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Languages of Philippines

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Republic of the Philippines, Republika ng Pilipinas. 84,566,000. National or official languages: Filipino, English. Literacy rate: 84%. Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Basque, French (700), Hindi (2,420), Indonesian (2,580), Japanese (2,900), Korean, Sindhi (20,000), Standard German (960), Vietnamese. Also includes Arabic. Information mainly from L. A. Reid 1971; SIL 1954–2007; Zorc 1977. Blind population: 467,000. Deaf population: 12,914,601. The number of individual languages listed for Philippines is 175. Of those, 171 are living languages and 4 have no known speakers.
Adasen

[tiu] 4,000 (NTM). Ethnic population: 5,715. Luzon, northeast Abra Province. Alternate names: Addasen, Addasen Tinguian, Itneg Adasen.  Dialects: Eastern Addasen, Western Addasen. Comprehension of Isnag [isd] 74%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Isnag 
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Agta, Alabat Island

[dul] 30 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 75. Luzon, east of Quezon Province. Alternate names: Alabat Island Dumagat.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget  Nearly extinct.
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Agta, Camarines Norte

[abd] 150 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 300. Luzon, Santa Elena and Labo, Camarines Norte. Alternate names: Abiyan, Manide.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Alabat Agta [dul], 35% with Mt. Iriga Agta [agz].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget 
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Agta, Casiguran Dumagat

[dgc] 610 (2000 T. Headland). Luzon east coast, Aurora Province. Alternate names: Casiguran Dumagat.  Dialects: Intelligibility with Paranan [agp] 83%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern 
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Agta, Central Cagayan

[agt] 780 (2000). Ethnic population: 820. Northeast Luzon. Alternate names: Labin Agta.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic 
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Agta, Dicamay

[duy] Extinct. Luzon, Isabela Province, near Jones. Alternate names: Dicamay Dumagat.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern 
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Agta, Dupaninan

[duo] 1,200 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2007 L. Reid). Northeast Luzon, from below Divilacan Bay in the south to Palaui Island in the north. Alternate names: Eastern Cagayan Agta, Dupaningan Agta.  Dialects: Yaga, Tanglagan, Santa Ana-Gonzaga, Barongagunay, Palaui Island, Camonayan, Valley Cove, Bolos Point, Peñablanca, Roso (Southeast Cagayan), Santa Margarita. Intelligibility of Yaga dialect 83%. Yaga and Central Cagayan Agta [agt] are 63% intelligible. Lexical similarity: 51% between Central Cagayan Agta and Tanglagan dialect, 66% between Yaga and Central Cagayan Agta.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern 
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Agta, Isarog

[agk] 6 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1984 SIL). Luzon, Bicol Province, Mt. Isarog east of Naga City. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga  Nearly extinct.
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Agta, Mt. Iraya

[atl] 150 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 375. Luzon, Bicol Province, East of Lake Buhi. Alternate names: East, Inagta of Mt. Iraya, Itbeg Rugnot, Lake Buhi, Rugnot of Lake Buhi East.  Dialects: 54%–86% comprehension of the Naga dialect of Central Bicolano [bcl], 94% comprehension of Mt. Iriga Agta [agz], Iriga City dialect. Lexical similarity: 85%–90% with Bicolano; 70% with Mt. Iriga Agta, Iriga City dialect, 93% among four dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga 
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Agta, Mt. Iriga

[agz] 1,500 (1979 SIL). Luzon, Bicol Province, East of Iriga City, west of Lake Buhi. Alternate names: Lake Buhi West, Mt. Iriga Negrito, San Ramon Inagta.  Dialects: 86% intelligibility of Iriga City Bicolano [agz], 82% of Mt. Iraya Agta [atl], 72% of Central Bicolano [bcl] (Naga dialect). Intelligibility of Naga Bicolano for Mt. Iriga Agta is doubtful. Lexical similarity: 76% with Iriga City Bicolano, 66% with Mt. Iraya Agta, 66% with Central Bicolano [bcl] (Naga dialect).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland 
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Agta, Umiray Dumaget

[due] 3,000 (1994 SIL), decreasing. Luzon, Quezon Province. Alternate names: Umiray Agta, Umirey Dumagat.  Dialects: Polillo Island Agta, Anglat Agta.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget 
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Agta, Villa Viciosa

[dyg] Extinct. Luzon, Abra Province. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine 
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Agutaynen

[agn] 15,000 (2007 SIL). Agutaya Island, 5 smaller surrounding islands; Roxas, San Vicente, and Brooke’s Point, Palawan municipalities. A few on Mindoro, in Taytay, Linapacan, and Manila. Alternate names: Agutayno, Agutaynon.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 52% with Cuyonon [cyo]; 71% with Calamian Tagbanwa [tbk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Kalamian 
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Alangan

[alj] 7,690 (2000). North central Mindoro. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, North Mangyan 
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Alta, Northern

[aqn] 200 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 400. Eastern Luzon, Aurora Province, Bayanihan, San Luis; Diteki. Alternate names: Baler Negrito, Ditaylin Alta, Ditaylin Dumagat, Edimala.  Dialects: Not similar to other languages (1992 L. Reid). Lexical similarity: 34% with Southern Alta [agy].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, Alta 
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Alta, Southern

[agy] 1,000 (1982 SIL). Quezon Province coastal areas, east Nueva Ecija, Sierra Madre, San Miguel town; Bulacan Province, a large community in remote San Miguel. North of the Umiray Dumaget [due]. Alternate names: Baluga, Ita, Kabulowan, Kabuluen, Kabuluwan, Kabuluwen, Pugot.  Dialects: Not similar to other languages. Lexical similarity: 34% with Northern Alta [aqn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, Alta 
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Arta

[atz] 15 (2000 S. Wurm). 12 in Villa Santiago, 1 in Villa Gracia, 3 or 4 in Nagtipunan (1992 L. Reid). Ethnic population: 150. Quirino Province, Aglipay town, Villa Santiago, Villa Gracia, Nagtipunan town. Dialects: Not similar to any other language (1992 L. Reid).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Arta  Nearly extinct.
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Ata

[atm] 4 (2000 S. Wurm). Mabinay, Negros Oriental. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine  Nearly extinct.
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Ati

[atk] 1,500 (1980 SIL). Panay Island, small groups in all provinces. Alternate names: Inati.  Dialects: Malay, Barotac Viejo Nagpana.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral 
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Atta, Faire

[azt] 300 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 600. Luzon, Cagayan Province, near Faire-Rizal. Alternate names: Southern Atta.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Pudtol Atta [atp]; 60% with Isnag [isd]; 66% with Central Cagayan Agta [agt]; 82% with Pamplona Atta [att]; 90% with Rizal Atta; 72% with Ibanag [ibg].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic 
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Atta, Pamplona

[att] 1,000 (1998 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000. Luzon, Northwest Cagayan Province. Alternate names: Northern Cagayan Negrito.  Dialects: Comprehension of Ibanag North [ibg] 97%, of Itawit [itv] 52%. Lexical similarity: 91% with Ibanag North; 63% with Ilocano [ilo]; 69% with Itawit.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic 
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Atta, Pudtol

