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Languages of Russian Federation (Europe)

See language map.
Also see Russian Federation in Asia for a listing of languages in Asia. 143,782,338. Immigrant languages: Armenian (1,130,000), Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (13,600), Baltic Romani (20,000), Belarusian (808,000), Bulgarian (32,000), Crimean Tatar (4,130), Eastern Yiddish (230,000), Estonian (28,100), Gagauz (12,200), Greek (97,800), Hungarian (3,770), Latvian (30,100), Lithuanian (45,600), Lomavren, Northern Kurdish (22,700), Plautdietsch (50,000), Polish (73,000), Pontic, Romanian (5,310), Standard German (597,000). The number of individual languages listed for Russian Federation (Europe) is 60. Of those, 58 are living languages and 2 have no known speakers.
Abaza

[abq] 38,200 in Russian Federation (2002 census). Population total all countries: 48,280. Karachay-Cherkess Republic. Also in Germany, Turkey (Asia). Alternate names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ashuwa.  Dialects: Tapanta, Ashkaraua (Ashkar, Ashxar), Bezshagh. Some dialects partially intelligible with Abkhaz [abk].  Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin 
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Adyghe

[ady] 125,000 in Russian Federation (1993 UBS). Population total all countries: 499,300. Ethnic population: 128,528. Adygea Republic. Also in Australia, Egypt, France, Germany, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Macedonia, Netherlands, Syria, Turkey (Asia), United States. Alternate names: Adygei, Adygey, Circassian, Kiakh, Kjax, Lower Circassian, West Circassian.  Dialects: Shapsug (Sapsug), Xakuchi, Bezhedukh (Bzedux, Bzhedug, Temirgoj, Chemgui), Abadzex (Abadzakh, Abadzeg), Natuzaj (Natukhai). Most similar to Kabardian [kbd].  Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian 
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Aghul

[agx] 28,300 in Russian Federation (2002 Census). Population total all countries: 28,332. Southeast Dagestan, Agulsky District, Kurakhsky District; Moscow; Stavropol region. Also in Azerbaijan. Alternate names: Aghul-ch’al, Agul.  Dialects: Agul, Koshan (Q’ushan), Keren, Gequn (Burkikhan), Tsirkhe, Fit’e.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic 
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Akhvakh

[akv] 6,500 (2006 Koryakov). Southwest Dagestan. Alternate names: Axvax, Ashvado, ’Aqwalazul, Ghahvalal.  Dialects: Kaxib, Northern Akhvakh, Southern Akhvakh (Tlyanub, Tsegob). Diverse ‘dialects’; communicate in Avar [ava].  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic 
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Andi

[ani] 21,800 (2002 census). Southwest Dagestan. Alternate names: Andii, Qwannab, Andiy, Qandisel.  Dialects: Munin, Rikvani, Kvanxidatl, Gagatl. Dialects appear quite divergent.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic 
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Archi

[aqc] 1,200 (2006 Koryakov). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1990 A. E. Kibrik). Southern Dagestan, Arsha community upper Risor River. 8 villages. Alternate names: Archin, Archintsy, Arshashdib, Archsel, Archib.  Dialects: One of the most divergent Lezgian (Lezgic) languages.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Archi 
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Avar

[ava] 744,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census). Population total all countries: 788,960. Ethnic population: 814,473. Western Dagestan; Terek and Sulak river areas. Also in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkey (Asia). Alternate names: Avaro, Bolmac, Khundzuri, Maarul Dagestani.  Dialects: North Avar (Bolmats, Salatav, Andian Avar, Unkratl, Khunzakh), South-West Avar (Batlukh, Hid Kaxib, Hid Keleb), South-East Avar (Andalal, Andalal Untib, Andalal Shulanin), Antsukh (Ancux), Qarakh (Karakh, Bacadin), Qusur, Zaqatal (Char).  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Avar 
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Bagvalal

[kva] 6,500 (2006 Koryakov). Southern Dagestan. Alternate names: Bagulal, Bagvalin, Bagwalal, Barbalin, Kvanada, Kvanadin.  Dialects: Tlisi. Similar to Tindin [tin].  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic 
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Balkar

[krc] 108,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census). 156,000 Karachay, 85,000 Balkar. Population total all countries: 113,710. Karachi-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria. Isolated. Also in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, United States, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Karacaylar, Karachai, Karachaitsy, Karachay, Karachay-Balkar, Karachayla.  Dialects: Balkar, Karachay.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian 
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Bashkort

