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Languages of Paraguay

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Republic of Paraguay, República del Paraguay. 5,904,000. 50,000 speakers of American Indian languages not counting Paraguayan Guaraní (Adelaar 1991). National or official languages: Paraguayan Guaraní, Spanish. Literacy rate: 81%–90%. Immigrant languages: Greek (2,470), Hunsrik, Italian (26,000), Japanese (12,000), Korean (6,000), Portuguese (636,000), Ukrainian (26,000). Also includes speakers of Chinese varieties (7,500). Information mainly from W. Adelaar 1991, 2000; Adelaar and Muysken 2007; SIL 1969–2007. Blind population: 4,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf population: 316,214. Deaf institutions: 3. The number of individual languages listed for Paraguay is 22. Of those, 20 are living languages, 1 is a second language without mother-tongue speakers, and 1 has no known speakers.
Aché

[guq] 1,360 (2007). Ethnic population: 1,500. Eastern departments of Alto Paraná and Caaguazú; Chopa Pou, Cerro Moroti, Puerto Barra, Koetuvy, Ypetimi and Arroyo bandera reservations. Alternate names: Axe, “Guaiaqui” , “Guayakí” , Guayaki-Ache, “Guoyagui”.  Dialects: 6 dialects.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Ayoreo

[ayo] 2,300 in Paraguay (2007 Perik). Population total all countries: 3,070. Chaco, northern Alto Paraguay departments. Also in Bolivia. Alternate names: Ayoré, Moro, Morotoco, Pyeta Yovai.  Dialects: Tsiracua.  Classification: Zamucoan 
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Chamacoco

[ceg] 1,800 (2007 Perik). Northeast Chaco, east Alto Paraguay Department, Puerto Bahia Negra, Puerto Diana, Puerto Esperanza, Dos Estrellas, Fuerte Olimpo, along Paraguay River. Possibly some in Brazil. Alternate names: Ishiro, Jeywo, Yshyro.  Dialects: Chamacoco Bravo (Tomaraho), Ebitoso (Ishiro).  Classification: Zamucoan 
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Chorote, Iyo’wujwa

[crq] 530 in Paraguay (2007 Perik). 480 monolinguals. Boquerón District, Santa Rosa Town; Mcal, Estigarribia, Pedro P. Pena, Campo Loa, Platanilia, Yakaquash, Filadelfia, Neuland. Alternate names: I’no’, Inkijwas, Manjuy.  Dialects: Manjui, Choroti.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco 
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Emok

[emo] Extinct. East Chaco, near Asunción. Alternate names: Toba, Toba-Emok.  Classification: Mascoian 
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German, Standard

[deu] 166,000 in Paraguay. 19,000 L1 speakers of Plautdietsch.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German 
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Guana

[gva] 280 (2007 Perik). Boquerón, Salado River, south of Chamacoco, north of Sanapaná, Loma Plata, Machete vayre, Castilla near Rio Mosquito, Rio Apa. Alternate names: Cashquiha, Kaskihá.  Dialects: Layana (Niguecactemigi), Echoaldi (Echonoana, Chararana). Similar to Sanapaná [sap].  Classification: Mascoian 
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Guarani

[grn] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 4,926,984. 
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Guaraní, Ava

[nhd] 7,000 in Paraguay (1991). Population total all countries: 11,900. East Paraguay. Also in Argentina, Brazil. Alternate names: Apytare, Ava, Chiripá, Nhandeva, Ñandeva, Tsiripá, Txiripá.  Dialects: Apapocuva. Similar to Paraguayan Guaraní [gug].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Guaraní, Eastern Bolivian

[gui] 2,530 in Paraguay (2007 Perik). Chaco. Alternate names: “Chawuncu” , “Chiriguano” , Guarayo, Guasurango.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Guaraní, Mbyá

[gun] 16,400 in Paraguay (2007 Perik). Departamentos de Caaguazú, Guairá, Caazapá, San Pedro, Concepción, Canindeyú, Itapúa, and scattered. Alternate names: Mbua, Mbyá.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Guaraní, Paraguayan

