie-Rauto (Rauto, Roto), Lomogai, Musen, Paret.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling 
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Langam

[lnm] 420 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Mongol [mgt], Yaul [yla].  Classification: Mongol-Langam 
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Laua

[luf] 1 (1987 SIL). Central Province, north and west of Laua. Alternate names: Labu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan  Nearly extinct.
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Lavatbura-Lamusong

[lbv] 1,310 (1972 Beaumont). New Ireland Province, central. Alternate names: Lamasong.  Dialects: Ugana, Kontu, Lavatbura, Lamusong (Lamasong).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak 
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Lawunuia

[tgi] 550 (Lincoln 1977). Bougainville Province, Piva River. Alternate names: Nagarege, Nagarige, Naghareghe, Piva.  Dialects: Amun.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni 
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Leipon

[lek] 650 (Lincoln 1977). Manus Province, Lolo village, Hauwai, Ndrilo, and Pityilu islands. Alternate names: Pitilu, Pityilu.  Dialects: Pafulu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Lele

[lle] 1,300 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Manus Island. Alternate names: Elu-Kara, Hai, Lele Hai, Manus, Moanus, Usiai.  Dialects: Sabon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Lembena

[leq] 1,760 (2000 census), increasing. 750 monolinguals. Enga Province, northeast corner, into East Sepik Province. 8 villages: Eleme, Yambaitoko, Saut Isataele, Mosope, Itopeno, Pipitesa, Madawesa (Olimolo), and Mokosele. Alternate names: Lembena Pii, Nanimba Pii, Uyalipa Pii, Wapi Pii.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga 
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Lemio

[lei] 270 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, several coastal villages near Saidor. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau 
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Lenkau

[ler] 250 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 250 (2000 D. Tryon). Manus Province, southwest Rambutyo Island. 1 village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands 
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Lesing-Gelimi

[let] 930 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, east end, south coast, Kaskas Island, Amio village (Lesing dialect), Atui Island, and Paronga village (Gelimi). Alternate names: Atui, Lesing-Atui.  Dialects: Lesing, Gelimi (Atui).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe 
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Lihir

[lih] 12,600 (2000 census), increasing. New Ireland Province, Lihir Island, and 3 smaller islands. Alternate names: Lir.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar 
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Likum

[lib] 80 (2000 S. Wurm). Manus Province. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West 
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Lilau

[lll] 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, Bogia District. Alternate names: Ngaimbom.  Classification: Torricelli, Monumbo 
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Loniu

[los] 460 (Lincoln 1977). Ethnic population: 660. Manus Province, Lolak and Loniu villages, Los Negros Island south coast. Alternate names: Lonio, Ndroku.  Dialects: Similar to Bipi [biq].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu 
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Lote

[uvl] 5,500 (2004 SIL). 700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,000. East New Britain Province, Pomio District, southeast coast and inland near Cape Dampier. Alternate names: Uvol.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen 
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Lou

[loj] 1,000 (1994 SIL). Manus Province, Lou Island. Dialects: Rei. 3 very similar dialects. Rei is dominant.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands 
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Lusi

[khl] 2,000 (1994 SIL). West New Britain Province, northwest coast. Alternate names: Kaliai.  Dialects: Kaliai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai 
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Ma

[mjn] 570 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 570. Madang Province, southwest of Saidor, Mibu and Tariknan villages, area hamlets. Alternate names: Mawam, Mebu.  Dialects: Mina. Related to Nankina [nnk] (Jerung).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna 
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Madak

[mmx] 3,000 (1985 UBS). New Ireland Province, Central New Ireland District. Alternate names: Lelet, Mandak.  Dialects: Danu, Katingan, Lelet, Mesi, Malom.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak 
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Madi

[grg] 380 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Gira.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot 
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Magori

[zgr] 100 (2000 S. Wurm). Central Province, Table Bay east end, Bailebo-Tavenei River lower reaches. Dialects: Most similar to Suau [swp]. Vocabulary heavily influenced by Mailu [mgu]. Ouma [oum], Yoba [yob], and Bina [bmn] are separate languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric  Nearly extinct.
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Maia

[sks] 4,350 (2000 census). 3,712 in main dialect, 634 in southern. Madang Province, Bogia District, mainland south of Manam Island. Alternate names: Banar, Maya, Pila, Saki, Suaro, Turutap, Yakiba.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran 
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Maiadomu

[mzz] 730 (2000 census), increasing. Milne Bay Province, Bwaidoka District, East Fergusson Island. Alternate names: Maiadom.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with Iamalele [yml], 35% with Boselewa [bwf], 32% with Gameta dialect of Galeya [gar], 20% with Dobu [dob].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga 
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Maiani

[tnh] 3,040 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District. Alternate names: Banara, Miani South, Tani, Wagimuda.  Dialects: Different from Mala [ped] (Banara).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran 
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Mailu

[mgu] 8,500 (2000 census). Central Province, south coast, Gadaisu to Baramata, Table Bay and Toulon Island. Alternate names: Magi.  Dialects: Domara, Darava, Asiaoro, Derebai, Island, Geagea, Borebo, Ilai, Baibara. Related to Laua [luf].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan 
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Maisin

[mbq] 2,610 (2000 census). 600 in Kosirava dialect. Oro Province, Collingwood Bay and Kosirava swamp coast villages. Alternate names: Maisan.  Dialects: Kosirava, Maisin. No closely related languages. Lexical similarity: 73% among dialects, but little interaction between users.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Maisin 
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Maiwa

[mti] 1,400 (1998 SIL), increasing. Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, north slopes and foothills of Meneao Range eastward from Mt. Tantam Valley of Ruaba River; reaches Moi Biri Bay coast, into Oro Province. Dialects: Maiwa, Oren, Manigara, Gairen, Gwareta. Lexical similarity: 41% with Mapena [mnm].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan 
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Maiwala

[mum] 2,450 (2000 census). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Huhu Local Government Area, Milne Bay head. Dialects: Maiwala is major dialect. Lexical similarity: 67% with Tawala [tbo] at Diwala village (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota 
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Makayam

[aup] 1,300 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Fly Estuary, Sumogi Island Adulu, Lewada, Suame villages. Giribam in Janor village. Alternate names: Adulu, Atura, Aturu, Makaeyam, Tirio.  Dialects: Giribam. Lexical similarity: 79% with Giribam dialect, 52% with Bitur [mcc], 47% with Wara [tci], 32% with Baramu [bmz].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio 
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Makolkol

[zmh] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Classification: East New Britain, Baining 
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Mala

[ped] 1,390 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District. Alternate names: Alam, Banara, Dagoi, Dagui, Hatzfeldhafen, Malala, Pai, Pay.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran 
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Malalamai

[mmt] 550 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Rai coast east and west of Saidor; Malalamai and Bonga villages. Alternate names: Bonga.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai 
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Malas

[mkr] 650 (2003 SIL). Madang Province near Tokain. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Isumrud 
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Malasanga

[mqz] 900 (2000 census). Morobe Province, north coast, 2 villages: Malasanga and Singorokai. Dialects: Malasanga, Singorokai. Separate from Karnai [bbv].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap 
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Male

[mdc] 970 (2000 census). Madang Province, coast south of Bom. Alternate names: Koliku.  Dialects: Related to Bongu [bpu] and Anjam [boj].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim 
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Maleu-Kilenge

[mgl] 5,200 (1983 census). 1,561 Kilenge. West New Britain Province, Talasea District west tip. Alternate names: Idne.  Dialects: Maleu, Kilenge (Kaitarolea). Lexical similarity: 93% between Maleu and Kilenge dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Kilenge-Maleu 
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Mali

[gcc] 2,200 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, east Gazelle Peninsula. Alternate names: Gaktai.  Dialects: Distinct within Baining ethnic group. 2 dialects.  Classification: East New Britain, Baining 
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Malinguat

[sic] 9,000 (1986 PBT). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, Sepik Plains south of Maprik. Alternate names: Kwaruwikwundi, Sepik Plains, Tshuosh, Tshwosh.  Dialects: Koiwat, Burui, Chimbian, Central Sawos, Eastern Sawos. Similar to Gaikundi [gbf].  Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Malol

[mbk] 3,330. Sandaun Province, Malol village area. Alternate names: Malolo, Malon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau 
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Mamaa

[mhf] 200 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province. 1 village. Alternate names: Mama.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap 
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Mamusi

[kdf] 6,000 (1985 SIL). East New Britain Province, southeast coast, inland on Melkoi and Torlu rivers. Alternate names: Kakuna.  Dialects: Mamusi, Melkoi (Kakuna).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen 
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Manam

[mva] 7,950 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, Manam and Boesa islands, Sepa and Wanami on adjacent mainland. Alternate names: Manum.  Dialects: Wanami. Related to Wogeo [woc], Biem [bmc], Sepa [spe], Medebur [mjm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam 
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Manambu

[mle] 2,110 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti SubProvince, Sepik River area. 3 villages. Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Mandara

[tbf] 2,500 (1985 SIL). New Ireland Province, Simberi, Tatau, Tabar, another island. Alternate names: Madara, Tabar.  Dialects: Simberi, Tatau, Tabar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik 
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Manem

[jet] 500 in Papua New Guinea (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 900. Sandaun Province. 1 village: Skotiau. Also in Indonesia (Papua). Alternate names: Jeti, Skofro, Wembi, Yeti.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 50% with Waris [wrs].  Classification: Border, Waris 
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Mangseng

[mbh] 2,500 (1998 SIL). West New Britain and East New Britain provinces, area south of Commodore Bay (north coast, West New Britain), to Montagu Harbor (south coast of East New Britain) east, to Fulleborn Harbor (south coast of West New Britain) west. Alternate names: Mangsing, Masegi, Maseki.  Dialects: Umua, Marapu. Arawe chain isolate, most closely related to West Arawe.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe 
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Mape

[mlh] 5,120 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province, Mape River area. Dialects: Naga, Mape, Nigac, Fukac. Similar to Kâte [kmg], the lingua franca.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern 
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Mapena

[mnm] 270 (1973 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Mt. Gwoira area. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 51% with Daga [dgz] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan 
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Maramba

[myd] 840 (2000 census). East Sepik Province. Classification: Yuat 
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Marangis

[wax] 590 (2003 SIL). Madang and East Sepik provinces, 3 coastal villages between Ramu and Sepik rivers, near Ramu mouth. Alternate names: Watam.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Watam 
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Mari

[hob] 810 (2000 D. Tryon). Madang Province, upper Ramu River. 4 villages. Alternate names: Hop.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain 
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Mari

[mbx] 80 (2000 S. Wurm). East Sepik Province, near Mari Lake and on Salumei River. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo 
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Maria

[mds] 1,350 (2000 census). Central Province, Marshall Lagoon to Mt. Brown; remote. Alternate names: Manubara.  Dialects: Didigaru, Maria, Gebi, Oibu, Amota, Imila, Uderi. Lexical similarity: 63% with Doromu-Koki [kqc] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Manubaran 
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Marik

[dad] 3,500 (1998 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District, Gogol River area inland. 10 villages. Alternate names: Dami, Ham.  Dialects: Northern Marik, Western Marik, Southern Marik.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Southern 
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Maring

[mbw] 11,000 (1998 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District; a few in Madang Province in the Bismarck Range. 18 villages. Alternate names: Mareng, Yoadabe-Watoare.  Dialects: Central Maring, Eastern Maring, Timbunki, Tsuwenki, Karamba, Kambegl. Central dialect understood by all other dialect speakers.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Jimi 
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Matepi

[mqe] 280 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Rapting [rpt], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Murupi [mqw], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Mosimo [mqv], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], Wagi [fad].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Mato

[met] 580 (2002 SIL). Morobe Province, Huon Peninsula north coast, near Morobe-Madang provincial border, Uruwa River plain west of Wasu, north of Sapmanga, southeast of Saidor. Alternate names: Nenaya, Nengaya, Nineia.  Dialects: Bonea, Nanaya. Lexical similarity: 67% with Ronji [roe], 39% with Karnai [bbv] and Arop-Lokep [apr], 38% with Malasanga [mqz], 29% with Sio [xsi], 23% with Mutu [tuc].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya 
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Matukar