[bak] 1,380,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 1,451,340. Ethnic population: 2,059,700. Bashkortostan, between Volga River and Ural Mountains; beyond the Urals. Also in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Basquort, Bashkir.  Dialects: Kuvakan (Mountain Bashkir), Yurmaty (Steppe Bashkir), Burzhan (Western Bashkir). Similar to Tatar [tat].  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian 
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Bezhta

[kap] 6,200 (2002 census). Southwest Dagestan; Tsuntin District; Bezhta, Tlyadal, Khasharkhota villages. Alternate names: Bezhita, Bezheta, Bezhti, Bexita, Bechitin, Kapucha, Kupuca, Kapuchin, Kapuchin-Gunzib, Khvanal, Bazht’, Kiburabi, Bezhituri, Kapuchuri.  Dialects: Bezhta proper, Tlyadaly, Khocharkhotin.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, East Tsezic 
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Botlikh

[bph] 5,500 (2006 Koryakov). Western Dagestan; Buikhe, Ashino villages. Alternate names: Botlix, Buykhadi.  Dialects: Botlikh, Zibirkhalin.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic 
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Chamalal

[cji] 5,000 (1990). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1990 Kibrik). Southern Dagestan. Alternate names: Camalal, Chamalin.  Dialects: Gadyri (Gachitl-Kvankhi), Gakvari (Agvali-Richaganik-Tsumada-Urukh), Gigatl. Dialects quite distinct.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic 
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Chechen

[che] 1,330,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census). 233,216 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 1,341,000. Ethnic population: 1,360,253. Chechnya, north Caucasus. 63% in rural areas. Also in Georgia, Germany, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Syria, Turkey (Asia), Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Galancho, Nokchiin Muott, Nokhchiin.  Dialects: Ploskost, Itumkala (Shatoi), Melkhin, Kistin, Cheberloi, Akkin (Aux). Melkhi transitional dialect to Ingush [inh]. Chechen partially intelligible with Ingush.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush 
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Chuvash

[chv] 1,640,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census). Population total all countries: 1,674,420. Chuvashia, east of Moscow, near Volga River. About half live in towns (1995). Also in Estonia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Bulgar.  Dialects: Anatri, Viryal. The only extant language in the Bolgar branch of Turkic.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Bolgar 
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Dargwa

[dar] 510,000 in Russian Federation (2002 Census). Population total all countries: 516,490. Ethnic population: 510,156. Southern Dagestan. Also in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey (Asia), Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Dargi, Dargin, Dargintsy, Khiurkilinskii, Uslar.  Dialects: Cudaxar (Tsudakhar), Akusha (Urkarax, Urakha-Akhush, Akkhusha), Uraxa-Axusha, Kajtak (Xajdak, Kaitak, Kaytak), Kubachi (Kubachin, Kubachintsy, Ughbug), Dejbuk, Xarbuk, Muirin, Sirxin, Itsari, Chirag. Kaytak, Kubachin, Itsari, and Chirag may be separate languages from Dargwa.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Dargi 
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Dido

[ddo] 15,400 (2002 census). Southern Dagestan. Alternate names: Cez, Didoi, Tsez, Tsezy, Tsuntin.  Dialects: Sagadin. Sagadin dialect distinct. Slight village to village dialect differences.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic 
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Domari

[rmt] 500 in Russian Federation (2006). Karachi in the Caucasus; Luli and Maznoug in Uzbekistan. Dialects: Karachi, Luli, Maznoug.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom 
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Erzya

[myv] 614,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census). Population total all countries: 696,630. Mordovian Republic, north and east; Nizhni Novgorod, Ulyanovsk, Penza, Samara, Buguruslan; Chuvassia, Tatarstan, and Bashkortostan republics. Also in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Erzia, Mordvin, Mordvin-Erzya.  Dialects: Quite different from Moksha [mdf].  Classification: Uralic, Mordvin 
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Finnish

[fin] 34,100 in Russian Federation (2002 census). Ethnic population: 77,000 in the Russian Federation (1979 census). Ingria region, St. Petersburg area. Classification: Uralic, Finnic 
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Ghodoberi