[gug] 4,650,000 in Paraguay (1995). Population total all countries: 4,850,000. Also in Argentina. Alternate names: Avañe’e.  Dialects: Jopará (Yopará). One Chiripá speaker [nhd] indicated it was bilingualism rather than linguistic closeness that made Paraguayan Guaraní intelligible to him. Jopará is the colloquial form mixed with Spanish loanwords, used by 90% of the population in Asunción area. Lexical similarity: 80% with Chiriguano [gui] and 75% lexical similarity with Mbyá [gun].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Lengua

[leg] 15,000 (2007 Perik). Chaco, Presidente Hayes Department, Boquerón. Alternate names: Enxet.  Dialects: Northern Lengua (Eenthlit, Vowak, Lengua Norte), Southern Lengua (Lengua Sur). Differences between the 2 dialects reportedly mainly phonological and orthographic. Southern Lengua seminomadic.  Classification: Mascoian 
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Maka

[mca] 1,500 (2000 A. Chemhey). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000). Southwest, Presidente Hayes Department, Qemkuket; Main village north of Asunción in Mariano Roque Alonso; Par River; a changing number in a very small reserve in Ciudad del Este 4 blocks from the bridge to Brazil; Encarnación near the airfield. Alternate names: Enimaca, Enimaga, Maca, Macá, Mak’á, Maká.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco 
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Maskoy Pidgin

[mhh]  Puerto Victoria. Classification: Pidgin, Mascoian based 
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Nivaclé

[cag] 13,700 in Paraguay (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 13,900. Chaco, Departments of Presidente Hayes and Boquerón. Also in Argentina. Alternate names: Ashlushlay, Axluslay, “Chulupe” , “Chulupí” , “Chulupie” , “Churupí” , Nivaklé.  Dialects: Forest Nivaclé, River Nivaclé. Mataguayo languages in Paraguay are less similar than Mascoi languages in Paraguay (Fasold 1984).  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco 
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Ñandeva

[tpj] 2,270 in Paraguay (2007 Perik), decreasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 2,440. Chaco: Laguna Negra, Santa Elena, San Lazaro, Pykasu, Nyu Guasu, Coloni 5, Santa Teresita, Marite, Loma. Also in Argentina, Bolivia. Alternate names: Guasurango, Guasurangue, Nandeva, Ñanagua, Tapiete, Tirumbae, Yanaigua.  Dialects: Linguistically between Eastern Bolivian Guarani [gui] and Paraguayan Guaraní [gug].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani I 
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Pai Tavytera

[pta] 15,000 (2007 Perik), decreasing. East, Colonia Juan Carlos. Alternate names: Ava, Pai, Tavytera.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Kaiwá [kgk] of Brazil.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani I 
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Plautdietsch

[pdt] 38,000 in Paraguay. 19,000 who speak Plautdietsch and Standard German as L1. Chaco and east: Filadelfia, Menno Colony, Loma Plata, Neuland. Alternate names: Low German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
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Sanapaná

[sap] 6,810 (2007 Perik). 785 Sanapana, 1,085 Angaite, and 9,350 Enlit. Ethnic population: 6,814. Chaco. Sanapana north of Angaite and Lengua; Boquerón, Presidente Hayes Department, Galbán River; many at Salazar Ranch, La Patria, and Esperanza. Angaite in southeast Chaco, Presidente Hayes Department, Boquerón, San Carlos. Alternate names: Lanapsua, Quiativis, Quilyacmoc, Saapa, Sanam.  Dialects: Sanapana, Angaite (Angate), Enlit (Enlhet), Covavitis (Covahloc). Lexical similarity: 85% with Northern Lengua [leg].  Classification: Mascoian 
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Spanish

[spa] 187,000 in Paraguay (2000 WCD). Mainly Asunción, urban areas. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Toba Qom

[tob] 1,510 in Paraguay (2007 Perik). Northwest of Asunción, Franciscan mission. Alternate names: Qom, Toba-Qom.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Guaicuruan 
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Toba-Maskoy

[tmf] 1,680 (2007 Perik). East Chaco, reserve of 30,000 hectares near Puerto Victoria and Puerto Guaraní. Alternate names: Cabanatit, Machicui, Quilyilhrayrom, Toba of Paraguay.  Classification: Mascoian 
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