[mjk] 430 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 434. Madang Province, north of Madang town, Matukar area. Dialects: Related to Gedaged [gdd].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern 
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Mauwake

[mhl] 2,390 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, east of Malala High School. Alternate names: Mawake, Ulingan.  Dialects: Related to Moere [mvq].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kumilan 
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Mawak

[mjj] 25 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province, southwest of Mauwake. Dialects: Related to Pamosu [hih].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran  Nearly extinct.
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Mawan

[mcz] 470 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Madang Province, Gogol River area. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Mbore

[gai] 2,090 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, Ramu River area and east. 8 villages. Alternate names: Borei, Gamai, Gamei, Mborei.  Dialects: Boroi, Borewar, Botbot.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Borei 
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Mbula

[mna] 4,500 (2007 SIL). Morobe Province, Siassi District, east Umboi Island, 6 villages; Sakar Island, 1 village. Alternate names: Kaimanga, Mangaaba, Mangaava, Mangaawa, Mangap-Mbula, Mangap.  Dialects: Mbula (Central Mbula), Northern Mbula, Gauru, Sakar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mangap-Mbula 
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Medebur

[mjm] 510 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 514. Madang Province, coast just north of Sikor at Medebur. Dialects: Related to Wogeo [woc], Biem [bmc], Sepa [spe], Manam [mva].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam 
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Mehek

[nux] 6,300 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Nuku District, Makru-Klaplei area, Torricelli Mountains lower foothills, southeast of Siliput. 9 large villages. Alternate names: Driafleisuma, Indinogosima, Me’ek, Nuku.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 51% with Pahi [lgt] (most similar).  Classification: Sepik, Tama 
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Mekeo

[mek] 19,000 (2003 SIL). Central Province, Kaiyuku District, inland, west boundray is Waima, east the Kuni and Kunimaipa; into Gulf Province. Alternate names: Mekeo-Kovio.  Dialects: East Mekeo, West Mekeo, North Mekeo, Northwest Mekeo (Kovio), Ninikani. Dialects inherently mutually unintelligible, except North and West Mekeo, but most Mekeo are reportedly familiar with neighboring dialects. Kovio not contiguous and is peripheral to other dialects. Kovio has 81% between Kovio dialect and West Mekeo and North Mekeo dialects, 79% with East Mekeo, 87% between East and West Mekeo dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear 
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Mekmek

[mvk] 1,400 (2000 census). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Changriwa [cga], Kyenele [kql], Biwat [bwm], Bun [buv].  Classification: Yuat 
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Melpa

[med] 130,000 (1991 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District. Alternate names: Hagen, Medlpa.  Dialects: Tembagla (Temboka). Only slight dialect differences.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Melpa 
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Mende

[sim] 5,700 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Nuku District, Torricelli range hills sloping south toward Sepik River plains south. 15 villages east of Mehek. Alternate names: Seim.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 49%–nearest Kwanga [kwj] village.  Classification: Sepik, Nukuma 
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Mengen

[mee] 8,400 (1982 SIL). East New Britain Province, Pomio District, Jacquinot Bay and inland. 20 villages. Alternate names: Poeng.  Dialects: North Coast Mengen (Maeng), South Coast Mengen (Poeng), Bush Mengen (Inland Mengen, Longueinga). Some linguists separate Poeng (Mengen 1, Bush Mengen) and Maeng (Mengen 2, Orford, Maenge) into 2 languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen 
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Menya

[mcr] 20,000 (1998 SIL). Morobe Province, Menyamya District, north Tauri River area and tributaries. Alternate names: Menyama, Menye.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan 
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Meramera

[mxm] 2,000 (1995 SIL). 5% monolingual. West New Britain Province, Bialla District, northwest coast. Alternate names: Melamela, Ubili.  Dialects: Lolobao.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez 
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Mesem

[mci] 4,000 (1997 census). Morobe Province, Lae District, Boana subdistrict, interior north of Lae. 14 villages. Alternate names: Mese, Momalili, Momolili.  Dialects: West-Central Mese, East Mese, Momolili, Zezagi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Mian

[mpt] 1,400 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District, north Fak (Hak) and Aki River valleys, August River headwaters and upper May River, Nenebil, Suganga, Blimo, and Wagarabai. Alternate names: Mianmin.  Dialects: Upper August River, Usage, Mianmin. Lexical similarity: 75%–83% among dialects.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain 
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Miani

[pla] 1,500 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, inland. Alternate names: Bonaputa-Mopu, Miani North, Tani.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran 
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Migabac

[mpp] 1,300 (1990 SIL). Morobe Province, Masaweng River area. 5 villages divided among 3 dialects: Hudewa and Waringai; Ago; Butengka and Kapawa. Alternate names: Migaba’.  Dialects: North Migabac, South Migabac, Central Migabac.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern 
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Minanibai

[mcv] 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Gulf Province, Ikobi Kairi and Goaribari Census districts, near Omati River mouth. Alternate names: Eme-Eme, Hei, Pepeha.  Dialects: Related to Mubami [tsx].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai 
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Minaveha

[mvn] 2,300 (2007 SIL). 600 monolinguals. Milne Bay Province, Bolubolu District, southwest tip of Fergusson Island near Mapamoiwa station. Alternate names: Kukuya, Minavega.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Iamalele [yml](most similar), Koluwawa [klx], and Bwaidoka [bwd].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota 
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Mindiri

[mpn] 80 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province, Rai Coast area west of Saidor. 1 village. Dialects: Similar to Awad Bing [bcu] and Wab [wab].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe 
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Minidien

[wii] 100 (2004 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,186 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, north of Beli, Laeko-Libuat. Alternate names: Miniden, Wiakei, Wiaki.  Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Wiaki 
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Minigir

[vmg] 600 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,500. East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula, Ataliklikun Bay, Lungalunga village. Alternate names: Lungalunga.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava 
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Misima-Paneati

[mpx] 18,000 (2002 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Milne Bay Province, Misima District, Misima Island, Panaieti, and all the islands of the Calvados Chain. 32 villages. Alternate names: Misiman, Panaeati, Panaieti, Panayeti, Paneate, Paneyate.  Dialects: Nasikwabw (Tokunu), Tewatewa. Lexical similarity: 33% with Nimowa [nmw] and Dobu [dob] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Misima 
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Miu

[mpo] 500 (1998 NTM). Ethnic population: 1,250. West New Britain Province, Gimi Rauto District, southwest interior. Alternate names: Myu.  Dialects: Separate from Kaulong [pss].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua 
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Moere

[mvq] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Mauwake [mhl], Bepour [bie].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kumilan  Nearly extinct.
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Moikodi

[mkp] 570 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 50% are monolingual. Oro Province, Owen Stanley Range north slopes, Mt. Brown area down to Komi west of Foasi Creek. Alternate names: Doriri.  Dialects: Several dialects. Lexical similarity: 65%–73% with Aneme Wake [aby] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban 
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Mokerang

[mft] 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Manus Province, north Los Negros Island, Ndrilo Island. Alternate names: Mokareng, Mokoreng.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu 
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Molima

[mox] 4,010 (2000 census), increasing. Milne Bay Province, ’Esa’ala District, west Fergusson Island, Salakahadil, Ebadidi, and Ni’ubuo area inland villages, central west coast (Fagululu), central south coast (Molima). Alternate names: Ebadidi, Fagululu, Morima, Salakahadi.  Dialects: Tola’ai, Ai’alu, Tosila’ai. Tola’ai most prominant; Ai’alu mainly spoken in Fagululu; Tosila’ai is from remote mountains and shifting to Tola’ai. Lexical similarity: 56% with Dobu [dob].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga 
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Momare

[msz] 650 (2003 SIL). Morobe Province, north of Masaweng River. Alternate names: Momale, Momole.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern 
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Mondropolon

[npn] 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Manus Province, north central coast, Manus Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West 
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Mongol

[mgt] 340 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Langam [lnm], Yaul [yla].  Classification: Mongol-Langam 
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Monumbo

[mxk] 410 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District. Classification: Torricelli, Monumbo 
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Morawa

[mze] 1,100 (2000 census). Central Province, south coast around Cloudy Bay. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Binahari [bxz] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan 
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Moresada

[msx] 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Alternate names: Murisapa, Murusapa-Sarewa.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Pomoikan 
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Morigi

[mdb] 700 (1975 Wurm). Gulf Province, Lower Turama Census Division. Alternate names: Dabura, Morigi Island, Turama River Kiwai, Wariadai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian 
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Mosimo

[mqv] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Rapting[rpt], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Murupi [mqw], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Matepi [mqe], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], Wagi [fad].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman  Nearly extinct.
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Motu

[meu] 39,000 (2008 A. Taylor). Central Province, Port Moresby area, coastal villages from Manumanu, Galley Reach, to GabaGaba (Kapakapa). Alternate names: Pure Motu, True Motu.  Dialects: Western Motu, Eastern Motu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara 
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Motu, Hiri

[hmo] Very few L1 speakers (1992 T. Dutton). Central Province, Port Moresby area; some in Oro, Central, Gulf, Milne Bay, Western provinces. Alternate names: Hiri, Pidgin Motu, Police Motu.  Dialects: Austronesian Hiri Motu, Papuan Hiri Motu. Linguistically a pidginization of Motu [meu]. Influenced by English, Tok Pisin [tpi], and Polynesian languages. Cannot understand Motu [meu] because of phonological and grammatical differences. Lexical similarity: 90% with Motu.  Classification: Pidgin, Motu based 
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Mouk-Aria

[mwh] 630 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southeast coast to northwest coast, Kandrian District. Alternate names: Aria-Mouk.  Dialects: Mouk (Mok), Tourai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling 
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Mubami

[tsx] 1,730 (2002 SIL). Western Province, northeast corner, middle and lower Wawoi River and Guavi River, Aramia River: Parieme, Sogae (Sipsi), Diwami, Kubeai, Waliho (Warehou), Paueme, Ugu (Kala) villages. Alternate names: Dausame, Ta, Tao-Suamato, Tao-Suame.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 42% with Minanibai [mcv] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai 
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Muduapa

[wiv] 8,800 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, Talasea District, Vitu and Mudua islands off northwest coast. Alternate names: Vitu, Witu.  Dialects: 2 or 3 dialects. Mudua Island variety may be a separate language. Related to Bali [ban].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu 
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Mufian

[aoj] 11,000 (1998 SIL). 6,000 Filifita (1999 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, Torricelli Mountains, west of Maprik. 36 villages. Alternate names: Muhian, Muhiang, Southern Arapesh.  Dialects: Supari, Balif, Filifita (Ilahita), Iwam-Nagalemb, Nagipaem.  Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh 
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Mulaha

[mfw] Extinct. Central Province, just southeast of Gaile on the coast. Dialects: Mulaha, Iaibu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Kwalean 
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Mum

[kqa] 3,290 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Alternate names: Katiati.  Dialects: Related to Sileibi [sbq].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Sikan 
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Mungkip

[mpv] 12 (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: 670 (2006 SIL survey). Morobe Province, Mungkip and Kasuka villages. Alternate names: Munkip.  Dialects: Most similar to Uri [uvh].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap  Nearly extinct.
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Munit

[mtc] 910 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Trans-Gogol District. Dialects: Related to Girawa [bbr], Kein [bmh].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kokon 
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Muratayak

[asx] 810 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Rai Coast District, east of Saidor. Alternate names: Asat, Murataik.  Dialects: Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], Yagomi [ygm].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup 
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Murik

[mtf] 1,000 (2000 S. Wurm). East Sepik Province, Angoram District, coast west of Sepik River mouth. Alternate names: Nor, Nor-Murik Lakes.  Dialects: Related to Kopar [xop].  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Nor 
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Murupi

[mqw] 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Rapting [rpt], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Mosimo [mqv], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Matepi [mqe], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], Wagi [fad].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Musak

[mmq] 360 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, Ramu River west of Astrolabe Bay. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Emuan 
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Musar

[mmi] 680 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, inland, west of Tokain. Alternate names: Aregerek.  Dialects: Related languages: Kowaki [xow], Mawak [mjj], Pamosu [hih], Wanambre [wnb].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran 
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Musom

[msu] 200 (2000 S. Wurm). Morobe Province, Busu River tributary. Alternate names: Misatik.  Dialects: A member of the Azera [adz] dialect subgroup.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu 
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Mussau-Emira