[gdo] 3,000 (1996). Ethnic population: 2,500 (1990 Kibrik). Southwestern Dagestan, Botlikh District; Godoberi, Zibirkhali, Beledi. Alternate names: Godoberi, Godoberin, Zibirkhali.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic 
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Hinukh

[gin] 550 (2002 Census). Southwestern Dagestan, Tsuntin District, Ginukh. Alternate names: Ginukh, Ginukhtsy, Ginux, Hinux.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic 
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Hunzib

[huz] 1,840 (2002 Census). Ethnic population: 2,000. Southern Dagestan, Tsuntin District, Nakhada, Gunzib and Garbutl; Kizilyurt District, Stalskoe. Alternate names: Enzeb, Gunzib, Khunzal, Khunzaly, Xunzal.  Dialects: Separate from Bezhta [kap] (B. Comrie 1989) but very similar to it.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, East Tsezic 
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Ingrian

[izh] 360 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 820 (1989 census). Baltic, St. Petersburg Oblast, Kingisepp and Lomonosov areas. Alternate names: Izhor, Izhorian, Ingermanlandian, Inkeroiset.  Dialects: Soykin, Khava, Lower Luzh, Oredezh (Upper Luzh). Similar to Karelian [krl]. The Oredezh dialect is extinct.  Classification: Uralic, Finnic 
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Ingush

[inh] 413,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census). North Caucasus, Ingush Republic. Also in Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Ghalghay, Ingus, Galgay, Kisti, Kistin.  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with Chechen [che], more so with contact.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush 
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Judeo-Tat

[jdt] 3,020 in Russian Federation (2002 census). Population total all countries: 97,020. Dagestan, Makhachkala, Majalis, Derbent, Buinaksk, Kizlyar; South of Pyatigorsk; North Ossetia, Mozdok; Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Nalchyk; Chechnya, Grozniy. Also in Azerbaijan, Israel. Alternate names: Tati, Judeo-Tatic, Hebrew Tat, Jewish Tat, Bik, Dzhuhuric, Juhuri, Mountain Jewish, Lahji, Musulman Tats.  Dialects: South Tat, North Tat.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat 
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Kabardian

[kbd] 520,000 in Russian Federation (2002 Census). Does not include 60,517 Cherkess in the Russian Federation (2002 Census). Population total all countries: 1,632,500. Ethnic population: 519,958. Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachai-Cherkessia. Also in Germany, Jordan, Syria, Turkey (Asia), United States. Alternate names: Beslenei, East Circassian, Kabard, Kabardino-Cherkes, Kabardo-Cherkess, Upper Circassian.  Dialects: Greater Kabardian, Baksan, Lesser Kabardian, Malka, Mozdok, Kuban, Cherkes, Beslenei (Beslenej). Similar to Adygey [ady].  Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian 
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Kalmyk-Oirat

[xal] 154,000 in Russian Federation (2002). Population total all countries: 499,000. Ethnic population: 173,996. Republic of Kalmykia, on Volga-Don steppes northwest of the Caspian, north of the Caucasus; lower Volga region, Astrakhan Province. Also in China, Germany, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Taiwan, United States. Alternate names: European Oirat, Kalmack, Kalmuck, Kalmuk, Kalmytskii Jazyk, Khalli, Oirat, Qalmaq, Volga Oirat, Western Mongolian.  Dialects: Buzawa, Oirat, Torgut (Torguut, Torguud, Torghud, Torghoud), Dörböt (Dörböd, Derbet), Sart Qalmaq. Diverged from other Mongolian languages. Called ‘Kalmyk’ in the Russian Federation; ‘Oirat’ in China and Mongolia; in USA Kalmyk not heavily influenced by Russian. Different from other varieties in China called Oirat [xal], which are sometimes called ‘Asiatic Oirat’.  Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat 
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Karata

[kpt] 5,000 (1990). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1990 A. Kibrik) or 6,400 (Koryakov 2006). Southern Dagestan. Alternate names: Karatin, Kirdi, Karatai.  Dialects: Tokita (Tokitin), Karata proper (Anchix, Archo, Ratsitl, Chabakaroi, Enkhelo). The Karatin and Tokitin dialects are quite different.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic 
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Karelian