[atp] 710 (2000). Luzon, Apayao Province, Pudtol, on Abulog River south of Pamplona. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 86% with Pamplona Atta [att]; 75% with Ibanag [ibg]; 63% with Isnag [isd]; 81% with Faire Atta [azt]; 42% with Ilocano [ilo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic 
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Ayta, Abellen

[abp] 3,000 (2005 SIL). Luzon, Tarlac Province, San Jose, Mayantoc, Capas. Alternate names: Abenlen, Aburlen Negrito, Ayta Abellen Sambal.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 49% with Tina Sambal [xsb], 38%–44% with Ilocano [ilo], Pangasinan [pag], Filipino [fil], Pampangan [pam].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Ayta, Ambala

[abc] 1,660 (1986 SIL). Zambales: San Marcelino, Subic City, Olongapa, Castillejos barrios; Luzon, Bataan Province, Dinalupinan barrio. Alternate names: Ambala Agta, Ambala Sambal.  Dialects: Ambala Ayta speakers’ comprehension of Botolan Sambal [sbl] is 60%, of Mag-Indi Ayta [blx] is 54%, of Mag-Anchi Ayta [sgb] is 60%, of Bataan Ayta [ayt] is 70%. Lexical similarity: 70% with Botolan Sambal, 55% with Filipino [fil].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Ayta, Bataan

[ayt] 500 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 1,000. Luzon, Bataan Province, Mariveles. Alternate names: Bataan Ayta, Bataan Sambal, Mariveles Ayta.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 63% with Botolan Sambal [sbl] and Filipino [fil].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Ayta, Mag-Anchi

[sgb] 8,200 (1992 SIL). Central Luzon, East side of Mt. Pinatubo, Botolan Sambal area, near Tarlac-Pampanga border, barrios in: Capas, Tarlac, Bamban, Tarlac, San Marcelino, Zambales, 2 of Castillejos, Zambales, 2 of Mabalacat, Pampanga, Sapang Bato, Angeles City. Alternate names: Mag-Anchi Sambal.  Dialects: 77% intelligibility with Mag-Indi Ayta [blx], 65% with Ambala Ayta [abc], 46% with Pampangan [pam]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 50% with Filipino [fil], 46% with Pampangan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Ayta, Mag-Indi

[blx] 5,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. Luzon, Pampanga Province, barrios and communities in Florida Blanca and Porac; Zambales, San Marcelino. Alternate names: Baloga, Indi Ayta, Mag-Indi Sambal.  Dialects: 46% comprehension of Botolan Sambal [sbl], 50% of Ambala Ayta [abc], 59% of Pampangan [pam], 32% of Mag-Anchi Ayta [sgb]. Lexical similarity: 66%–73% with Botolan Sambal, 44% with Filipino [fil], 73%–81% with Mag-Anchi Ayta [blx].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Ayta, Sorsogon

[ays] 18 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 180. Sorsogon Province, Prieto Diaz. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine  Nearly extinct.
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Ayta, Tayabas

[ayy] Extinct. Luzon, Quezon Province, Tayabas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine 
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Balangao

[blw] 21,300 (2000), decreasing. No monolinguals. Luzon, east Bontoc Province. Alternate names: Balangao Bontoc, Balangaw, Farangao.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Balangaw 
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Balangingi

[sse] 80,000 in Philippines (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 84,000. Western Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago northeast of Jolo, islands and coastal areas of Zamboanga coast peninsula and Basilan Island. Possibly on Luzon and Palawan. Northern Sama on Luzon at White Beach near Subic Bay; Lutangan in western Mindanao, Olutangga Island. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Baangingi’, Balanguingui, Bangingi Sama, Northern Sama, Northern Sinama, Sama.  Dialects: Lutangan (Lutango), Sibuco-Vitali (Sibuku), Sibuguey (Batuan), Balangingi, Daongdung, Kabinga’an. Most Lutangan understand Balangingi, the prestige dialect. Intelligibility with Central Sama [sml] 71%, 83% with Lutangan, 85% with Sibuco-Vitali. Lexical similarity: 77% with Lutangan, 75% with Sibuco-Vitali.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama 
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Bantoanon

[bno] 200,000 (2002 SIL), decreasing. 500 to 1,000 monolinguals. Romblon Province, west Visayas. Dialects: Banton, Calatravanhon, Odionganon, Sibalenhon (Sibale), Simaranhon. 63% intelligibility with Hiligaynon [hil]; 92% with Inonhan [loc]. The Odionganon dialect is preferred for literature. Lexical similarity: 83% with Romblomanon [rol] (Zorc 1977).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Banton 
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Batak

[bya] 200 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 2,041 (1990 census).  Alternate names: Babuyan, Palawan Batak, Tinitianes.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic 
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Bicolano, Albay

[bhk] 1,900,000 (2000). 4,583,034 all Bikol languages (2000 census). Luzon, west Albay Province and Buhi, Camarines Sur. Dialects: Buhi (Buhi’non), Daraga, Libon, Oas, Ligao.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Buhi-Daraga 
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Bicolano, Central

[bcl] 2,500,000 (1990 census). 4,583,034 all Bikol languages (2000 census). Luzon, Camarines Norte and Sur, south Catanduanes, north Sorsogon, Albay. Naga City and Legaspi City are centers. Alternate names: Bikol.  Dialects: Naga, Legaspi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga 
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Bicolano, Iriga

[bto] 234,000 (2000). 4,583,034 all Bikol languages (2000 census). Luzon, Camarines Sur, Iriga City, Baao, Nabua, Bato. Alternate names: Rinconada Bicolano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Iriga 
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Bicolano, Northern Catanduanes

[cts] 122,000 (2000). 4,583,034 all Bikol languages (2000 census). Luzon, north Catanduanes, east of Bicol. Alternate names: Pandan.  Dialects: 68% comprehension of the Naga dialect of Central Bicolano [bcl], 66% comprehension of Filipino [fil] narrative.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Pandan 
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Bicolano, Southern Catanduanes

[bln] 85,000 (1981 SIL). 4,583,034 all Bikol languages (2000 census). Luzon, south Catanduanes, east of Bicol. Alternate names: Virac.  Dialects: Population samples had 85% comprehension of Central Bicolano [bcl] and Filipino [fil] narrative. Intelligibility of Northern Catanduanes [cts] 91%. Virac dialect is preferable for literature.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Virac 
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Bikol

[bik] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 4,842,303. 
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Binukid

[bkd] 100,000 (1987 SIL). North central Mindanao, Agusan del Sur, south Bukidnon, northeast Cotabato. Alternate names: Binokid, Binukid Manobo, Bukidnon.  Dialects: Similar to Higaonon [mba].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North 
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Blaan, Koronadal

[bpr] 150,000 (2007 SIL). 40,000 monolinguals. Mindanao, South Cotabato and Sarangani provinces. Alternate names: Baraan, Bilanes, Biraan, Koronadal Bilaan, Tagalagad.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic, Blaan 
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Blaan, Sarangani

[bps] 90,800 (2000). Mindanao, South Cotabato Province, Sarangani; Davao Del Sur Province. Alternate names: Balud, Bilaan, Tumanao.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic, Blaan 
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Bolinao

[smk] 50,000 (1990), increasing. 500 monolinguals. Luzon, West Pangasinan Province; Bolinao and Anda municipalities. Alternate names: Binubulinao, Bolinao Sambal, Bolinao Zambal.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Bontoc, Central