[emi] 5,000 (2003 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 5,000, including 3,500 in the traditional area (2000 J. Brownie SIL). New Ireland Province, St. Matthias Islands (Mussau and Emira), northwest of Kavieng; Port Moresby, Lae, Goroka, Madang. Alternate names: Emira-Mussau, Musao, Musau-Emira, Mussau.  Dialects: Emira, Western Mussau, Southern Mussau, Eastern Mussau.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, St. Matthias 
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Mutu

[tuc] 3,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,500. Morobe Province, south of Umboi Island, 6 Siassi Islands: Mandok, Malai, Aronai, Tuam, Mutu Malau, and Aramot; Yaga village on Umboi Island. Alternate names: Saveeng, Sisi, Tuam-Mutu, Tuam, Tuom.  Dialects: Mutu, Tuam, Malai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam 
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Muyuw

[myw] 6,000 (1998). 3,000 monolinguals. 1,000 to 1,200 Iwa. Milne Bay Province, Losuia District, Woodlark Island. Alternate names: Egum, Murua, Murua Dukwayasi, Murua Kaulae, Muruwa, Muyu, Muyua, Muyuwa.  Dialects: Yanaba, Lougaw (Gawa), Wamwan, Nawyem, Iwa. Iwa dialect is halfway between Muyuw [myw] and Kilivila [kij]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kilivila.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila 
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Mwatebu

[mwa] 120 (2000 S. Wurm). 10% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Normanby Island, north central coast. 1 village. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 49% with Dobu [dob] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau 
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Naasioi

[nas] 20,000 (2007 SIL). Bougainville Province, Kieta District, central mountains, southeast coast. Alternate names: Aunge, Kieta, Nasioi.  Dialects: Pirung (Naasioi), Kongara, Orami (Guava), Pakia-Sideronsi.  Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi 
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Nabak

[naf] 16,000 (1994 SIL). Morobe Province, Lae District, Busu River east headwaters. 52 villages, 30 settlements. Alternate names: Naba, Napa, Wain.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Nabi

[mty] 620 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. 3 villages. Alternate names: Metan, Mitang, Nambieb.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei 
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Nafi

[srf] 160 (Holzknecht 1988). Morobe Province, Busu River. Alternate names: Sirak.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu 
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Nai

[bio] 600 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, next to and southeast of the Angor [agg]. 3 large villages. Alternate names: Amini, Biaka.  Classification: Arai-Kwomtari, Kwomtari, Nuclear Kwomtari 
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Nakama

[nib] 980 (1980 census). Morobe Province, rugged terrain west and northwest of Boana Saruwaged Range south side. 6 villages. Dialects: North Nakama, South Nakama.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap 
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Nakanai

[nak] 13,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). West New Britain Province, Hoskins District, northwest coast. 42 villages. Alternate names: Nakonai.  Dialects: Losa (Loso, Auka), Bileki (Lakalai, Muku, Mamuga), Vere (Vele, Tarobi), Ubae (Babata), Maututu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez 
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Nake

[nbk] 170 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, northwest of Madang. Alternate names: Ale.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Nakwi

[nax] 280 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, south of Ama [amm], Nakwi-Amasu, Augot (Mumupra, Sari), Tiki, Uwau villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Nimo [niw].  Classification: Left May 
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Nali

[nss] 1,800 (1982 SIL). 200 Okro (2000 D. Tryon). Ethnic population: 4,500 in Okro. Manus Province, southeast Manus Island, and southwest coast, northwest of Titan. Alternate names: Yiru.  Dialects: Okro. Tryon 2000 makes Okro (200) and Nali (1,800) separate languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Nalik

[nal] 5,140 (1990 census). New Ireland Province, north central, Kavieng on the east coast, 14 villages; west coast, 3 villages. Some in urban areas. Alternate names: Fesoa, Fessoa, Lugagon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik 
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Nama

[nmx] 1,200 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, east of Morehead, Ngaraita, Mata and Daraia villages. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu 
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Namat

[nkm] 180 (2000 census). Western Province, Morehead District, Mibini village south of Morehead. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu 
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Nambo

[ncm] 710 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, 4 villages (Arufe, Gubam, Bebdeben, Pongariki and Derideri) bordering Idi [idi] and Nen [nqn]. Alternate names: Arufe, Nambu, Namna.  Dialects: Nambo, Namna (Nama). Namna dialect, in Pongariki and Derideri, being replaced by Nambo dialect. Children in Derideri learn only Nambo.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu 
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Namia

[nnm] 6,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,200. Sandaun Province, Yellow River District, 19 villages; East Sepik Province, Panewai village; areas are called Edwaki, Ameni, Wiyari, Lawo, Pabei, Iwane. Alternate names: Edawapi, Lujere, Namie, Nemia, Yellow River.  Dialects: Most similar to Ak [akq] and Awun [aww]. Lexical similarity: 13% with Abau [aau], 12% with May River Iwam [iwm].  Classification: Sepik, Yellow River 
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Namiae

[nvm] 1,200 (2003 SIL). Inland Oro Province, Afore District, Managalas Plateau, Kuae, Kokoro, Tahama, Sorefuna, Ubuvara villages. Alternate names: Namiai.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic 
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Namo

[mxw] 380 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, south coast and inland, Mari and Tais villages. Alternate names: Dorro, Mari.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu 
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Nankina

[nnk] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District, upper Nankina River valley. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna 
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Nanubae

[afk] 1,270 (2005). East Sepik Province, Karawari Rural District; Imanmeri, Wambrumas and Yamandim villages. Alternate names: Kapagmai, Aunda.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61%–74% with Tapei [afp].  Classification: Arafundi 
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Narak

[nac] 6,220 (2000 census). 70% monolingual. Western Highlands Province, Hagen District, middle Jimi near Tabibuga. Alternate names: Ganja.  Dialects: Similar to Maring [mbw], North Wahgi [whg], Kandawo [gam]. No significant dialect differences.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Jimi 
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Nauna

[ncn] 100 (2000 S. Wurm). Manus Province, Nauna Island. 1 village. Alternate names: Naune.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands 
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Nawaru

[nwr] 190 (1990 SIL). Oro Province, upper Musa River valley area. Alternate names: Sirio.  Dialects: Very similar to Yareba [yrb].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban 
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Nehan

[nsn] 6,500 (2003 SIL). Bougainville Province, Nissan Island. Alternate names: Nihan, Nissan.  Dialects: Nehan, Pinipel (Pinipin). Not closely related to other languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Nehan 
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Nek

[nif] 1,500 (2002 SIL). Morobe Province, Nawaeb District, Saruwaged Range south side, rugged terrain north of Boana. 5 villages. Dialects: East Nek, West Nek. Lexical similarity: 65% with Nuk [noc], less than 60% with Nakama [nib].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap 
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Nekgini

[nkg] 430 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, west of Mot River. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot 
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Neko

[nej] 320 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, coast near Biliau. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot 
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Neme

[nex] 300 (2002 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, northeast of Morehead, Keru and Mitere villages. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu 
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Nen

[nqn] 250 (2002 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, Bimadeben village, between Nambo [ncm] and Idi [idi]. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu 
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Nend

[anh] 2,000 (1991 UBS). Madang Province, between Ramu and Sogeram rivers, Pasinkap village area. Alternate names: Angaua, Nent.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Atan 
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Nete

[net] 750 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, next to Hewa [ham]. 3 villages. Alternate names: Iniai, Malamauda, Malaumanda.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Bisorio [bir] of East Sepik.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga 
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Ngaing

[nnf] 2,020 (2000 census). Madang Province, southwest of Saidor, foothills from coast to Finisterre Range. 15 villages. Alternate names: Mailang, Sor.  Dialects: Eastern Ngaing, Central Ngaing, Western Ngaing.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot 
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Ngala

[nud] 180 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, 1 village. Alternate names: Kara, Sogap, Swagup.  Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Ngalum

[szb] 8,000 in Papua New Guinea (1981). Sandaun Province. Dialects: Ngalum, Apmisibil, Sibil.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum 
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Nii

[nii] 12,000 (1991 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District. Alternate names: Ek Nii.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Wahgi 
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Niksek

[gbe] 930 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, east branch of Leonhard Schultze and upper Niksek (April) rivers’ headwaters. 200 at a new settlement at Niksek airport; Sumwari. Alternate names: Meiyari, Sumwari.  Dialects: Gabiano (Kabiano), Meiyari (“Paka” ), Setiali.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio 
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Nimi

[nis] 1,380 (1980 census). Morobe Province, upper Erap River, south of Saruwaged Range. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap 
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Nimo

[niw] 350 (1998 NTM). East Sepik Province, southeast of Ama [amm]. Nimo (Boyemo), Wasuai, Didipas (including Uburu site), Yuwaitri (moved from Aimi site to Wanawo site), Fowiom, Uwawi, Wamwiu, Binuto, Arakau villages. Alternate names: Nimo-Wasawai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Nakwi [nax].  Classification: Arai-Kwomtari, Arai (Left May) 
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Nimoa

[nmw] 1,100 (census). 40% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Misima District, island group just west of Sud-Est. Alternate names: Nimowa.  Dialects: Panawina, Sabari, Panatinani, Western Point. Lexical similarity: 44% with Sudest [tgo] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest 
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Ningera

[nby] 150 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, east of Vanimo, north of Bewani and Ossima. Alternate names: Nagira, Negira, Ninggera.  Classification: Border, Bewani 
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Ninggerum

[nxr] 5,150 in Papua New Guinea (2000 census). 40% are monolingual. Population total all countries: 6,150. Western Province between Ok Birim and Ok Tedi rivers, east of Ok Tedi to the main road linking Kiunga and Tabubil, and north to the main mountain range. Also in Indonesia (Papua). Alternate names: Kasiwa, Kativa, Ningerum, Ninggirum, Ninggrum, Niyium, Obgwo, Tedi, Tidi.  Dialects: Kasuwa, Daupka.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland 
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Ningil

[niz] 950 (2000 census). Sandaun Province. Dialects: Related to Olo [ong], Yau [yyu], Yis [yis], Valman [van].  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Nobonob

[gaw] 5,000 (2005 census), increasing. Madang Province, Madang District. Alternate names: Butelkud-Guntabak, Garuh, Nobanob, Nobnob.  Dialects: Ari (Ati, A’i).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Nomane

[nof] 4,650 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Simbu Province. Dialects: Nomane, Kiari.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu 
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Nomu

[noh] 810 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province, Huon Peninsula north coast. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Notsi

[ncf] 1,840 (2000 census). New Ireland Province, Central New Ireland District, east coast. Alternate names: Nochi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar 
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Nuk

[noc] 1,010 (1980 census). Morobe Province, Saruwaged Range south side, rugged terrain northeast of Boana. 8 villages. Dialects: North Nuk, South Nuk.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap 
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Nukna

[klt] 850 (2003 SIL). Morobe Province, lower Timbe River valley. Alternate names: Komutu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa 
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Nukumanu

[nuq] 700 (2003 SIL). Bougainville Province, Atolls District, Nukumanu Atoll. Alternate names: Tasman.  Dialects: Tryon says distinct from Takuu [nho] (Nukuria) in Papua New Guinea and Luangiua (Ontong Java [ojv]) in Solomon Islands. Speakers have contact with Luangiua.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean 
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Nukuria

[nur] 550 (2003 SIL). Bougainville Province, Atolls District, northeast of Bougainville Island, Nukuria Atoll. Alternate names: Fead, Nahoa, Nuguria.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean 
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Numanggang

[nop] 2,260 (2000 census). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,800 to 3,000. Morobe Province, Lae District, north Nadzab. 10 villages; some in Lae, Mt. Hagen, and Rabaul. Alternate names: Boana, Kai, Manggang, Ngain, Numangan, Numangang, Sugu.  Dialects: East Numanggang, West Numanggang.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap 
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Numbami

[sij] 270 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province, Lae District. 1 coastal village. Alternate names: Siboma, Sipoma.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Numbami 
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Nyindrou

[lid] 4,200 (1998 SIL). Few monolinguals. Manus Province, Manus Island. 10 villages west coast area. Alternate names: Lindau, Lindrou, Nyada, Salien.  Dialects: Babon. Babon is in 3 southern villages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West 
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Odiai

