Ethnologue.com home
Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Europe > Poland

Languages of Poland

Republic of Poland. 38,626,349. National or official language: Polish. Literacy rate: 98%–99%. Immigrant languages: Czech, Eastern Yiddish (5,840), Greek (114,000), Lithuanian (30,000), Russian (60,000), Slovak (38,000). Information mainly from B. Comrie 1987; A. Schenker and E. Stankiewicz 1980. Blind population: 21,523. Deaf population: 50,000 to 2,342,493 (1998). Deaf institutions: 11. The number of individual languages listed for Poland is 15. Of those, 14 are living languages and 1 is a second language without mother-tongue speakers.
Belarusan

[bel] 220,000 in Poland (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001).  Alternate names: Byelorussian, White Russian.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East 
More information.

Esperanto

[epo]  About 115 countries, most widely in central and eastern Europe; east Asia: China and other countries; areas of South America; southwest Asia. Alternate names: La Lingvo Internacia, Eo.  Classification: Constructed language 
More information.

German, Standard

[deu] 500,000 in Poland (1998). Silesia and elsewhere. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German 
More information.

Kashubian

[csb] 3,000 in Poland. Ethnic population: 100,000 or more (1993 T. Salminen). North central, near Baltic coast, left bank of the Lower Vistula; west of Bay of Gdansk; narrow strip inland, southwest from Gdynia. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Cashubian, Cassubian, Kaszubski.  Dialects: Kashubian Proper, Slovincian. German influences in the language. Transitional dialects between Kashubian Proper, the Slovincian dialect, and Polish [pol].  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic 
More information.

Polish

[pol] 36,600,000 in Poland (1986). Population total all countries: 39,990,670. Also in Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Russian Federation (Europe), Serbia, Slovakia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States. Alternate names: Polnisch, Polski.  Dialects: Upper Silesian.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic 
More information.

Polish Sign Language

[pso] 50,000 deaf, 25,000 members of Polish Association of the Deaf (Van Cleve 1986).  Dialects: Various regional dialects. Not intelligible with American Sign Language [ase].  Classification: Deaf sign language 
More information.

Prussian

[prg]  East Prussia, formerly in Germany. Alternate names: Old Prussian.  Dialects: Other extinct Baltic languages are: Selonian, Yotvingian, Semigallian, Curonian.  Classification: Indo-European, Baltic, Western 
More information.

Romani, Baltic

[rml] 30,000 in Poland. Population total all countries: 58,460. Central and south Baltic region. Also in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russian Federation (Europe), Ukraine. Dialects: Latvian Romani (Lettish Romani), North Russian Romani, White Russian Romani, Estonian Romani, Polish Romani.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern 
More information.

Romani, Carpathian

[rmc]  One dialect in south Poland, east Hungary, and Galicia; another in Transylvania, Romania; others in Czech Republic and Slovakia; Ukraine, USA. Dialects: Galician, Transylvanian.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern 
More information.

Romani, Sinte

[rmo]   Alternate names: Sinti, Tsigane.  Dialects: Manuche (Manouche).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern 
More information.

Romani, Vlax

[rmy] 5,000 in Poland.  Dialects: Lovari.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax 
More information.

Silesian

[szl] 60,000 (2002 census). Silesia. Alternate names: Szlonzokian.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic 
More information.

Silesian, Upper

[sli] 12,000 in Poland. Population total all countries: 22,900. Upper Silesia. Also in Czech Republic. Alternate names: Upper Schlesisch.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German 
More information.

Ukrainian

[ukr] 150,000 in Poland.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East 
More information.

Wymysorys

[wym] 70 (2006). Silisia and Lesser Poland border; Wilamowice village. Alternate names: Wilamowicean.  Dialects: Wymysorys appears to derive from 12th century Middle High German, with strong influences from Low German, Dutch, Frisian, Polish, and Old English.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German  Nearly extinct.
More information.