[bnc] 540,000 (2007 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals. Luzon, central Mountain Province. Alternate names: Bontoc, Bontoc Igorot.  Dialects: Sadanga, Guinaang, Bontoc. Intelligibility with Ilocano [ilo] 58%, Finallig [bkb] 56%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok 
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Buhid

[bku] 8,000 (1991 OMF). South Mindoro. Alternate names: Bangon, Batangan, Bukil.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid 
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Butuanon

[btw] 34,500 (1990 census). Mindanao, Butuan City. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Kamayo [kyk]; 69% with Surigaonon [sul].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug 
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Caluyanun

[clu] 30,000 (1994 SIL). Antique, Caluya Islands. Alternate names: Caluyanen, Caluyanhon.  Dialects: Semirara. A sample scored 69% on Hiligaynon [hil] narrative comprehension; 62% on Cuyonon [cyo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West 
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Capiznon

[cps] 639,000 (2000). Northeast Panay. Alternate names: Capisano, Capiseño.  Dialects: A population sample had 91% comprehension of Hiligaynon [hil] narrative.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral 
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Cebuano

[ceb] 15,800,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Population total all countries: 15,807,260. Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Visayas and parts of Mindanao. Also in United States. Alternate names: Binisaya, Bisayan, Sebuano, Sugbuanon, Sugbuhanon, Visayan.  Dialects: Cebu, Boholano, Leyte, Mindanao Visayan. Boholano is sometimes considered a separate language.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Cebuan 
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Chavacano

[cbk] 293,000 (1990 census). 155,000 Zamboangueño (Holm 1989), 27,841 Caviten, 3,750 Ternateño (1975 census), 5,473 Cotabato Chavacano (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Zamboanga, Basilan, Kabasalan, Siay, Margosatubig, Ipil, Malangas, Lapuyan, Buug, Tungawa, Alicia, Isabela, Lamitan, Maluso, Malamawi, Cotabato City, Mindanao; Cavite, Ternate, and Ermita near Manila. The 1970 census listed speakers in 60 of the 66 provinces. Alternate names: Chabakano, Zamboangueño.  Dialects: Caviteño, Ternateño (Ternateño Chavacano), Ermitaño (Ermiteño), Davawenyo Zamboanguenyo (Abakay Spanish, Davao Chavacano, Davaoeño, Davaweño), Cotobato Chavacano (Cotabateño), Zamboangueño (Chavacano). A creole with predominantly Spanish vocabulary and Philippine-type grammatical structure.  Classification: Creole, Spanish based 
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Chinese, Mandarin

[cmn] 550 in Philippines. All ethnic Chinese are 53,273 (1990 census).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Min Nan

[nan] 592,000 in Philippines. 98.7% of Chinese population in the Philippines (1982).  Alternate names: Min Nan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Yue

[yue] 9,780 in Philippines (2000).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Cuyonon

[cyo] 123,000 (1990 census). Palawan coast, Cuyo Islands between Palawan and Panay. Alternate names: Cuyo, Cuyono, Cuyunon, Kuyonon, Kuyunon.  Dialects: Similar to Ratagnon [btn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan 
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Davawenyo

[daw] 147,000 (1990 census). Mindanao, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur. Alternate names: Davaoeño, Davaweño, Matino.  Dialects: Synthesis of Filipino [fil], Cebuano [ceb], other Visayan dialects. Some Spanish words. Not a Spanish creole. Different from Davaweño dialect of Chavacano [cbk]. Two dialects: East Coast with 90% of speakers, and Davao City and environs (Whinnom 1956). Lowland Davaweño have 89% intelligibility with Kamayo [kyk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Davawenyo 
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English

[eng] 3,400,000 in Philippines (2000 census).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Filipino

[fil] 25,000,000 (2007). Widespread. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog 
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Finallig

[bkb] 5,000 (1998 SIL). Luzon, central Mountain Province. Alternate names: Eastern Bontoc, Kadaklan-Barlig Bontoc, Southern Bontoc.  Dialects: Lias, Barlig, Kadaklan. Intelligibility with Ilocano [ilo] 53%; Balangao [blw] 49%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok 
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Ga’dang

[gdg] 6,000 (2002 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Paracelis, Mt. Province, Luzon; Potia, Ifugao. Alternate names: Baliwon, Gaddang, Ginabwal.  Dialects: Related to Gaddang [gad], Itawit [itv], Yogad [yog], Ibanag [ibg], Isnag [isd]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Gaddang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic 
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Gaddang

[gad] 30,000 (1984 SIL). Luzon, Central Isabela, and Bagabag, Solano; Nueva Vizcaya, Bayombong. Alternate names: Cagayan.  Dialects: Less than 80% intelligibility of Ga’dang [gdg]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Ga’dang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic 
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Giangan

[bgi] 55,000 (1990 census). Mindanao, Davao City; Davao del Sur, east slopes of Mt. Apo. Alternate names: Atto, Bagobo, Clata, Eto, Guanga, Gulanga, Jangan.  Dialects: 69% comprehension of Tagabawa [bgs]; 79% of Obo Manobo [obo]. Lexical similarity: 34% with Tagabawa, 35% with Obo Manobo; 43% with Blaan [bpr].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic 
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Hanunoo

[hnn] 13,000 (2000). Southern Oriental Mindoro. Alternate names: Hanonoo.  Dialects: Gubatnon (Gubat, Sorsogonon), Binli, Kagankan, Waigan, Wawan, Bulalakawnon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Hanunoo 
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Higaonon

[mba] 30,000 (1996 NTM). North central Mindanao, Misamis Oriental, south of Ginoog City. Alternate names: Misamis Higaonon Manobo.  Dialects: Related to Binukid [bkd] with 77%–81% intelligibility.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North 
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Hiligaynon

[hil] 5,770,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Iloilo and Capiz provinces, Panay, Negros Occidental, Visayas. Also in United States. Alternate names: Hiligainon, Illogo, Ilonggo.  Dialects: Hiligaynon, Kawayan, Bantayan, Kari.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral 
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Ibaloi

[ibl] 111,000 (1990 census). Luzon, central and south Benguet Province, west Nueva Vizcaya Province. Alternate names: Benguet-Igorot, Ibadoy, Ibaloy, Igodor, Inibaloi, Nabaloi.  Dialects: Daklan, Kabayan, Bokod.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Ibaloy 
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Ibanag

[ibg] 500,000 (1990 SIL). Luzon, Isabela and Cagayan provinces. Alternate names: Ybanag.  Dialects: North Ibanag, South Ibanag. Intelligibility with Itawit [itv] 69%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic 
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Ibatan

[ivb] 1,350 (2000 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Babuyan Island, north of Luzon; Northern Luzon (a few students). Alternate names: Babuyan, Ibataan, Ivatan.  Dialects: Intelligibility with Itbayaten Ivatan [ivv] 64%; Basco Ivatan [ivv] 31%. Lexical similarity: 72% with Itbayaten Ivatan, 74% with Basco Ivatan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bashiic, Ivatan 
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Ifugao, Amganad

[ifa] 27,100 (2000 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals. 167,503 all Ifugao (1990 census). Ethnic population: 25,500. Luzon, Central Ifugao Province. Alternate names: Amganad, Ifugaw.  Dialects: Burnay Ifugao, Banaue Ifugao. Intelligibility of Burnay dialect 81%. Lexical similarity: 83% with Burnay dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw 
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Ifugao, Batad