[bhf] 240 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, north of Upper Sepik River, west of Namia. 3 villages. Yare [xkt] is north and east, Abau [aau] south and west, Biaka [bio] northwest. Alternate names: Busa, Busan, Uriai.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Odoodee

[kkc] 490 (2002 SIL). Western Province, middle Rentoul River south bank past middle Tomu River to Wawoi Falls; Lake Campbell, Hasalibi, Kalamo (Wawoi Falls) villages. Alternate names: Kalamo, Nomad, Ododei, Tomu, Tomu River.  Dialects: Most similar to Samo [smq] and Konai [kxw].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland 
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Ogea

[eri] 2,210 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay. Alternate names: Erima, Nuru.  Dialects: Related to Uya [usu], Duduela [duk], Kwato [kop], Rerau [rea], Jilim [jil], Yangulam [ynl].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru 
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Oksapmin

[opm] 8,000 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District, southwest Sepik Hill languages border. Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. Several dialects.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Oksapmin 
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Olo

[ong] 13,700 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Lumi District. 55 villages. Alternate names: Orlei.  Dialects: Payi (Pay, North Olo), Wapi (Wape, South Olo). Related to Yis [yis], Yau [yyu], Ningil [niz], Valman [van].  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Omati

[mgx] 800 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, Omati River. Gihiteri, Iba, Gibidai, Kiberi, Kamairo villages. Alternate names: Mini.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 53% with Ikobi-Mena [meb].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Turama-Omatian 
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Ömie

[aom] 800 (1993 SIL). 400 monolinguals. Oro Province, Kokoda, Upper Kumusi, and Afore districts, northwest of Managalasi, Mamama River, and Upper Kumusi Valley. Alternate names: Aomie, Upper Managalasi.  Dialects: Asapa, Zuwadza, Gora-Bomahouji, Ihuaje, Juvaje.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic 
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One, Inebu

[oin] 1,300 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 1,300. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, West Waipei Division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Inebu, Kalema, Windiple, Alkula villages. Alternate names: Aunalei, Inebu, Onele, Oni.  Dialects: Similar to Kabore One [onk], Northern One [onr], Southern One [osu], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun].  Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One 
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One, Kabore

[onk] 300 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 300. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, West Waipei Division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Abore, Sapin, Kara, Wamtip villages, Kabore Station. Alternate names: Aunalei, Kabore, Onele, Oni.  Dialects: Similar to Inebu One [oin], Northern One [onr], Southern One [osu], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun].  Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One 
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One, Kwamtim

[okk] 150 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 150. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, West Waipei Division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Kuamtim village. Alternate names: Aunalei, Kuamtim, Kwamtim, Oni.  Dialects: Similar to Kabore One [onk], Inebu One [oin], Northern One [onr], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun].  Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One 
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One, Molmo

[aun] 500 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 500 (2000). Sandaun Province. Between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, West Waipei Division, Molmo, Wisoli, Anononti, Laurela, Pusa villages. Alternate names: Aunalei, Molmo, Onele, Oni.  Dialects: North Aunalei, Central Aunalei, South Aunalei. Similar to One Kabore [onk], One Inebu [oin], One Northern [onr], One Southern [osu], One Kwamtim [okk].  Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One 
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One, Northern

[onr] 2,000 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 2,000. Sandaun Province. Between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Lumi District, West Waipei Division, Romei, Parara, Wolwale, Koiniri, Karantu villages. Alternate names: Aunalei, Onele, Oni.  Dialects: Similar to Kabore One [onk], Inebu One [oin], Southern One [osu], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun].  Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One 
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One, Southern

[osu] 200 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 200. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, West Waipei Division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Romei, Parara, Wolwale, Koiniri, Karantu villages. Alternate names: Aunalei, Onele, Oni.  Dialects: Similar to Kabore One [onk], Inebu One [oin], Northern One [onr], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun].  Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One 
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Onjob

[onj] 150 (2000 S. Wurm). Oro Province, Koreat and Naukwate villages. Alternate names: Onjab.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 30% with Maiwa [mti] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan 
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Ono

[ons] 5,500 (1993 SIL). Morobe Province, Finschhafen District. Dialects: Ziwe, Amugen.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Onobasulu

[onn] 700 (2000 SIL). 50% are monolingual. Southern Highlands Province midway between Mt. Sisa and Mt. Bosavi. Alternate names: Onabasulu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi 
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Ontenu

[ont] 3,000 (1996 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Alternate names: Ontena.  Dialects: Related to Gadsup [gaj].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa 
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Opao

[opo] 1,120 (1973 H. A. Brown). Gulf Province, near Orokolo and Keuru. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Western 
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Orokaiva

[okv] 35,000 (2000 census). Oro Province, Popondetta town area. 200 villages. Alternate names: Etija, Ehija.  Dialects: Kokoda, Hunjara, Ajeka, Etija (Sose, Sohe), Ehija (Ihane, Ifane), Harava, Aeka. Similar to Aeka [aez], Hunjara-kaina Ke [hkk].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Orokolo

[oro] 13,000 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, Purari River mouth east to Bairu River. Kerema is a main town. Alternate names: Bailala, Haira, Kaipi, Kairu-Kaura, Muro, Muru, Vailala, West Elema.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Western 
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Ouma

[oum] Extinct. Central Province, south coast around Labu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic 
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Ounge

[oue] 1,000 (2007 SIL). Southern Bougainville Province, Crown Prince Range high western slope, Asiamana River headwaters south-east to Karewong River below the copper mine. Alternate names: Dapera, Oune, Eivo 3.  Dialects: Most closely related to Naasioi [nas].  Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi 
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Owenia

[wsr] 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Eastern Highlands Province, Obura District. Alternate names: Owena, Owenda, Waijara, Waisara.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Owenia 
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Owiniga

[owi] 330 (1998 NTM). East Sepik Province, southeast of Nimo language, Yei, Amu, Inagri, Samo villages. Alternate names: Bero, Samo, Taina.  Classification: Arai-Kwomtari, Arai (Left May) 
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Oya’oya

[oyy] 370 (1990 census). Milne Bay Province, Samarai-Murua District, Bwanabwana Local Government Area, southeast tip of Papuan mainland facing China Strait. Alternate names: Daiomuni, Kuiaro, Loani, Simagahi.  Dialects: A dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 61% with Wagawaga [wgw], 46% with Saliba [sbe], 31% with Tawala [tbo], 48% with Buhutu [bxh].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic 
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Pagi

[pgi] 2,140 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, Bewani subdistrict, east and southeast of Kilmeri [kih]. 5 villages. Alternate names: Bembi, Pagei.  Dialects: Western Pagi (Bewani), Eastern Pagi (Imbinis). Related to Kilmeri and Ningera [nby].  Classification: Border, Bewani 
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Pahi

[lgt] 840 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, north into Maimai Namblo Division. Alternate names: Lugitama, Riahoma, Wansum.  Dialects: Related to Pasi [psq], Kalou [ywa], Mehek [nux], Yessan-Mayo [yss].  Classification: Sepik, Tama 
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Pak-Tong

[pkg] 970 (Lincoln 1977). Manus Province, Pak and Tong islands. Alternate names: Tong-Pak.  Dialects: Pak, Tong. 2 nearly identical dialects; Pak is larger.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Pak-Tong 
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Pal

[abw] 1,160 (2000 census). Madang Province. Alternate names: Abasakur.  Dialects: Related to Kobol [kgu].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Omosan 
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Pamosu

[hih] 1,500 (2000 SIL). Madang Province, north central, Adelbert Range. Alternate names: Hinihon.  Dialects: Related to Kowaki [xow] (nearly extinct).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran 
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Panim

[pnr] 420 (2003 SIL). Madang Province just west of Madang town. Dialects: Related to Gumalu [gmu], Sihan [snr], Isebe [igo], Bau [bbd], Amele [aey].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum 
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Papapana

[ppn] 120 (2000 S. Wurm). Bougainville Province. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Papapana 
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Papi

[ppe] 70 (2000 S. Wurm). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, Frieda River. 1 village. Alternate names: Paupe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 29% with Suarmin [seo], most similar.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Papi 
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Papitalai

[pat] 520 (Lincoln 1977). Manus Province, Naringel and Papitalai, Los Negros Island. Dialects: 3 dialects. Similar to Koro [kxr].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Parawen

[prw] 430 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Alternate names: Para.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan 
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Pare

[ppt] 2,000 (1990 UBS). Western Province. Alternate names: Akium-Pare, Pa.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Awin-Pare 
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Pasi

[psq] 360 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, southeast corner, Wan Wan Division. 3 villages. Alternate names: Besi.  Dialects: Similar to Ayi [ayq].  Classification: Sepik, Tama 
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Patep

[ptp] 1,700 (2003 SIL). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Alternate names: Ptep.  Dialects: Dengalu. In Mumeng dialect chain. Some intelligibility with Gorakor [goc] and Zenag [zeg].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng 
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Patpatar

[gfk] 7,000 (1998 SIL). New Ireland Province, Namatanai District, south central. Alternate names: Gelik, Patpari.  Dialects: Pala, Sokirik, Patpatar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai 
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Pawaia

[pwa] 4,000 (1991 SIL). Simbu Province, Karimui District; Gulf Province, Purari River near Oroi; some in Eastern Highlands Province. Alternate names: Aurama, Pavaia, Sira, Tudahwe, Yasa.  Dialects: Aurama (Turoha, Uri), Hauruha.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Pawaian 
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Paynamar

[pmr] 150 (Z’Graggen 1975). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Paynamar 
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Pei

[ppq] 50 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, Hauna and Walio (Leonhard Schultze) River. Alternate names: Pai.  Dialects: Similar to Walio [wla].  Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze, Walio  Nearly extinct.
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Pele-Ata

[ata] 2,000 (2007 SIL). West New Britain Province, Nakanai District, inland from Bongula Bay. Alternate names: Peleata, Uase, Uasi, Uasilau, Wasi.  Dialects: Pele, Ata.  Classification: Yele-West New Britain, West New Britain 
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Penchal

[pek] 550 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Rambutyo Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands 
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Petats

[pex] 2,000 (1975 SIL). Bougainville Province, Buka Passage District, Petats, Pororan, and Hitau islands off Buka Island west coast. Alternate names: Majugan.  Dialects: Hitau-Pororan, Matsungan, Sumoun. Sumoun [pex] may be a dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka 
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Piame

[pin] 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, headwaters of Niksek (April) and Walio (Leonhard Schultz) Rivers. Alternate names: Biami.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio 
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Pinai-Hagahai

[pnn] 600 (1997 SIL). Enga, Madang, Western Highlands border area; East Sepik provinces. Alternate names: Aramo, Hagahai, Miamia, Pinai, Pinaye, Wapi.  Dialects: Luya-Ginam-Mamusi, Pinai. Lexical similarity: 78% among dialects, 33% with Haruai [tmd], 19% with Kobon [kpw], 8% with Enga [enq].  Classification: Piawi 
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Piu

[pix] 100 (2000 S. Wurm). Morobe Province, upper Watut River. 1 village. Alternate names: Kuruko, Lanzog, Sanbiau.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang 
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Ponam

[ncc] 420 (Lincoln 1977). Manus Province, Ponam Island. Dialects: Similar to Andra-Hus [anx].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Pouye

[bye] 960 (2003 SIL), increasing. Sandaun Province, Lumi, East and West Wapei districts. 7 villages. Alternate names: Bouye.  Dialects: Related to Awtuw [kmn], Karawa [xrw]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Karawa.  Classification: Sepik, Ram 
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Puari

[pux] 35 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Puari coast area. Dialects: Related to Rawo [rwa], Isaka [ksi], Warapu [wra].  Classification: Sko, Krisa  Nearly extinct.
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Pulabu

[pup] 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Siroi [ssd], Arawum [awm], Kolom [klm], Lemio [lei].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau 
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Purari

[iar] 7,000 (1991 UBS). Gulf Province, between Kapaina Inlet and Orokolo [oro], Purari River. Alternate names: Evorra, Iai, Koriki, Maipua, Namau.  Dialects: Iai (Namau). Apparently unrelated to other Gulf Province languages.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Purari 
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Pyu