[krl] 35,000 in Russian Federation (1993 Salminen). Population total all countries: 45,000. Karelia, Tver (Kalinin), St. Petersburg, and Murmansk Oblasts. Also in Finland. Alternate names: Karel’skiy Jazyk, Karelian Proper, Karely, Severno-Karel’skij, Sobstvenno-Karel’skij-Jazyk.  Dialects: Northern Karelian, Southern Karelian, Novgorod, Tver (Kalinin). Ludian [lud] and Livvi-Karelian [olo] are separate languages.  Classification: Uralic, Finnic 
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Khvarshi

[khv] 1,870 (2002 Census). Ethnic population: 500 (1990 A. E. Kibrik). Southwestern Dagestan, Tsumadinsky district, Khvarshi (Atl’ilqo), Inkhokvari (I’qqo), Santlada (Zotluho), Kvantlada (K’otloqo), Khonokh (Ghnho) villages. Alternate names: Atl’ilqo, Khvarshin, Xvarshi.  Dialects: Xvarshi proper, Inxokvari.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic 
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Komi

[kom] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 311,644. 
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Komi-Permyak

[koi] 94,300 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 125,235. Komi-Permyak National Okrug, west of central Ural Mountains, south of Komi-Zyrian. Alternate names: Kama Permyak, Komi-Perm, Komi-Permyat, Permyak.  Dialects: Zyudin, North Permyak (Kochin-Kam), South Permyak (Inyven). 80% cognate with Komi-Zyrian [kpv] and Udmurt [udm].  Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi 
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Komi-Zyrian

[kpv] 217,000 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 293,406. Komi Republic, 60’ N. Lat., nearly to the Arctic Ocean. South of Yurak [yrk], west of Vogul (Mansi) [mns] peoples. Alternate names: Komi.  Dialects: Yazva. Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Permyak [koi] and Udmurt [udm].  Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi 
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Kumyk

[kum] 422,000 in Russian Federation (2002 Census). Population total all countries: 422,550. Dagestan, north and east plain. Also in Kazakhstan, Turkey (Asia). Alternate names: Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki.  Dialects: Khasavyurt, Buinaksk, Khaitag, Podgorniy, Terek. Dialects quite divergent.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian 
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Lak

[lbe] 157,000 in Russian Federation (2002 Census). Population total all countries: 164,420. Ethnic population: 118,000 in the Russian Federation. Central Dagestan. Also in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey (Asia), Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Kazikumukhtsy, Laki.  Dialects: Kumux (Kumkh), Vicxin (Vitskhin), Vixlin (Vikhlin), Ashtikulin, Balxar-Calakan (Balkar-Tsalakan). Dialects similar.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lak 
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Lezgi

[lez] 397,000 in Russian Federation (2002 Census). Population total all countries: 783,720. Ethnic population: 411,535 in Russia (2002 Census). Southeastern Dagestan, west Caspian Sea area coast; central Caucasus. Also in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey (Asia), Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Kiurinsty, Lezghi, Lezgian, Lezgin.  Dialects: Kiuri (Güne, Yarki, Qurah, Gelkhen, Giliar), Samur (Akhty, Doquzpara, Fiy, Qurush, Jaba, Dashagyl-Filfil), Quba (Kuba). Some dialects reportedly not inherently intelligible with others. Kuba considerably different from the standard dialect.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic 
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Livvi-Karelian

[olo] 14,100 in Russian Federation (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 19,270. Ethnic population: 65,000. Karelian Republic. Also in Finland. Alternate names: Karelian, Livvi, Livvikovian, Livvikovskij Jazyk, Olonets, Southern Olonetsian.  Dialects: Similar to Karelian [krl] and Finnish [fin].  Classification: Uralic, Finnic 
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Ludian

[lud] 3,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 10,000. Republic of Karelia. Alternate names: Ludic, Lüüdi, Luudikiel, Lyudikovian, Lyudic.  Dialects: Ludian is transitional between Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Veps [vep]. Separate from Karelian Proper [krl] and Livvi-Karelian.  Classification: Uralic, Finnic 
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Mari (Russia)

[chm] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 564,569. 
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Mari, Hill

[mrj] 30,000 (2007). Mari El Republic, south of the Volga, Gorno-Mariy; Bashkortostan. Alternate names: Western Mari, Cheremis, Gorno-Mariy, High Mari, Mari-Hills.  Dialects: Kozymodemyan, Yaran. Lexical, phonological, and morphological differences with Meadow Mari [mhr].  Classification: Uralic, Mari 
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Mari, Meadow