[ifb] 43,000 (1987 SIL). Luzon, Ifugao Province. Alternate names: Batad, Ifugaw.  Dialects: Ayangan Ifugao, Batad Ifugao, Ducligan Ifugao. Intelligibility of Batad Ifugao: Ayangan dialect 87%; Mayoyao [ifu] 86%–94%. Lexical similarity: 81% between Batad and Ayangan dialects, with Ducligan 89%, with Mayoyao 79%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw 
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Ifugao, Mayoyao

[ifu] 30,000 (2007 SIL). Luzon, Ifugao Province. Alternate names: Ifugaw, Mayaoyaw, Mayoyao.  Dialects: 86%–94% intelligibility of Batad [ifb]. Grammatical markers are different. Lexical similarity: 79% with Batad Ifugao, 85% with Ayangan [ifb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw 
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Ifugao, Tuwali

[ifk] 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Only those below grade school age are monolingual. Luzon, south Ifugao Province. Alternate names: Gilipanes, Ifugaw, Kiangan Ifugao, Quiangan.  Dialects: Hapao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, Lagawe Ifugao. 77% intelligibility of Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 78% with Batad [ifb]. Hapao dialect has 88% intelligibility with Tuwali, Hungduan 85% with Kiangan. Lexical similarity: 80% with Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 72% with Batad Ifugao [ifb], 78% with Hapao dialect, 86% with Hungduan dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw 
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Ilocano

[ilo] 6,920,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Population total all countries: 6,996,600. Northwest Luzon, La Union and Ilocos provinces, Cagayan Valley, Babuyan, Mindoro, Mindanao. Also in United States. Alternate names: Ilokano, Iloko.  Dialects: A pidginized form is used in northern Luzon highlands.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Ilocano 
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Ilongot

[ilk] 50,800 (1990 census). Luzon, east Nueva Vizcaya, Western Quirino. Alternate names: Bugkalut, Bukalot, Lingotes.  Dialects: Abaka (Abaca), Egongot, Ibalao (Ibilao), Italon, Iyongut.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Ilongot 
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Inabaknon

[abx] 21,400 (2000 SIL), increasing. 4,000 monolinguals (almost all children). The population increased by 300–500 per year. About 500 per year leave to find opportunities elsewhere. San Bernardino Strait, Capul Island, Northwest Samar; west Samar coast facing the island; Manila. Alternate names: Abaknon, Abaknon Sama, Capul, Capuleño, Kapul, Sama.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Abaknon 
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Inakeanon

[akl] 395,000 (1990 census). Aklan Province, north Panay. Alternate names: Aklan, Aklano, Aklanon, Aklanon-Bisayan, Panay.  Dialects: 66% intelligibility with Hiligaynon [hil]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Hiligaynon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan 
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Inonhan

[loc] 85,800 (2000). Romblon Province, South Tablas Island, Mindoro Oriental, Mindoro Occidental. Alternate names: Loocnon, Looknon, “Unhan”.  Dialects: Bulalakaw, Dispoholnon, Looknon, Alcantaranon. Lexical similarity: 70% with Odionganon [bno] (Bantuanon), 93% with Aklanon [akl], 86% with Caluyanun [clu].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, North Central 
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Iraya

[iry] 10,000 (1991 OMF). North Mindoro. Dialects: Abra-De-Ilog, Alag-Bako, Pagbahan, Palauan-Calavite, Pambuhan, Santa Cruz.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, North Mangyan 
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Isinai

[inn] 5,520 (1990 census). Luzon, Nueva Vizcaya, Bambang, Dupax, and Aritao. Alternate names: Inmeas, Insinai, Isinay, Isnay.  Dialects: Not similar to other languages. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ilocano [ilo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Isinai 
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Isnag

[isd] 30,000 (1994 SIL). Luzon, north Apayao. Alternate names: Dibagat-Kabugao-Isneg, Isneg, Maragat.  Dialects: Bayag, Dibagat-Kabugao, Calanasan, Karagawan (Daragawan), Talifugu-Ripang (Tawini). Calanasan dialect 94% intelligibility with Dibagat dialect, 88% with Ilocano [ilo]; Talifugu-Ripang 89% with Dibagat, 71% with Ilocano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Isnag 
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Itawit

[itv] 134,000 (1990 census). 119,584 Itawit, 14,542 Malaweg. Luzon, south Cagayan. Alternate names: Itawes, Itawis, Tawit.  Dialects: Malaweg (Malaueg), Itawis. Related to Ibanag languages; 72% intelligibility with South Ibanag [ibg]; 68% with Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Ilocano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic 
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Itneg, Banao

[bjx] 3,500 (2003 SIL). Unknown number in the Malibcong dialect area. Luzon, east Abra Province. Alternate names: Banao, Banaw, Itneg, Timggian, Tinguian.  Dialects: Malibcong Banao, Banao Pikekj, Gubang Itneg. Lexical similarity: Malibcong Banao 58% with Ilocano [ilo], 81% with Lubuagan Kalinga [knb], 73% with Limos Kalinga [kmk]; Banao Pikek (Daguioman) dialect 62% with Ilocano, 83% with Masadiit and Boliney Itneg [tis], 79% with Masadiit and Sallapadan Itneg [tis], 78% with the Banao dialect of Malibcong, and 73% with Binongan Itneg [itb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Itneg, Binongan

[itb] 7,500 (2003 SIL). 46,405 in all Itneg varieties (1990 census). Luzon, Ba-ay Valley and Licuan Abra Province. Alternate names: Tingguian, Tinguian.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Ilocano [ilo], 79% with Masadiit Itneg [tis].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg 
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Itneg, Inlaod

[iti] 9,000 (2003 SIL). Northern Luzon, Abra Province, a few barangays of Penarubia, Lagangilang, Danglas, and Langiden; southwest of Binongan Itneg [itb], northwest of Masadiit Itneg [tis]. Alternate names: Tinggian, Tinguian.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: Inlaod of Langiden 73% with Ilocano [ilo]; Inlaod of Danglas 71% with Ilocano, 75%–77% with Binongan Itneg [itb], 75%–76% with Masadiit [tis] of Sallapadan, 74%–75% with Moyadan Itneg [ity]. Inlaod of Langiden and Inlaod of Danglas 86% with each other.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg 
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Itneg, Maeng

[itt] 18,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 18,000. Luzon, south Abra Province, Luba, Tubo, Villavisciosa municipalities. Alternate names: Luba-Tiempo Itneg, Southern Itneg.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: Tubo area 60% with Ilocano [ilo], 68% with Northern Kankanaey [kne]; Villavisciosa area 76% with Ilocano, 61% with Northern Kankanaey.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg 
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Itneg, Masadiit

[tis] 7,500. 45,000 all Itnegs in Abra Province. Luzon, Abra Province, Sallapadan and Bucloc, Boliney. Dialects: Masadiit Boliney, Masadiit Sallapadan. Lexical similarity: 62% with Ilocano [ilo], 70% with Guinaang Kalinga [knb], 86% with Binongan Itneg [itb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg 
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Itneg, Moyadan