[pby] 100 (2000 census). Just east of Papua, Indonesia border, October River, Biake No. 2 village. Classification: Arai-Kwomtari, Kwomtari, Pyu 
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Qaqet

[byx] 6,350 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Alternate names: Baining, Kakat, Makakat, Maqaqet.  Dialects: 2 dialects.  Classification: East New Britain, Baining 
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Ramoaaina

[rai] 10,300 (2000 census), increasing. East New Britain Province, Kokopo District, Duke of York Islands. Alternate names: Duke of York, Ramuaina.  Dialects: Makada, Molot (Main Island), Aalawa (Aalawaa, Alawa, Mioko, Ulu, South Islands). Makada dialect very different, possibly not intelligible to speakers of other dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai 
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Ramopa

[kjx] 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Bougainville Province, northwest Bougainville Island, south of Rapoisi. Alternate names: Kereaka, Keriaka.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 19% with Rapoisi [kyx].  Classification: North Bougainville, Keriaka 
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Rao

[rao] 6,000 (1992 UBS). Madang Province, Keram River area, lower Ramu Valley, west of Madang town. Alternate names: Annaberg, Rao Breri.  Dialects: Li’o, Ndramini’o.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Middle Ramu 
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Rapoisi

[kyx] 3,500 (1998 SIL). Bougainville Province, northwest Bougainville Island, Kunua District. Most villages are inland. Alternate names: Konua, Kunua.  Dialects: Related to Askopan [eiv], Ramopa [kjx], Rotokas [roo].  Classification: North Bougainville, Konua 
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Rapting

[rpt] 330 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Murupi [mqw], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Mosimo [mqv], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Matepi [mqe], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], Wagi [fad].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Rawa

[rwo] 11,500 (1998 SIL). 7,000 Rawa and 4,500 Karo. Madang Province, Upper Ramu District (Rawa dialect), Rai Coast District (Karo dialect); dialects on opposite sides of Finisterre Range. Alternate names: Erawa, Erewa, Raua.  Dialects: Rawa, Karo.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot 
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Rawo

[rwa] 640 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province coast, Rawo and Leitre area. Dialects: Related to Isaka [ksi], Puari [pux], Warapu [wra].  Classification: Sko, Krisa 
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Rema

[bow] Extinct. Western Province, Morehead District. Alternate names: Bothar.  Dialects: Related to Arammba [stk], Kanum.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda 
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Rempi

[rmp] 1,590 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: A’e, Erempi, Rempin.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Rerau

[rea] 590 (2000 census). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Kwato [kop], Ogea [eri], Uya [usu], Duduela [duk], Jilim [jil], Yangulam [ynl].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru 
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Romkun

[rmk] 630 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Romkuin.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan 
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Ronji

[roe] 450 (2003 SIL). Madang and Morobe provinces (1 village in each Province), north coast of Huon Peninsula, northwest of Wasu, north-northwest of Sapmanga, southeast of Saidor. Alternate names: Gali, Roinji.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Mato [met], 46% with Karnai [bbv], 45% with Malasanga [mqz], 44% with Arop-Lokep [apr], 33% with Sio [xsi], 28% with Mutu [tuc].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya 
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Rotokas

[roo] 4,320 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Bougainville Province, Central Bougainville District, central mountains. 28 villages. Dialects: Pipipaia, Aita, Atsilima.  Classification: North Bougainville, Rotokas 
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Rumu

[klq] 1,000 (1985 UBS). Gulf Province, Kikori District, north of Kikori on the Kikori, Sirebi, and Tiviri rivers. Alternate names: Dumu, Kai-Iri, Kairi, Kibiri, Rumuwa, Tumu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kairi 
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Saep

[spd] 550 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Gowar River area, Rai coast, east of Madang. Dialects: Related to Dumun [dui].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon 
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Safeyoka

[apz] 2,390 (1980 census). Morobe Province, Kaiapit, Lae-Wamba, and Menyamya districts. Alternate names: Ambari, Ampale, Ampeeli-Wojokeso, Ampele.  Dialects: Aiewomba, Wajakes (Wocokeso).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan 
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Sakam

[skm] 510 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa 
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Saliba

[sbe] 2,500 (2007 Oetzel), increasing. Milne Bay Province, China Strait, Sariba and Rogeia islands, mainland areas across from Rogeia Island. Dialects: Saliba, Logeya. Distinct from Suau [swp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic 
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Salt-Yui

[sll] 6,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Simbu Province, Gumine District. 10 villages. Alternate names: Iui, Salt, Salt-Iui, Yui.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu 
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Sam

[snx] 780 (2000 census). Madang Province, just inland and south of Bongu, Songum, Buan, and Wongbe villages. Alternate names: Songum.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim 
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Samberigi

[ssx] 3,130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Southern Highlands Province, Lake Kutubu District, east of Erave. Alternate names: Sanaberigi, Sau.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa 
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Samo

[smq] 900 (2001 SIL). Western Province, Lake Murray District, south Upper Strickland Census District, east of Strickland River, north of Nomad. Alternate names: Daba, Nomad, Supei.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland 
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Samosa

[swm] 90 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Murupi [mqw], Wamas, [wmc] Rapting [rpt], Mosimo [mqv], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Matepi [mqe], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], Wagi [fad].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Saniyo-Hiyewe

[sny] 1,300 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Wogamus River basin foothills. Saniyo in Pukapuki, Sio, Hanasi, Salunapi, Malapute’e villages; Hiyowe in Maposi village. Dialects: Saniyo (Sanio), Hiyowe (Hiowe). Related to Niksek, Meiyari dialect [gbe] “Paka”.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio 
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Saposa

[sps] 1,400 (1998 SIL). Bougainville Province, Buka District, island chain south of Buka Island off northwest coast of Bougainville. Dialects: Taiof, Saposa (Fa Saposa).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz 
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Sarasira

[zsa] 600 (2000 census). Morobe Province, upper Markham Valley, southeast side of Leron River. Alternate names: Sirasira.  Dialects: Related to Sukurum [zsu], Mari [hob] and Wampur [waz] (the “Mountain” subgroup of Upper Markham languages), and Adzera [azr] (the other Upper Markham language).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain 
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Saruga

[sra] 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Sauk

[skc] 600 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap 
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Sausi

[ssj] 1,450 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Uya.  Dialects: Related to Sinsauru [snz], Asas [asd], Kesawai [xes], Dumpu [wtf].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia 
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Seimat

[ssg] 1,000 (1992 SIL). Western Manus Province, Ninigo and Anchorite Islands. Alternate names: Ninigo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western 
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Selepet

[spl] 7,000 (1988 SIL). Morobe Province, Kabwum District, Pumune and Kiari river valleys. Alternate names: Selepe.  Dialects: North Selepet, South Selepet.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Sene

[sej] 10 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
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Sengo

[spk] 520 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, west-northwest of Pagwi, Sengo village. Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Sengseng

[ssz] 1,750 (2003 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest interior. Alternate names: Asengseng.  Dialects: Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat it as a dialect of Kaulong [pss].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua 
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Sepa

[spe] 700 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Manam Island south coast, Bogia area. Dialects: Related to Wogeo [woc], Biem [bmc], Manam [mva], Medebur [mjm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam 
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Sepen

[spm] 650 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, mountains east of lower Ramu River. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Mikarew 
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Sera

[sry] 510 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Serai area. 1 village. Alternate names: Serra, Ssia.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau 
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Seta

[stf] 180 (2000 census). Sandaun Province. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei 
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Setaman

[stm] 280 (2000 census). Sandaun Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain 
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Seti

[sbi] 160 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei 
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Sewa Bay

[sew] 1,520 (1972 census). 20% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, center of Normanby Island, Sewa Bay area. Alternate names: Duau Pwata.  Dialects: Miadeba, Bwakera, Maiabare, Darubia, Sewataitai, Sibonai, Central Sewa Bay. Very diverse dialects. Lexical similarity: 45% with Dobu [dob] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau 
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Sialum

[slw] 640 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Siane

[snp] 29,000 (2000 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Watabung and Unggai census divisions (16,000), Goroka District. Simbu Province, Nambaiyufa Census Division (11,000). Alternate names: Siani.  Dialects: Kolepa, Yamofowe, Komongu, Komoigaleka, Kemanimowe, Ona, Keto, Laiya, Fowe, Olumba, Lambau, Alango, Yandime, Wando. Separate literature in Komongu and Lambau dialects.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Siane 
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Siar-Lak

[sjr] 2,080 (2000 census). Southern New Ireland Province, Namatanai District. Alternate names: Lak, Lamassa, Lambom, Siar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai 
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Siawi

[mmp] 220 (2007 NTM), increasing. Sandaun Province, between Amto and Ama near the Papua, Indonesia border. 1 village. Alternate names: Musa, Musan, Musian, Siafli, Siwai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 29% with Amto [amt]. Amto and Siawi 3% lexical similarity with Odiai [bhf]. Both average 7% lexical similarity with Left May languages.  Classification: Amto-Musan 
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Sibe

[nco] 5,000 (1975 SIL). Bougainville Province, Buin District. Alternate names: Nagovisi, Sibbe, Sibe-Nagovisi.  Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi 
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Sihan

[snr] 570 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Gumalu [gmu], Amele [aey], Isebe [igo], Bau [bbd], Panim [pnr].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum 
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Sileibi

[sbq] 260 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Mum [kqa].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Sikan 
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Siliput

[mkc] 520 (2003 SIL). 242 in Makru-Klaplei plus 21 elsewhere. Sandaun Province, Makru-Klaplei Division, Nuku District, north of Mehek, Seleput village. Alternate names: Mai, Maimai, Seleput, Sokorok.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 30% with Yahang [rhp].  Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper 
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Silopi

[xsp] 180 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Murupi [mqw], Wamas [wmc], Rapting [rpt], Mosimo [mqv], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Matepi [mqe], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Samosa [swm], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], Wadi [fad].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Simbali

[smg] 390 (2004 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Alternate names: Asimbali.  Classification: East New Britain, Baining 
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Simbari

[smb] 3,040 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Marawaka District. Alternate names: Chimbari.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan 
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Simeku

[smz] 3,000 (2007 SIL). 2,000 Koopei and 1,000 Mainoki. Bougainville Province, Crown Prince Range west of Arawa, Mainoki on west slope and Koopei east. Dialects: Mainoki (Mainoke), Koopei (Kopei, Korpei). Not functionally intelligible with Naasioi [nas].  Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi 
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Sinagen

[siu] 330 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Galu, Metru.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Sinasina

[sst] 50,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Simbu Province. Dialects: Tabare, Guna. Similar to Dom [doa] and Golin [gvf].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu 
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Sinaugoro

[snc] 18,000 (2000 census). Central Province, Rigo District, south of Kwikila. Alternate names: Sinagoro.  Dialects: Ikolu, Balawaia, Saroa, Babagarupu, Kwaibida, Taboro, Kwaibo, Alepa, Omene, Tubulamo, Ikega, Boku, Buaga, Wiga, Vora, Kubuli, Oruone. Boku dialect may be most central. Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Kalo [khz] (most similar), 65%–70% with Hula [hul].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara 
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Sinsauru

[snz] 500 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, near Dumpu. Alternate names: Kow.  Dialects: Saipa. Related to Asas [asd], Sausi [ssj], Kesawai [xes], Dumpu [wtf].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia 
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Sio

[xsi] 3,500 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Wasu District, mainland near Sio Island. Alternate names: Sigawa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Sio 
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Siroi

[ssd] 1,310 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District. Kumisanger village. 5 villages. Alternate names: Suroi.  Dialects: Related to Arawum [awm], Pulabu [pup], Kolom [klm], Lemio [lei].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau 
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Sissano

[sso] 300 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 4,776 (1990 census). Sandaun Province, Aitape District, around Sissano. Alternate names: Sinama, Sinano, Sisano.  Dialects: Related to Arop-Sissano [aps], Malol [mbk], Sera [sry], Tumleo [tmq], Yakamul [ykm], Ulau-Suain [svb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau 
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Siwai

[siw] 6,600. 600 in Baitsi. Bougainville Province, southeast. Alternate names: Motuna.  Dialects: Baitsi (Sigisigero).  Classification: South Bougainville, Buin 
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Solong