[ity] 12,000 (2003 SIL). Luzon, Abra Province. Alternate names: Tinggian, Tinguian.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Ilocano [ilo], 85% with Masadiit Sallapadan [tis], 80% with Masadiit Boliney [tis], 76% with Binongan Itneg [itb], 75% with Inlaod Danglas [iti], 74% with Inlaod Langiden [iti], 73% with Maeng [itt] of Tubo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg 
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Ivatan

[ivv] 35,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. 3,448 Itbayatan (1996 census). Batanes Islands. Many relocated to Mindanao near Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, and Cotabato; Manila, Luzon, Palawan, other countries. Dialects: Itbayaten, Basco Ivatan, Southern Ivatan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bashiic, Ivatan 
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I-wak

[iwk] 3,260 (2000). Luzon, Benguet Province, extreme east Itogon, reportedly in Tojongan, Bakes, Lebeng, Domolpos, Bujasjas, Kayo-ko, Salaksak (in Kayapa) villages. Also in Capintalan in Nueva Ecija, but speak only Kallahan [kak]. Alternate names: Iwaak.  Dialects: Related to Karao [kyj], Ibaloi [ibl], Kallahan [kak].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Ibaloy 
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Kagayanen

[cgc] 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 25,000. Palawan Province, Cagayan Island, between Negros and Palawan; Palawan coastal communities; south Palawan, Balabac island, Quezon and Rizal communities; north Palawan, Busuanga region, Coron Municipality. Subgroupings in Iloilo Province, Silay, Negros, and Manila. Alternate names: Cagayano, Kagay-anen, Kinagayanen.  Dialects: Calamian Kagayanen.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North 
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Kalagan

[kqe] 21,400 (1990 census). Davao del Sur and Davao Oriental, east and west shores of Davao Gulf. Dialects: Isamal, Piso, Tumuaong, Lactan. A population sample scored 87% on Cebuano [ceb] narrative text. Lexical similarity: 72% between Piso dialect and Kagan [kll], 74% with Mansaka [msk]; 83% with Sangab Mandaya [myt].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western 
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Kalagan, Kagan

[kll] 6,000 (1981 SIL). Mindanao, Davao City. Alternate names: Kaagan, Kagan Kalagan.  Dialects: 82% intelligibility with Piso Kalagan [kqe] dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western 
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Kalagan, Tagakaulu

[klg] 83,000 (2000 census). 40,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000. South Mindanao, Sarangani Province, Davao Del Sur. Alternate names: Tagakaolo.  Dialects: Related to Mandaya, Kalagan, and Kamayo [kyk]. About 85% intelligibility with Mansaka [msk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western 
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Kalinga, Butbut

[kyb] 8,000 (1998). Luzon, Butbut, Tinglayan, Kalinga Province. Alternate names: Butbut.  Dialects: 72% intelligibility with Limos Kalinga [kmk]; 44% with Ilocano [ilo]; 70% with Guinaang [knb], 47% with Tanudan [kml], 74% with Bangad (Southern) Kalinga [ksc]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Southern Kalinga, 78% with Guinaang and Tanudan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Limos

[kmk] 20,000 (1977 SIL). Luzon, Kalinga Province. Alternate names: Limos-Liwan Kalinga, Northern Kalinga.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Lower Tanudan

[kml] 11,200 (1998 SIL). Under 10% monolinguals. Luzon, south Kalinga Province. Alternate names: Lower Tanudan.  Dialects: Minangali, Tinaloctoc, Pinangol. Intelligibility of Limos Kalinga [kmk], 79%, Guinaang 66% [knb]. Lexical similarity: 97% with Pangul, 80% with Madukayang [kmd].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Lubuagan

[knb] 14,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 15,000. Luzon, Kalinga-Apayao provinces. Dialects: Guinaang, Balbalasang, Lubuagan, Ableg-Salegseg, Balatok-Kalinga (Balatok-Itneg). Intelligibility of Balbalasang dialect 81%, Sumadel [ksc] 82%, Limos [kmk] 70%, 48% comprehension of Ilocano [ilo] narrative. Lexical similarity: 81% with Balbalasang and Limos.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Mabaka Valley

[kkg]  Luzon, southeast Kalinga Province. Alternate names: Kal-Uwan, Mabaka, Mabaka Itneg.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Madukayang

[kmd] 1,500 (1990 SIL). Luzon, south Mountain Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Majukayong.  Dialects: 83% intelligibility with Limos Kalinga [kmk] and Balangao [blw], 86% with Mangali. Lexical similarity: 80% with Tanudan Kalinga [kgh], 68% with Limos Kalinga, 65% with Balangao, 80% with Mangali.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Southern

[ksc] 13,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 58% are monolingual. Luzon, Kalinga Province. 13 villages; some in Tabuk. Alternate names: Tinglayan Kalinga.  Dialects: Mallango, Sumadel, Bangad, Tinglayan. Intelligibility of Guinaang Kalinga [knb] 63%, Mangali 51%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Upper Tanudan

[kgh] 3,000 (1991 SIL). Luzon, Kalinga Province, south end of Tanudan Valley. Alternate names: Upper Tanudan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kallahan, Kayapa

[kak] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Luzon, west Nueva Vizcaya, northeast Pangasinan, west Ifugao. Alternate names: Akab, Ikalahan, Kalangoya, Kalangoya-Ikalahan, Kalanguya, Kalkali, Kayapa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan 
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Kallahan, Keley-i

[ify] 8,000 (2000 SIL). Napayo, Kiangan Ifugao Province, northwest of Aritao, Nueva. Alternate names: Antipolo Ifugao, Hanalulo, Keley-i, Keley-i Kalanguya, Keleyqiq Ifugao.  Dialects: Bayninan, Ya-Tuka.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan 
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Kallahan, Tinoc

[tne]  Luzon, Hungduan, Tinoc barrio. Alternate names: Tinoc Kalangoya.  Dialects: Intelligibility with Akab 95%, Tinoc 89%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan 
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Kamayo

[kyk] 7,570 (2000 WCD). Mindanao, Surigao del Sur between Marihatag and Lingig. Dialects: North Kamayo, South Kamayo. Intelligibility with Surigaonon [sul] 92%, with Butuanon [btw] 87%, with Mansaka [msk] 82%. Lexical similarity: 66% with Surigaonon, 70% with Butuanon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Northern 
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Kankanaey

[kne] 150,000 (1991 SIL). All Kankanai 218,279 (1990 census). Luzon, north Benguet Province, southwest Mountain Province, southeast Ilocos Sur, northeast La Union. Alternate names: Central Kankanaey, Kankanai, Kankanay.  Dialects: Mankayan-Buguias, Kapangan, Bakun-Kibungan, Guinzadan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay 
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Kankanay, Northern

[xnn] 70,000 (1987 SIL). Luzon, west Mountain Province, southeast Ilocos Sur. Alternate names: Sagada Igorot, Western Bontoc.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay 
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Karao

[kyj] 1,400 (1998 SIL). Luzon, east Benguet Province, Karao, Ekip, Bokod. Alternate names: Karaw.  Dialects: Limited comprehension testing showed 85% comprehension of Kayapa Kallahan [kak]; 78% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Ibaloi [ibl].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Karaw 
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Karolanos

[kyn] 15,100 (2000). Kabankalan, mid-central Negros. Dialects: Similar to Magahat [mtw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine 
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Kasiguranin

[ksn] 10,000 (1975 SIL). Luzon, Aurora Province, Casiguran. Alternate names: Casiguranin.  Dialects: 82% intelligibility with Paranan [agp]. Lexical similarity: 52% with Tagalog [tgl], 75% with Paranan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern 
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Katabaga

[ktq] Extinct. Luzon, Bondoc Peninsula. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified 
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Kinaray-a

[krj] 378,000 (1994 SIL). Iloilo and Antique provinces, west Panay. Alternate names: Antiqueño, Ati, Hamtiknon, Hinaray-a, Karay-a, Kiniray-a, Panayano, Sulud.  Dialects: Pandan, Hamtik, Anini-y, Pototan, Lambunao, Miag-Ao, Guimaras Island (Gimaras). Antique area has 67% comprehension of Filipino [fil]; 61% of Hiligaynon [hil]; Iloilo area, 78% of Hiligaynon; 85% of Antique.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kinarayan 
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Magahat

[mtw] 7,570 (2000). Southwestern Negros, Mt. Arniyo near Bayawan, upper Tayaban, Bayawan (Tolong), Tanjag, Santa Catalina, and Siaton provinces. Alternate names: Ata-Man, Bukidnon.  Dialects: Similar to Karolanos [kyn]. Reported to include a heavy mixture of Cebuano [ceb] and Hiligaynon [hil].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine 
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Maguindanao

[mdh] 1,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). 766,565 Maguindanao (1990 census), 241,000 Iranun (1981 SIL). Maguindanao, North Cotabato, South Cotabato, Sultan Kuderat, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces; Iranun also in Bukidnon, Mindanao. Alternate names: Magindanaon, Magindanaw, Maguindanaw.  Dialects: Laya, Ilud, Biwangan, Sibugay, Iranun (Ilanon, Illanon, Ilanum, Iranon), Tagakawanan. 84% intelligibility of the Iranun dialect, 60% with Maranao [mrw]; 96% with Illanun [ill] of Sabah, Malaysia, and 95% with Maranao [mrw]. Comprehension of Filipino [fil] is low. Subdialects of Iranun: Iranun and Isebanganen.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Magindanao 
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Malaynon

[mlz] 8,500 (1973 SIL). Malay, northwest Aklan Province, lowland, Panay. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 93% with Aklanon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan 
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Mamanwa

[mmn] 5,150 (1990 census). Agusan del Norte and Surigao provinces, Mindanao. Alternate names: Mamanwa Negrito, Minamanwa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mamanwa 
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Mandaya, Cataelano

[mst] 19,000 (1980 census). 34,317 all Mandaya (1990 census). Town of Cateel, Davao Oriental, Mindanao. Alternate names: Cateelenyo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Mandayan 
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Mandaya, Karaga

[mry] 3,000 (1982 SIL). Lamiyawan area, Davao Oriental, Mindanao. Alternate names: Carraga Mandaya, Manay Mandayan, Mangaragan Mandaya.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 89% with Mansaka [msk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Caraga 
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Mandaya, Sangab

[myt] 7,570 (2000). Carraga River head, Banlalaysan area, highland, Davao del Norte, Mindanao. Alternate names: Sangab.  Dialects: 77% intelligibility with Mansaka [msk]. Lexical similarity: 83% with Tumuwaong (Kalagan) [kqe], 79% with Boston, 72% with Boso.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Mandayan 
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Manobo, Agusan

[msm] 60,000 (2002 SIL). 157,408 all Manobo (1990 census). Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Sur, Mindanao. Alternate names: Agusan.  Dialects: Umayam, Adgawan, Surigao, Omayamnon. 83% intelligibility with Dibabawon. Lexical similarity: 80% between the Omayamnon dialect and other dialects, 85% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East 
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Manobo, Ata

[atd] 26,700 (2000 census). Mindanao, northwestern Davao. Alternate names: Ata of Davao, Atao Manobo, Langilan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa 
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Manobo, Cinamiguin

[mkx] 60,000 (1973 SIL). Camiguin Island, north of Mindanao. Alternate names: Cinamiguin, Kamigin, Kinamigin.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North 
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Manobo, Cotabato

[mta] 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 5,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000. Sultan Kudarat Province, Mindanao. Alternate names: Dulangan Manobo.  Dialects: Tasaday, Blit.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South 
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Manobo, Dibabawon

[mbd] 10,000 (1978 SIL). Manguagan, Davao del Norte, Mindanao. Alternate names: Debabaon, Dibabaon, Mandaya.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East 
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Manobo, Ilianen

[mbi] 14,600 (2000). Few monolinguals. Northern Cotabato, Mindanao. Being pushed more north and east up to Obo Manobo country. Alternate names: Ilianen.  Dialects: Livunganen, Puleniyan, Arkan Valley.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, West 
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Manobo, Matigsalug

[mbt] 30,000 (2002 SIL). 5,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000. Davao del Norte, southeast Bukidnon, Mindanao. Alternate names: Matig-Salug Manobo.  Dialects: Kulamanen, Tigwa, Tala Ingod, Matig-Salug. Tigwa has marginal intelligibility with Matig-Salug. Tala Ingod may have adequate intelligibility with Matig-Salug.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa 
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Manobo, Obo

[obo] 60,000 (2007 SIL). 20,000 monolinguals. Northeastern slope of Mt. Apo, between Davao del Sur and North Cotabato, Mindanao. Alternate names: Bagobo, Kidapawan Manobo, Obo Bagobo.  Dialects: Kidapawan Manobo, Magpet Manobo, Arakan Manobo, Marilog. 69% intelligibility of Tigwa (Matigsalug Manobo [mbt]; most similar), 60% of Tagabawa [bgs]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Tagabawa [bgs] and Ilianen Manobo [mbi], 35% with Cebuano [ceb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Obo 
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Manobo, Rajah Kabunsuwan

[mqk] 7,570 (2000). Southern Surigao del Sur. Alternate names: Rajah Kabungsuan Manobo.  Dialects: Intelligibility with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd] 80%, San Miguel Calatugan Agusan [msm] 81%. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd], 76% with Sagunto dialect of Agusan Manobo [msm] and San Miguel Calatugan dialect of Agusan Manobo [msm].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East 
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Manobo, Sarangani

[mbs] 58,000 (2000 census). Southern and eastern Davao, Mindanao. Dialects: Governor Generoso Manobo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South 
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Manobo, Western Bukidnon

[mbb] 19,000 (2000). Mindanao, southern Bukidnon Province. Dialects: Ilentungen, Kiriyenteken, Pulangiyen.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, West 
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Mansaka

[msk] 57,800 (2000). Eastern Davao and Davao Oriental provinces, Mindanao. Alternate names: Mandaya Mansaka.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Bislig-Mati, 89% with Karaga Mandaya, 84% with Mati, 74% with Piso (Kalagan).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Mandayan 
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Mapun

[sjm] 40,600 in Philippines (2000). Population total all countries: 42,470. Cagayan de Sulu and Palawan islands. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanen, Cagayano, Cagayanon, Jama Mapun, Kagayan, Orang, Sama Mapun.  Dialects: Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 59%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw 
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Maranao

[mrw] 776,000 (1990 census). Mindanao, Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur provinces. Alternate names: Maranaw, Ranao.  Dialects: Intelligibility of Iranun [mdh] (see Magindanaon) 87%; of Maguindanao 52%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon 
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Masbatenyo