[aaw] 2,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). West New Britain Province, southwest coast. Alternate names: Arawe, Arove, Pililo.  Dialects: Arawe. A dialect subgroup. Understood by all along the coast.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe 
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Solos

[sol] 3,200 (Lincoln 1977). Bougainville Province, central and southwest Buka Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Solos 
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Som

[smc] 80 (2000 S. Wurm). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa 
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Sonia

[siq] 300 (1988 Shaw). Western and Southern Highlands provinces, west and southwest of Bosavi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi 
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Sop

[urw] 2,250 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Usino-Bundi District, Usino subdistrict, northeast of Ramu Valley. Alternate names: Kari, Usino.  Dialects: Related to Sumau [six], Urigina [urg], Danaru [dnr].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka 
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Sori-Harengan

[sbh] 570 (Lincoln 1977). Manus Province. Sori on Manus Island northwest coast, Sori and Harengan islands. Dialects: Sori, Harengan. Dialects nearly identical.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West 
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Sowanda

[sow] 970 in Papua New Guinea (2000 census). Population total all countries: 1,180. Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Also in Indonesia (Papua). Alternate names: Waina, Wanja, Wanya, Wina.  Dialects: Punda-Umeda (Umada), Waina. May be 2 languages.  Classification: Border, Waris 
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Suarmin

[seo] 140 (2000 S. Wurm). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District, hamlets on Kenu River, an Om River tributary. Near Duranmin airstrip. Alternate names: Akiapmin, Duranmin.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 29% with Papi [ppe].  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Papi 
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Suau

[swp] 6,800 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 10% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, southeasternmost Papua mainland. Alternate names: Iou.  Dialects: Daui (Fife Bay), Sinaki (Gaidasu, Gadaisu), Leileiafa, Bona Bona, Dahuni, Suau, Bonarua.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic 
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Sudest

[tgo] 2,000 (1987 SIL). About 20% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Yama-Yele District, Tagula Island, west of Rossel Island, end of Calvados chain. Alternate names: Sud-Est, Tagula, Vanatina, Vanga.  Dialects: Rambuso (Rewa), Eastern Point, Eastern (Rehuwo, Rambuso), Central (Pamela, Araetha), Western (Jelewaga, Griffin Point). Lexical similarity: 44% with Nimoa [nmw] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest 
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Suena

[sue] 3,000 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 SIL). Morobe Province, Lae District, north of Yekora. Alternate names: Yarawe, Yarawi, Yema.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Suganga

[sug] 350 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Alternate names: North Mianmin, Wagarabai.  Dialects: Similar to Mian [mpt].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain 
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Suki

[sui] 3,510 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Lake Suki. Alternate names: Wiram.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Suki 
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Sukurum

[zsu] 1,160 (2000 census). Morobe Province, upper Markham Valley, northwest side of Leron River. Dialects: Related to Sarasira [zsa], Mari [hob] and Wampur [waz] (the “Mountain” subgroup of Upper Markham languages), Adzera [azr] (the other Upper Markham language).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain 
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Sulka

[sua] 2,500 (1991 SIL). East New Britain Province, East Pomio District, Wide Bay coast. Dialects: A dialect chain.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Sumariup

[siv] 80 (1993 SIL). East Sepik Province, Upper Wagupmeri River. 1 village. Alternate names: Latoma, Sogoba.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo 
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Sumau

[six] 2,580 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, low mountain ranges between Ramu and Naru rivers. Alternate names: Garia, Kari, Sumau-Garia.  Dialects: Possibly 2 dialects. Related to Sop [urw], Urigina [urg], Danaru [dnr].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka 
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Sursurunga

[sgz] 3,000 (1991 SIL). South central New Ireland Province, Namatanai District. Dialects: Surkutus.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai 
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Susuami

[ssu] 10 (2000 S. Wurm). Morobe Province, Upper Watut Valley outside Bulolo. Dialects: Most closely related to Kamasa [klp].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan  Nearly extinct.
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Tabo

[knv] 3,000 (2002 SIL). Western Province, lower Aramia River, Waya, Saiwase, Galu, Alagi villages; Bamu River, Alikinapi village; lower Fly River, Kenedibi, Urio, Wagumi-Sarau villages; Segero Creek, Segero village. Alternate names: Waya.  Dialects: Aramia River, Fly River. Lexical similarity: 60% among dialects, but nearly identical syntax and grammar.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Waia 
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Tabriak

[tzx] 2,080 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, near Chambri, lower Karawari River. 9 villages. Alternate names: Karawari.  Dialects: Distinct from the Karawari dialect of Alamblak [amp].  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Karawari 
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Tai

[taw] 900 (1990 UBS). Madang Province, southwest, Dundrom village. Alternate names: Tay.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon 
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Taiap

[gpn] 80 (2000 S. Wurm). East Sepik Province, Gapun village. Alternate names: Gapun.  Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Tainae

[ago] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Gulf Province, Ivori-Swanson District, Pio, Famba, and Paiguna are main villages. Alternate names: Ivori.  Dialects: Similar to Akoye [miw].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan 
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Tairora, North

[tbg] 6,000 (2003 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Obura districts, south of Kainantu. Alternate names: Tairora.  Dialects: Aantantara (Andandara), Arau-Varosia (Arau-Barosia), Arokaara (Arokara), Saiqora (Sai’ora), Tairora. Most closely related to South Tairora [omw] and Binumarien [bjr].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora 
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Tairora, South

[omw] 7,000 (2003 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Obura districts, south of Kainantu. Alternate names: Omwunra-Toqura.  Dialects: Aatasaara (Atakara), Haaviqinra-Oraura (Habina-Oraura), Omwunra-Toqura (Obura-To’okena), Vaira-Ntosara (Baira), Veqaura (Meauna), Vinaata-Konkompira (Pinata-Konkombira). Most closely related to North Tairora [tbg] and Waffa [waj].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora 
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Tairuma

[uar] 4,500 (2004 SIL), increasing. Gulf Province, Uaripi and villages near Kerema. Alternate names: Kerema, Tairuma’a, Uaripi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Eastern 
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Takia

[tbc] 40,000. Madang Province, Madang District, south half of Karkar Island, Bagabag Island, coastal villages Megiar and Serang. Dialects: Megiar, Serang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern 
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Takuu

[nho] 1,750 (2003 SIL). Bougainville Province, Atolls District, northeast of Bougainville, Takuu Atoll, Mortlock village. Alternate names: Mortlock, Taku, Tau, Tauu.  Dialects: Distinct from Nukumanu [nuq] and Nukuria [nur] in Papua New Guinea and Ontong Java [ojv] and Sikaiana [sky] in Solomon Islands, although very closely related.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean 
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Tami

[tmy] 1,500 (2003 SIL). 681 Wanam dialect, 567 Taemi dialect. Morobe Province, Tami Islands and mainland villages south of Finschhafen. Dialects: Wanam, Taemi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Tami 
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Tangga

[tgg] 5,800 (1990 SIL). New Ireland Province, Tanga Islands, Anir (Feni) Island, 3 villages on New Ireland. Alternate names: Tanga.  Dialects: Tanga, Anir (Feni), Maket.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai 
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Tanggu

[tgu] 3,000 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District. Alternate names: Tanggum, Tangu.  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu 
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Tanguat

[tbs] 740 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu 
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Tapei

[afp] 290 (2005). East Sepik Province, Karawari Rural District; Awim and Imboin villages, Arafundi River area. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61%–74% with Nanubae [afk].  Classification: Arafundi 
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Tauade

[ttd] 7,000 (2000 census). Central Province, Goilala District northeast. Alternate names: Tauata.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 44% with Kunimaipa [kup] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa 
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Taulil

[tuh] 800 (2000 S. Wurm). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Dialects: Taulil.  Classification: East New Britain, Taulil 
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Taupota

[tpa] 1,280 (2001 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Maramatana Local Government Area, East Cape facing Goodenough Bay, Wamawamana to Garuwahi, includes Taupota village. Dialects: Probably a dialect chain with Wa’ema [wag] south and Wedau [wed] west. Lexical similarity: 81% with Topura village of Wedau, 69% with central Wedau, 76% with Wa’ema, 56% with Tawala [tbo], 53% with Maiwala [mum].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota 
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Tauya

[tya] 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Alternate names: Inafosa.  Dialects: Related to Biyom [bpm], Isabi [isa], Faita [faj].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Biyom-Tauya 
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Tawala

[tbo] 20,000 (2000 census). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Awaiama to East Cape, Milne Bay north and south shores, Sideia and Basilaki islands. Alternate names: Tavara, Tawara.  Dialects: Awayama (Awaiama, Awalama), Huhuna, Kehelala (Keherara, East Cape), Lelehudi, Diwinai (Divinai), Labe (Rabe), Yaleba (Wagawaga, Gwawili, Gwavili, Ealeba), Bohilai (Bohira’i, Basilaki), Sideya (Sideia).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota 
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Telefol

[tlf] 5,400 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Alternate names: Teleefool, Telefolmin, Telefomin.  Dialects: Telefol, Feramin.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain 
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Tenis

[tns] 30 (2000 S. Wurm). New Ireland Province, Tench Island. Alternate names: Tench.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, St. Matthias  Nearly extinct.
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Teop

[tio] 5,000 (1991 SIL). Bougainville Province, Tinputz District, northeast. Dialects: Wainanana, Losiara (Raosiara), Taunita, Melilup, Petspets. Raosiara may be a dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz 
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Terebu

[trb] 130 (1990). East Sepik Province, Taul coast southeast, Turubu village. Alternate names: Terepu, Turubu, Turupu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru 
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Terei

[buo] 26,500 (2003 SIL). Southern Bougainville Province, Buin District. Alternate names: Buin, Rugara, Telei.  Dialects: Most similar to Uisai [uis].  Classification: South Bougainville, Buin 
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Tiang

[tbj] 790 (1972 Beaumont). New Ireland Province, east Djaul Island area. Alternate names: Djaul.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik 
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Tifal

[tif] 3,600 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Alternate names: Tifalmin.  Dialects: Tifal, Asbalmin.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain 
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Tigak

[tgc] 6,000 (1991 SIL). Northern New Ireland Province, Kavieng District, west Djaul Island. Alternate names: Omo.  Dialects: Island Tigak, West Tigak, Central Tigak, South Tigak.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik 
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Timbe

[tim] 11,000 (1991 SIL). 60% are monolingual (women and older men). Morobe Province, Kabwum District, Timbe River valley and tributaries. Dialects: Central Timbe, North Timbe, South Timbe.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Tinputz

[tpz] 3,900 (1991 SIL). Bougainville Province, Teop-Tinputz District. Alternate names: Timputs, Vasui, Vasuii, Wasoi.  Dialects: Vasui, Vavoehpoa’, Vaene’, Vado-Vaene’, Vapopeo’, Vapopeo’-Rausaura, Vado.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz 
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Titan

[ttv] 3,850 (1992 SIL). Manus Province, Islands: Manus (southeast coast), Tawi, Wal, M’buke, Johnson, Baluan, Tilianu, Bundro, Rambutyo. Alternate names: M’bunai, Manus, Moanus, Tito.  Dialects: 2 dialects, ‘r’ speakers on southeast Manus Island, ‘l’ on outlying islands. Intelligibility between ‘r’ and ‘l’ dialects 100%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East 
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Toaripi

[tqo] 23,000 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, Cape Possession to Cape Cupola, Kerema a main town. Alternate names: East Elema, Melaripi, Motumotu.  Dialects: Kaipi (Melaripi), Toaripi (Moripi-Iokea, Moveave), Sepoe.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Eastern 
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Tobo

[tbv] 2,230 (1980 census). Morobe Province, upper Kuat River valley, south of Cromwell Range. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western 
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Tok Pisin

[tpi] 122,000 (2004 SIL). 50,000 monolinguals. Mainly north half of country, well established in Port Moresby, into other regions. Alternate names: Melanesian English, Neomelanesian, New Guinea Pidgin English, Pidgin, Pisin.  Dialects: Dialect differences between lowlands, highlands, and islands. Highlands lexicon has more English influence (J. Holm).  Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific 
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Tokano

[zuh] 6,000 (1982 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Alternate names: Gamuso, Tokama, Yufiyufa, Zaka, Zuhozuho, Zuhuzuho.  Dialects: Lower Asaro, Zuhuzuho.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena 
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Tomoip