[msb] 350,000 (2002 SIL), increasing. 50,000 monolinguals mostly children. Ethnic population: 700,000. Masbate Province, 3 islands. Alternate names: Masbateño, Minasbate.  Dialects: Related to Hiligaynon [hil] and Capiznon [cps]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Capiznon [cps], 76% with Hiligaynon [hil].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral 
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Molbog

[pwm] 6,680 in Philippines (1990 census). Population total all countries: 13,360. Balabac Island, southern Palawan. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Molbog Palawan.  Dialects: Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw] has 27% intelligibility of Molbog; South Palawano 55%. Lexical similarity: 69% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic 
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Palawano, Brooke’s Point

[plw] 14,400 (2000). South Palawan island, east side from just south of Abu Abu to Bataraza, mostly along upland rivers, with a few living along the coast. Alternate names: Brooke’s Point Palawan, Palawan, Palawanun, Palaweño.  Dialects: South Palawano (Bugsuk Palawano). Intelligibility of Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central) 76%; of Southwest Palawano [plv] 68%; of South Palawano 87%. Low comprehension of Filipino [fil]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central), 85% with Southwest Palawano [plv], 83% with South Palawano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic 
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Palawano, Central

[plc] 12,000 (1981 UBS). 40,549 all Palawano (1990 census). Southern Palawan island, on the west side from north of Quezon to just north of Rizal, also around Abu Abu on the east side, mostly along upland rivers, with a few living along the coast. Alternate names: Palawanen, Palaweño, Quezon Palawano.  Dialects: Intelligibility of Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw] 95%, of Southwest Palawano [plv] 46%. Comprehension of Filipino [fil] low. Lexical similarity: 82% with Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw], 78% with Southwest Palawano [plv].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic 
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Palawano, Southwest

[plv] 12,000 (2005 W. Davis). South Palawan Island, west side from north of Rizal to the south tip, on east side from Bataraza south, mostly along upland rivers, with a few living along the coast. Dialects: Intelligibility of Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central) 75%, of Brooke’s Point [plw] 76%. Low comprehension of Filipino [fil]. Lexical similarity: 85% with Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw], 78% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic 
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Pampangan

[pam] 1,900,000 in Philippines (1990 census). Population total all countries: 1,905,550. Pampanga, Tarlac, and Bataan provinces, Luzon. Also in United States. Alternate names: Kapampangan, Pampango, Pampangueño.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Pampangan 
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Pangasinan

[pag] 1,160,000 in Philippines (1990 census). Population total all countries: 1,162,040. Pangasinan Province, Luzon. Also in United States. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran 
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Paranan

[agp] 16,700 (2007 SIL). 15,000 Lowland Paranan. East coast, Isabela Province, Luzon; surrounded by hills. Isolated. Alternate names: Palanenyo, Palanan.  Dialects: Palanan Dumagat (Palanan Valley Agta, Palanan Valley Dumagat), Casiguran Dumagat. Intelligibility of Casiguran Dumagat Agta [dgc] dialect 76%, Palanan Dumagat intelligibility of Paranan Agta dialect 98%, of Casiguran Dumagat 94%. Lexical similarity: 85% with Palanan Dumagat, 87% with Casiguran Dumagat.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern 
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Philippine Sign Language

[psp] 100,000 deaf persons (Van Cleve 1986).  Alternate names: Filipino Sign Language, FSL, Local Sign Language.  Dialects: Reportedly very similar to American Sign Language [ase].  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Porohanon

[prh] 23,000. Camotes Islands. Alternate names: Camotes.  Dialects: Barely intelligible with Cebuano [ceb] (1967 J. Wolff). More similar to Masbatenyo [msb] and Hiligaynon [hil]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Cebuano [ceb](1967 J. Wolff).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral 
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Ratagnon

[btn] 2 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 SIL). Southern tip of western Mindoro. Alternate names: Aradigi, Datagnon, Lactan, Latagnun, Latan.  Dialects: Ratagnon, Santa Teresa. Similar to Cuyonon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan  Nearly extinct.
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Romblomanon

[rol] 200,000 (2007 SIL). Romblon and Sibuyan Islands, parts of eastern Tablas Island, north of Panay. Alternate names: Romblon.  Dialects: Sibuyan, Romblon, Basiq. Sibuyan Island has 70% intelligibility of Aklanon, 73% of Hiligaynon [hil], 94% of the Romblon dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Romblon 
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Sama, Central

[sml] 90,000 (2000). Sulu Province. Alternate names: Central Sinama, Samal, Siasi Sama, Sinama.  Dialects: Dilaut-Badjao. Intelligibility of Tausug [tsg] 59%; of Balangingi [sse] 79%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama 
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Sama, Pangutaran

[slm] 35,200 (2000). West central Sulu, Pangutaran Island, west of Jolo, Mindanao. Also southern Palawan, Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi. Alternate names: Siyama.  Dialects: Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 65%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Western Sulu Sama 
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Sama, Southern

[ssb] 200,000 in Philippines (2007 SIL), increasing. 5,000 to 10,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 319,000. Archipelago northeast of Borneo, southern Sulu. Tawi-Tawi Island group includes Tawi-Tawi, Simunul, Sibutu, and other major islands. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Sama Sibutu’, Sama Tawi-Tawi.  Dialects: Sibutu’ (Sibutu), Simunul, Tandubas, Obian, Balimbing, Bongao, Sitangkai, Languyan, Sapa-Sapa. Sibutu intelligibility of Sama Central [sml] 77%, of the Simunul dialect 89%. Simunul intelligibility of Sama Central [sml] 77%, of the Sibutu dialect 80%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama 
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Sambal, Botolan

[sbl] 32,900 (2000 SIL), increasing. Central Luzon, Zambales Province, Botolan and Cabangan municipalities. People were affected by Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Alternate names: Aeta Negrito, Ayta Hambali, Botolan Zambal.  Dialects: Ayta Hambali (Hambali Botolan), Sambali Botolan. Among themselves, Ayta Hambali use some words that are similar to Ayta Mag-anchi [sgb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Sambal, Tinà

[xsb] 70,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000. Luzon, northern Zambales Province, 5 towns, 2 villages in Pangasinan Province, and village of Panitian, Quezon on Palawan Island. Alternate names: Sambali, Tina.  Dialects: Santa Cruz, Masinloc, Iba. 70% intelligibility with Botolan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Sangil

[snl] 15,000 (1996 SIL). Balut Island, Sarangani Island, Mindanao. Alternate names: Sanggil, Sangiré.  Dialects: Sarangani, Mindanao. Lexical similarity: 90% with Sangir [sxn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern 
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Sangir

[sxn] 55,000 in Philippines (1981 SIL). Balut and Sarangani islands off of Mindanao. Alternate names: Sangihé, Sangirese.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern 
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Sinauna

[agv] 2,530 (2000). Luzon; Santa Inez, Rizal Province; Paimohuan, General Nakar, Quezon Province. Alternate names: Hatang-Kayey, Remontado Agta.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 73% with Filipino [fil], 37% with Umiray Dumaget Agta [due].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sinauna 
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Sorsogon, Masbate

[bks] 85,000 (1975 census). Luzon, Sorsogon, Casiguran and Juban, Sorsogon Province. Alternate names: Northern Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bicolano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan 
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Sorsogon, Waray

[srv] 185,000 (1975 census). Southern Sorsogon Province. Alternate names: Bikol Sorsogon, Gubat, Southern Sorsogon.  Dialects: Comprehension of Masbatenyo [msb] 63%–91%; of Central Bicolano [bcl] (Naga) 71%–82%; of Filipino [fil] 85%–91%. Similar to Waray-Waray [war].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Gubat 
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Spanish

[spa] 2,660 in Philippines (1990 census). Mainly in Manila. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Subanen, Central

[syb] 140,000 (2000), increasing. Eastern Zamboanga Peninsula, Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago. Alternate names: Sindangan Subanun.  Dialects: Eastern Kolibugan (Eastern Kalibugan). Intelligibility with Lapuyan [laa] 71%. Lexical similarity: 79% with Western Subanen [suc].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern 
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Subanen, Northern

[stb] 10,000 (1985 SIL). Tuboy: Sergio Osmeña, Mutia; Zamboanga del Norte; Salog: Misamis Occidental, Mindanao. Alternate names: Tuboy Subanon.  Dialects: Dapitan, Salog (Salug), Dikayu. 63% intelligibility with Sindanga, 40% with Lapuyan [laa]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Sindanga.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern 
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Subanon, Kolibugan

[skn] 20,000 (1998 SIL). Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula, southern Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur provinces. Alternate names: Calibugan, Kalibugan, Kolibugan.  Dialects: Similar to Western Subanon [suc], but there are limitations on inherent intelligibility between the two. Lexical and grammatical differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern 
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Subanon, Western

[suc] 75,000 (1997 SIL). Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula. Alternate names: Siocon.  Dialects: Siocon, Western Kolibugan (Western Kalibugan). Lexical similarity: 89% between the Siocon and Western Kolibugan dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern 
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Subanun, Lapuyan

[laa] 25,000 (1978 SIL). Subpeninsulas of eastern Zamboanga del Sur, Mindanao. Alternate names: Lapuyen, Margosatubig, Subanen.  Dialects: Lapuyan Subanun speakers understand Central Subanen [syb] (85%), but not vice versa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern 
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Sulod

[srg] 14,000 (1980 SIL). Tapaz, Capiz Province; Lambunao, Iloilo Province; Valderrama, Antique Province, Panay. Alternate names: Bukidnon, Mondo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine 
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Surigaonon

[sul] 345,000 (1990 census). Surigao, Carrascal, Cantilan, Madrid, Lanusa. Dialects: Jaun-Jaun, Cantilan (Kantilan), Naturalis, Surigaonon. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd], 81% with Agusan Manobo [msm], 69% with Butuanon [btw].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Surigao 
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Tadyawan

[tdy] 4,150 (2000). East central Mindoro. Alternate names: Balaban, Pula, Tadianan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, North Mangyan 
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Tagabawa

[bgs] 43,000 (1998 SIL). Mindanao, Davao City, slopes of Mt. Apo. Alternate names: Tagabawa Bagobo, Tagabawa Manobo.  Dialects: Comprehension of Tigwa Manobo [mbt] 45%; low comprehension of Cebuano [ceb]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Sarangani Manobo [mbs]; 34% with Giangan [bgi].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South 
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Tagalog

[tgl] 21,500,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Population total all countries: 23,853,200. Manila, most of Luzon, and Mindoro. Also in Canada, Guam, Libya, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. Dialects: Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Puray, Tanay-Paete, Tayabas.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog 
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Tagbanwa

[tbw] 10,000 (2002 SIL). 5% monolinguals. Palawan, in scattered communities ranging from about 120 kms. south to 60 kms. north of Puerto Princesa, on both sides of the island. Alternate names: Aborlan Tagbanwa, Apurawnon, Tagbanua.  Dialects: Intelligibility with Central Palawano [plc] 66%, with Cuyonon [cyo] 77%. Lexical similarity: 65% with Central Palawano [plc], 71% with Batak [bya], 54% with Cuyonon [cyo].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic 
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Tagbanwa, Calamian

[tbk] 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Calamian Group and Linapacan Group in northern part of Palawan Province; also 3 Tagbanwa communities on northeastern coast of Palawan Island. Dialects: Baras. Closely related to Kinalamianen and Binusuanganen; Baras dialect on Palawan Island 94% intelligibility with Calamian Tagbanwa. Lexical similarity: 80% between the Calamian and Baras dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Kalamian 
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Tagbanwa, Central

[tgt] 2,000 (1985 SIL). Northern Palawan. Dialects: Intelligibility with Tagbanwa [tbw] (Lamane) 29%, with Calamian Tagbanwa 56%, with Cuyonon [cyo] 61%. Low comprehension of Filipino [fil]. Lexical similarity: 56% with Tagbanwa [tbw] (Lamane), 57% with Calamian Tagbanwa [tbk], 48% with Cuyonon [cyo], 40% with Tagalog [tgl].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic 
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Tausug

[tsg] 900,000 in Philippines (2000 SIL), increasing. 250,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 1,062,000. Jolo, Sulu Archipelago. Palawan Island, Basilan Island, Zamboanga City and environs. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Bahasa Sug, Moro Joloano, Sinug, Sulu, Suluk, Tausog, Taw Sug.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug 
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Tawbuid, Eastern

[bnj] 7,190 (2000). Central Mindoro. Alternate names: Bangon, Barangan, Batangan, Binatangan, Fanawbuid, Suri, Tabuid, Taubuid, Tiron.  Dialects: Western Tawbuid [twb] is distinct.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid 
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Tawbuid, Western

[twb] 6,810 (2000). Central Mindoro; Occidental Mindor, mainly Sablayan and Calintaan municipalities; Oriental Mindoro, Bongabon Municipality. Alternate names: Batangan Taubuid, Fanawbuid, Western Taubuid.  Dialects: Eastern Tawbuid [bnj] is distinct. Most similar to Buhid [bku].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid 
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Tboli

[tbl] 95,300 (2000). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000 to 120,000. South Cotabato Province, Southwestern Mindanao. Alternate names: T’boli, “Tagabili” , Tiboli.  Dialects: Central Tboli, Western Tboli, Southern Tboli.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic, Tboli 
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Tiruray

[tiy] 50,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 50,000. Upi, Cotabato, Mindanao. Alternate names: Teduray, Tirurai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic 
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Waray-Waray

[war] 2,570,000 (2000 census). Northern and eastern Samar-Leyte. Alternate names: Binisaya, Samar-Leyte, Samaran, Samareño, Waray.  Dialects: Waray, Samar-Leyte, Northern Samar, Utudnon, Baybay, Leyte. Several dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Samar-Waray 
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Yakan

[yka] 106,000 in Philippines (1990 census), increasing. 33% monolinguals. 86,926 in Basilan Province. Population total all countries: 107,000. Sulu Archipelago, Basilan Island and small surrounding islands, Sakol Island, east coast of Zamboanga peninsula, western Mindanao. They live more concentrated away from the coast. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Yacan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic 
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Yogad

[yog] 16,000 (1990 census). Echague and several nearby towns, Isabela Province, Luzon. Dialects: Related to Ibanag [ibg] and Gaddang [gad]. Lexical similarity: 52% with Ilocano [ilo], 66% with Itawit [itv], 63% with Ibanag [ibg].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic 
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