[tqp] 700 (1982 SIL). East New Britain Province, Wide Bay to Waterfall Bay and interior. Alternate names: Tomoive, Tomoyp, Tumie, Tumuip.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tomoip 
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Torau

[ttu] 600 (1963 SIL). Bougainville Province, southeast coast, north of Kieta. Alternate names: Rorovana.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava 
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Torricelli

[tei] 520 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District; some in Sandaun Province, west of Kombio. 5 villages. Alternate names: Anamagi, Lou.  Dialects: West Torricelli, East Torricelli. 2 dialects.  Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio 
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Toura

[don] 1,800 (2007 SIL). Central Province, around Galley Reach. Alternate names: Doura.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 57% with Lala [nrz], 54% with Motu [meu].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear 
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Tulu-Bohuai

[rak] 1,400 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Bohuai, Peli Island, Pelipowai. Alternate names: Bohuai, Bohuai-Tulu, Bowai, Pahavai, Pelipowai, Pohuai.  Dialects: Keli, Bohuai, Tulu (Tulun, Tjudun). Similar to Khehek [tlx].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West 
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Tuma-Irumu

[iou] 1,500 (1998 SIL). Morobe Province, Kaiapit District, Wantoat subdistrict. Alternate names: Irumu, Tuma, Upper Irumu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Wantoat 
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Tumleo

[tmq] 790 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Tumleo Island, Aitape coast area. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau 
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Tungag

[lcm] 12,000 (1990 SIL). New Ireland Province, Lamet District, New Hanover Island, Tingwon and Umbukul Islands. Alternate names: Dang, Lavangai, Lavongai, Toangai, Tungak.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik 
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Turaka

[trh] 25 (2000 S. Wurm). Milne Bay Province, southwest of Radarada and Ruaba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan  Nearly extinct.
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Turumsa

[tqm] 5 (2002 SIL). Western Province, Middle Fly District, Makapa village. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 19% with Dibiyaso [dby], 61% with Doso [dol].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi  Nearly extinct.
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Tuwari

[tww] 360 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, upper Walio (Leonhard Schultze) River; a few near Akiapmin south of Central Range. Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze, Walio 
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Uare

[ksj] 1,300 (2004 SIL). Central Province, Rigo Inland District, southeast of Port Moresby, Kemp Welsh and Hunter rivers. Alternate names: Kwale, Kware.  Dialects: Garihe (Garia), Uare (Kwale). Lexical similarity: 65%–74% with Humeme [huf] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Kwalean 
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Ubir

[ubr] 2,560 (2000 census). Oro Province, Tufi District, Collingwood Bay coast, Kwagila River. Alternate names: Kubiri, Ubiri.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 27% with Miniafia dialect of Arifama-Miniafia [aai] (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are 
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Ufim

[ufi] 550 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot 
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Uisai

[uis] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Bougainville Province south, Buin District. Classification: South Bougainville, Buin 
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Ukuriguma

[ukg] 170 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Usan [wnu], Yaben [ybm], Yarawata [yrw], Parawen [prw], Bilakura [bql].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan 
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Ulau-Suain

[svb] 2,800 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Ulau 1, Ulau 2, Suain coastal area. Alternate names: Suain.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau 
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Umanakaina

[gdn] 2,400 (1987 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, Goodenough Bay coast, inland between Mt. Gwoira and Mt. Simpson. Alternate names: Gvede, Gweda, Gwede, Gwedena, Umanikaina.  Dialects: Upper Ugu River, East Umanakaina. At least 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 23% with Ginuman [gnm] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan 
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Umbu-Ungu

[ubu] 34,200 (2000 census). Western Highlands Province, Tambul (No-Penge dialect) and Lower Kaugel (Kala dialect) districts, into Southern Highlands Province (Andelale dialect). Alternate names: Gawigl, Gawil, Imbo-Ungu, Kakoli, Kaugel, Kauil, Ubu Ugu, Umbongu, Umbu Ungu.  Dialects: Kala (Mendo-Kala), No-Penge, Andelale.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Kaugel 
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Umeda

[upi] 290 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanda District, south of Imonda. Classification: Border, Bewani 
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Uneapa

[bbn] 10,000 (1998 SIL). West New Britain Province, Talasea District, Unea (Bali) Island off northwest coast. Alternate names: Bali, Bali-Vitu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu 
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Unserdeutsch

[uln] 100 in Papua New Guinea. 15 in New Britain, a few scattered in Papua New Guinea; the rest southeast Queensland, Australia (1981 C. Volker). East New Britain Province, Rabaul. Also in Australia. Alternate names: Rabaul Creole German.  Classification: Creole, German based  Nearly extinct.
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Ura

[uro] 1,900 (1991 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Alternate names: Auramot, Uramät, Uramet, Uramit, Uramot.  Classification: East New Britain, Baining 
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Urapmin

[urm] 370 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain 
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Urat

[urt] 6,280 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 2,476 in Wasep Ngau, 2,058 in Wusyep Yihre, 1,208 in Wasep Yam, and 547 in Wusyep Tep. East Sepik Province, Dreikikir District, southwest of Wom, south of Kombio. 20 villages, several hamlets. Dialects: Wasep Ngau (North Urat), Wusyep Yihre (Central Urat), Wasep Yam (South Urat), Wusyep Tep (East Urat).  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Urat 
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Uri

[uvh] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Boana District. Alternate names: Erap, Uri Vehees, Urii.  Dialects: East Urii, West Urii.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap 
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Urigina

[urg] 1,400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province, 50 km downstream. Alternate names: Origanau, Uriginau.  Dialects: Related to Sop [urw], Danaru [dnr], Sumau [six].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka 
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Urim

[uri] 3,740 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik subdistrict, into Sandaun Province, Nuku subdistrict, southwest of Kombio. 16 villages. Alternate names: Kalp.  Dialects: Kukwo, Yangkolen.  Classification: Torricelli, Urim 
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Urimo

[urx] 800 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Alternate names: Yaugiba.  Dialects: Related to Elepi [ele].  Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg 
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Uruava

[urv] Extinct. Bougainville Province, southeast coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava 
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Usan

[wnu] 1,400 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District. Alternate names: Wanuma.  Dialects: Related to Yarawata [yrw], Bilakura [bql], Ukuriguma [ukg].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan 
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Usarufa

[usa] 1,300 (1996 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Alternate names: Usurufa, Uturupa.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa 
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Utarmbung

[omo] 1,170 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Osum.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Osum 
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Utu

[utu] 580 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Uya

[usu] 270 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Trans-Gogol District. Alternate names: Usu.  Dialects: Related to Kwato [kop], Ogea [eri], Duduela [duk], Rerau [rea], Jilim [jil], Yangulam [ynl].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru 
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Valman

[van] 1,740 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Koroko.  Dialects: Related to Olo [ong], Yau [yyu], Ningil [niz], Yis [yis].  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Vanimo

[vam] 2,670 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District. 3 villages. Alternate names: Duso, Manimo, Wanimo.  Dialects: 2 dialects. Related to Wutung [wut].  Classification: Sko, Vanimo 
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Vehes

[val] 70 (2000 S. Wurm). Morobe Province, near the coast between Salamaua and Lae. 1 village. Alternate names: Buasi, Vehees.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Buang (most similar).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang 
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Wab

[wab] 120 (2000 S. Wurm). Madang Province, Huon Peninsula north coast, next to Saidor, Wab and Saui villages. Alternate names: Som.  Dialects: Related to Mindiri [mpn] and Awad Bing [bcu].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe 
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Waboda

[kmx] 2,750 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Wabuda Island, north bank of Fly River mouth. Meipani, Tirere, Maduduo, Sagero, Wapi, Gesoa, Dameratamu, and Kabaturi villages. Alternate names: Wabuda.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian 
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Wadaginam

[wdg] 950 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Wadaginamb.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Wadaginam 
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Wa’ema

[wag] 1,020 (2000 census). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Huhu Local Government Area, Giligili Estates to Turnbull War Memorial, near Milne Bay head north to, but not crossing, East Cape coastal range. Alternate names: Waiema.  Dialects: Wa’ema seems a dialect chain with Taupota [tpa]. Tawala [tbo] not intelligible to Wa’ema. Lexical similarity: 76% with Taupota, 69% with Maiwala [mum], 54% with Tawala.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota 
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Waffa

[waj] 1,300 (1988 SIL). Morobe Province, Kaiapit District, Waffa River headwaters. 5 villages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora 
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Wagawaga

[wgw] 1,290 (1990 census). 10% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Huhu Local Government Area, Milne Bay south shore. Alternate names: Baeaula, Gamadoudou, Gibara, Kilakilana.  Dialects: Wagawaga (Baeaula), Gamadoudou. Lexical similarity: 61% with Oya’oya [oyy], 31% with Tawala [tbo], 55% with Buhutu [bxh].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic 
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Wagi

[fad] 3,380 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, northwest of Madang, Mis, Kamba, Foran, Kauris, and Silibob villages. Alternate names: Foran, Furan, Kamba, Mis-Kemba.  Dialects: May be most similar to Nobonob [gaw]. Lexical similarity: 30% with Ari dialect of Nobonob.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Wahgi

[wgi] 39,000 (1999 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Minj District, into Simbu Province, south of Wahgi River. Alternate names: Mid Wahgi.  Dialects: Kup-Minj (Kumai), Pukamigl-Andegabu, Kunjip, Kambia, Mid-Wahgi.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Wahgi 
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Wahgi, North

[whg] 47,000 (1999 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Minj District, into Simbu Province, Wahgi River north side, and both sides of Sepik-Wahgi Divide. Dialects: Banz-Nondugl.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Wahgi 
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Waima

[rro] 15,000 (2000 census). Central Province, Bereina District, near Kairuku, Hall Sound shores, between Yule Island and mainland, northwest of Port Moresby. Alternate names: Roro.  Dialects: Waima, Paitana, Roro. Roro and Paitana populations smaller and scattered. Lexical similarity: 45% with Kuni [kse] (most similar), 99% among all 3 dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear 
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Walio

[wla] 230 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 12% with Yawiyo [ybx].  Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze, Walio 
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Wamas

[wmc] 220 (2000). Madang Province. 10 villages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Wampar

[lbq] 5,150 (1990). Morobe Province, lower Markham and Wamped rivers. Alternate names: Laewamba, Laewomba, Laiwomba.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 50% with Adzera [adz].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Wampar 
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Wampur

[waz] 320 (2000 census). Morobe Province, Wanton River, Wampur and Mirir villages (Holzknecht 1989); some in South Tairora [omw] village of Omisuan and Waffa [waj] village of Aringon. Alternate names: Wampul.  Dialects: Most similar to Mari [hob]. Not to be confused with Wampar [lbq] in lower Markham Valley. Lexical similarity: 50% with Adzera [adz].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain 
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Wanambre

[wnb] 590 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Vanambere.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran 
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Wanap

[wnp] 1,070 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, north of Mehek, northeast of Siliput. Alternate names: Kayik.  Dialects: Related to Agi [aif], Aruop [lsr], Bragat [aof], Nabi [mty].  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei 
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Wantoat

[wnc] 8,200 (1978 K. McElhanon). 393 Bam (1978 K. McElhanon) and 492 Yagawak (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Morobe Province, Kaiapit District, Wantoat, Leron, and Bam rivers. Dialects: Wapu (Leron), Central Wantoat, Bam, Yagawak (Kandomin).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Wantoat 
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Wára

[tci] 700 (2002 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, villages immediately west of Morehead. Alternate names: Ara, Kamindjo, Rouku, Tjokwai, Tokwasa, Upper Morehead, Vara, Wärä, Yumbar.  Dialects: Wára, Kómnjo, Anta, Wèré.  Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda 
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Warapu

[wra] 300 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 1,602 including 442 nonresidents (1983 census). Sandaun Province, near Sera and Sissano coast, northwest peninsula of Sissano Lagoon, around Sumo and Ramu towns. Dialects: Related to Isaka [ksi], Rawo [rwa], Puari [pux].  Classification: Sko, Krisa 
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Waris

[wrs] 2,500 in Papua New Guinea, increasing. Population total all countries: 4,000. Sandaun Province, Amanab District, Wasengla area. Also in Indonesia (Papua). Alternate names: Walsa.  Classification: Border, Waris 
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Waruna

[wrv] 600 (1991 SIL). Western Province, Aramia River area, Waruna village. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 50% with Ari [aac].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala 
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Wasembo

[gsp] 590 (1980 census). Morobe Province, west of Ufim. Alternate names: Biapim, Gusap, Yankowan.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Wasembo 
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Waskia

[wsk] 20,000 (2007 Council). Madang Province, Madang District, Karkar Island. Alternate names: Vaskia, Woskia.  Dialects: Most similar to Korak [koz].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Kowan 
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Watakataui

[wtk] 350 (1998). East Sepik Province, middle Korosameri River branch. 2 villages. Alternate names: Waxe.  Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo 
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Watut, Middle

[mpl] 1,350 (1990 SIL). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, lower Watut Valley. 7 villages. Alternate names: Maraliinan, Maralinan, Silisili, Watut.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut 
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Watut, North

[una] 460 (Holzknecht 1988). Ethnic population: 660. Morobe Province, Mumeng District, Kaiapit area, Waffa Valley. Alternate names: Onank, Unangg, Unank, Watut.  Dialects: Holzecht says North Watut combines with Silisili and Maralinan (dialects of Middle Watut [mpl]) to form one language, North Watut.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut 
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Watut, South

[mcy] 890 (Holzknecht 1988). Morobe Province, lower or south Watut River. 5 villages. Dialects: Maralango (Maralangko), Dangal (Danggal).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut 
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Wedau

[wed] 2,200 (2000 D. Tryon). 900 monolinguals. Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, Weraura Local Government Area, mainland from Kuvira Bay to Dogura along north coast. Alternate names: Wedaun, Wedawan.  Dialects: Topura, Yapoa, Lavora, Kwamana.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota 
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Weliki

[klh] 200 (1990 SIL). Morobe Province, lower Timbe River valley. 2 villages. Alternate names: Karangi, Weleki.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa 
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Weredai

[wei] 490 (2000 census). Western Province, Dewara (Weredai) village. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio 
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Weri

[wer] 4,160 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province, Wau District, Biaru, Waria, and Ono rivers’ headwaters. Alternate names: Wele, Weli.  Dialects: Sim, Biaru-Waria, Ono.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa 
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Wiarumus

[tua] 460 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Mandi village, southeast of Wewak on coast. Alternate names: Imandi, Mandi.  Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg 
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Wipi

[gdr] 3,500 (1999 Shim). Western Province, east third of area between Fly Delta, estuary, and south coast. Alternate names: Gidra, Jibu, Oriomo.  Dialects: Dorogori, Abam, Peawa, Ume, Kuru, Woigo, Wonie, Iamega, Gamaewe, Podari, Wipim, Kapal, Rual, Guiam, Yuta.  Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly 
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Wiru

[wiu] 15,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu District. Alternate names: Witu.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Wiru 
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Wogamusin

[wog] 700 (1998 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District. 4 villages. Alternate names: Wongamusin.  Classification: Sepik, Wogamusin-Chenapian 
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Wogeo

[woc] 1,620 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Vokeo and Koil islands. Alternate names: Uageo.  Dialects: Related to Manem [jet], Biem [bmc], Sepa [spe], Medebur [mjm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam 
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Wom

[wmo] 4,260 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, east of Wara Sikau, Torricelli Mountain foothills. 12 villages; Maprik Province, Dreikikir District, west northwest of Maprik. Alternate names: Wam.  Dialects: 2 slightly different dialects. Brief word lists and survey indicate little similarity to Kombio [xbi].  Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio 
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Wutung

[wut] 900 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, coast bordering Papua, Indonesia, including Sangke village. Alternate names: Udung.  Classification: Sko, Vanimo 
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Wuvulu-Aua

[wuv] 1,000 (1982 SIL). Western Manus Province, Aua, Durour, Maty, and Wuvulu islands. Alternate names: Aua-Viwulu, Viwulu-Aua.  Dialects: Aua, Wuvulu (Wuu). Dialects nearly identical.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western 
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Yabem

[jae] 2,080 (1978 K. McElhanon). Morobe Province, Huon Peninsula, near Finschhafen coast. Alternate names: Jabem, Jabim, Laulabu, Yabim.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North 
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Yaben

[ybm] 700 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Usan [wnu], Yarawata [yrw], Bilakura [bql], Parawen [prw], Ukuriguma [ukg].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan 
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Yabong

[ybo] 370 (1970 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon 
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Yagaria

[ygr] 21,100 (1982 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Dialects: Kami-Kulaka, Move, Ologuti, Dagenava, Kamate, Hira, Hua (Huva), Kotom.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria 
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Yagomi

[ygm] 280 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District, coast southeast of Seure, Yagomi village. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup 
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Yagwoia

[ygw] 10,000. 1500 Iwalaqamalje, 1500 Gwase, 7000 Hiqwaye, Hiqwase, Yeqwangilje. Morobe (Hiqwaye, Hiqwase, Yeqwangilje), Gulf (Gwase), and Eastern Highlands (Iqwalaqamalje) provinces. Alternate names: Kokwaiyakwa, Yeghuye.  Dialects: Iwalaqamalje, Gwase, Hiqwaye, Hiqwase, Yeqwangilje. Similar to Chimbari [smb], Hamtai [hmt], Baruya [byr], Menya [mcr] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan 
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Yahang

[rhp] 1,430 (2003 SIL). 1,116 in area, 66 outside. Sandaun Province, west of Mehek. Alternate names: Ruruhi’ip, Ruruhip, Ya’unk.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Heyo [auk] (Arinua).  Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper 
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Yakaikeke

[ykk] 100 (1998 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Weraura Local Government Area, Goodenough Bay between Wedau and Radava, near Manubada at Diruna only. Alternate names: Iakaikeke.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65% with Wedau [wed] (most similar), 58% with Kwamana dialect of Wedau [wed], 48% with Ghayavi [bmk] (at Radava).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota 
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Yakamul

[ykm] 3,460 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Sandaun Province, between Paup and Yakamul coast; Ali, Seleo, and Angel islands. Alternate names: Ali.  Dialects: Ali, Yakamul, Yigel.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau 
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Yale

[nce] 600 (1991 SIL). 5% monolingual. Sandaun Province, Amanab District, west of Namia. 6 villages. Kwomtari [kwo] is north, Abau south [aau], Busa [bhf] southwest, Biaka [bio] west, Anggor [agg] and Amanab [MN] northwest. Alternate names: Nagatiman, Nagatman, Yade, Yarë.  Dialects: 2 very similar dialects.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Yamap

[ymp] 1,580 (2000 census). Morobe Province, Francisco River area. Dialects: Similar to Hote [hot] and Misim, a dialect of Hote [hot].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote 
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Yambes

[ymb] 1,080 (2003 SIL), decreasing. East Sepik Province, Dreikikkir District, northwest of Wom, east and southeast of Kombio. 4 villages. Dialects: West Yambes, East Yambes. Apparently a mixed language of Kombio [xbi] plus Urat [urt] plus Wom [wmo]; some understanding of all 3.  Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio 
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Yangulam

[ynl] 400 (2000 census). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Kwato [kop], Ogea [eri], Uya [usu], Duduela [duk], Rerau [rea], Jilim [jil].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru 
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Yangum Dey

[yde] 180 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Nuku District. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei 
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Yangum Gel

[ygl] 45 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Nuku District. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei  Nearly extinct.
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Yangum Mon

[ymo] 730 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Nuku District. Alternate names: Aiku, Malek, Menandon, Minendon.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei 
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Yapunda

[yev] 60 (2000 S. Wurm). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Reiwo.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Yarawata

[yrw] 130 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Usan [wnu], Yaben [ybm], Bilakura [bql], Parawen [prw], Ukuriguma [ukg].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan 
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Yareba

[yrb] 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Oro Province, Popondetta District. Alternate names: Middle Musa.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban 
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Yau

[yuw] 1,700 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Kabwum District, Worin, Yawan, Kotet, Mitmit, Mup, Sindamon villages. Alternate names: Uruwa.  Dialects: Northern Yau, Headwaters Yau. Listed dialects are village names.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa 
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Yau

[yyu] 140 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. 1 village. Dialects: Related to Olo [ong], Yis [yis], Ningil [niz], Valman [van]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Olo and Yis.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Yaul

[yla] 1,210 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Langam [lnm], Mongol [mgt].  Classification: Mongol-Langam 
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Yaweyuha

[yby] 2,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Alternate names: Yabiyufa, Yawiyuha.  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Siane 
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Yawiyo

[ybx] 66 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, east of Duranmin. 3 villages. Alternate names: Yabio.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 7% with Papi [ppe].  Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze, Walio 
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Yekora

[ykr] 1,000 (1995 SIL). Morobe Province, Morobe government station area. 2 villages. Dialects: Similar to Mawae dialect of Zia [zia].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Yele

[yle] 3,750 (1998 Rossel Health Centres). 400 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,750 (1998). Milne Bay Province, Misima District, Rossel Island at Calvados chain east end; 500 in Port Moresby and Alotau. Alternate names: Rossel, Yela, Yelejong, Yeletnye, Yelidnye.  Dialects: Daminyu, Bou, Wulanga, Jinjo, Abaletti, Jaru. Lexical similarity: 8% with Daga [dgz] (most similar).  Classification: Yele-West New Britain, Yele 
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Yelogu

[ylg] 160 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District. 1 village. Alternate names: Buiamanambu, Kaunga.  Classification: Sepik, Ndu 
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Yerakai

[yra] 380 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, southeast near government station. 2 villages. Alternate names: Yerekai.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 6% with Middle Sepik languages.  Classification: Sepik, Yerakai 
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Yessan-Mayo

[yss] 1,990 (2000 census). Sepik, Tama. Alternate names: Maio-Yesan, Mayo-Yesan, Yasyin, Yesan.  Dialects: Yawu (Yau, Yaw, Warasai), Mayo-Yessan.  Classification: Sepik, Tama 
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Yetfa

[yet] 200 in Papua New Guinea (1992 SIL). South of Green River, into Papua, Indonesia. Alternate names: Biaksi, Biksi, Inisine.  Classification: Sepik, Biksi 
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Yil

[yll] 2,470 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, northwest of Au [avt]. 16 villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 23% with Au.  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Yimas

[yee] 300 (2000 S. Wurm). East Sepik Province, near Chambri, Arafundi and middle Karawari rivers. Dialects: Related to Tabriak [tzx].  Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Karawari 
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Yis

[yis] 320 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. 5 villages. Dialects: Different dialects in each village. Related languages: Olo [ong], Yau [yyu], Ningil [niz], Valman [van].  Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei 
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Yoba

[yob] Extinct. Central Province, north of Magori. Dialects: Related to Magori [zgr].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric 
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Yoidik

[ydk] 770 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman 
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Yonggom

[yon] 4,000 (1997 SIL). Western Province along Fly and Tedi (Alice) rivers and toward Lake Murray. Alternate names: Yongkom, Yongom.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with North Muyu [kti], 70% with South Muyu [kts], 30% with Ninggerum [nxr].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland 
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Yopno

[yut] 7,200 (2000 census). Madang and Morobe provinces. Alternate names: Yupna.  Dialects: Kewieng, Nokopo, Wandabong, Isan. Related to Ma [mjn], Gabutamon [gav].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna 
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Zenag

[zeg] 1,820 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Alternate names: Zenang.  Dialects: Latep. In Mumeng dialect chain. Some intelligibility with Patep [ptp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng 
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Zia

[zia] 3,940 (1978 K. McElhanon). 3,000 Zia [zia] (1991 SIL), 943 Mawae dialect of Zia [zia]. Morobe Province, Lae District near Waria River mouth. Alternate names: Lower Waria, Tsia, Ziya.  Dialects: Zia, Mawae. Lexical similarity: 68% with Yekora [ykr] (most similar).  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Binanderean, Binandere 
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Zimakani

[zik] 1,500 (1990 UBS). Western Province, south end of Lake Murray. Alternate names: Baegwa, Bagwa Zimakani, Dea.  Dialects: Zimakani, Bagwa (Begua, Mbegu), Dea. Related to Kuni Boazi [kvg].  Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Boazi 
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