[mhr] 451,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census). Population total all countries: 460,090. Ethnic population: 604,298. Mari El Republic, east of the Volga, Bashkir, Tatar; Udmurt Republic, Perm, Sverov, Kirov oblasts. Also in Kazakhstan. Alternate names: Mari, Eastern Mari, Cheremis, Low Mari, Mari-Woods, Lugovo Mari.  Dialects: Grassland Mari (Meadow Mari, Sernur-Morkin, Yoshkar-Olin, Volga).  Classification: Uralic, Mari 
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Moksha

[mdf] 614,000 (2002 census). Mordovia, south. Alternate names: Mokshan, Mordoff, Mordov, Mordvin-Moksha.  Dialects: Very different from Erzya [myv].  Classification: Uralic, Mordvin 
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Nogai

[nog] 90,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 90,310. Ethnic population: 75,000. Northern Caucasus, Cherkes Ao. Also in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Nogaitsy, Nogalar, Nogay, Noghai, Noghay, Noghaylar.  Dialects: White Nogai (Kuba), Black Nogai (Kara), Central Nogai. Slight dialect differences.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian 
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Romani, Vlax

[rmy] 10,000 in Russian Federation. Ethnic population: 182,766. Odessa, Transcarpathia. Alternate names: Kalderash.  Dialects: Central Vlax Romani, Kalderash.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax 
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Russian

[rus] 116,000,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census). Population total all countries: 143,553,950. Also in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Mozambique, Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Russki.  Dialects: North Russian, South Russian.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East 
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Russian Sign Language

[rsl]  Moscow and St. Petersburg are major centers. Widespread with significant dialect variation. Also in Bulgaria. Dialects: Reportedly historical connections to sign languages in Austria and France, but connections not obvious from extensive wordlist comparison (Bickford 2005). Very similar to sign languages in Ukraine and Moldova. Internal dialect variation appears significant but still needs further survey.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Rutul

[rut] 29,400 in Russian Federation (2002 Census). Population total all countries: 29,510. Ethnic population: 29,929 in Russia (2002 Census). Southern Dagestan. Also in Azerbaijan. Alternate names: Chal, Mukhad, Mykhanidy, Rutal, Rutultsy, Rutuly.  Dialects: North Rutul (Rutul proper, Shinaz, Ixrek, Muxrek, Vrush, Luchek, Asar-Kala), South Rutul (Borch, Khnov). Dialects not sharply defined.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic 
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Saami, Akkala

[sia] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 100 (1995 M. Krauss). Southwest Kola Peninsula. Alternate names: Ahkkil, Babino, Babinsk.  Dialects: Most similar to Skolt Saami [sms].  Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern 
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Saami, Kildin

[sjd] 500 (2007). 1,900 Saami in the Russian Federation (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1995 M. Krauss).  Alternate names: “Kildin Lappish” , “Lapp” , Saam, Saami.  Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern 
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Saami, Skolt

[sms] 20 in Russian Federation (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 400 in the Russian Federation (1995 M. Krauss). North and west Kola Peninsula, Petsamo area. Alternate names: Kolta, “Lapp” , Lopar, “Russian Lapp” , Saam, Skolt, “Skolt Lappish”.  Dialects: Notozer, Yokan.  Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern 
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Saami, Ter

[sjt] 10 (2004). Ethnic population: 100.  Alternate names: “Lapp” , Saam, “Ter Lappish”.  Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
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Serbian

[srp] 4,160 in Russian Federation (2002 census).  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western 
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Slavonic, Old Church

[chu] Extinct.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern 
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Tabassaran

[tab] 128,000 in Russian Federation (2002 Census). Population total all countries: 128,900. Ethnic population: 131,785 in Russia (2002 Census). Southern Dagestan. Also in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Ghumghum, Tabasaran, Tabasarantsy.  Dialects: South Tabasaran, North Tabasaran (Khanag).  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic 
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Tat, Muslim

[ttt] 2,300 in Russian Federation (2002 census). Northern Caucasus (Daghestan); large community in Moscow. Alternate names: Mussulman Tati.  Dialects: Northern Tats.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat 
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Tatar

[tat] 5,350,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census). 24,668 Kreshen (Kryashen) Tatars, who are traditionally Russian Orthodox. Population total all countries: 6,496,600. Tatarstan and Bashkortostan Republics; St. Petersburg and Moscow to eastern Siberia. Also in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkey (Europe), Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Tartar.  Dialects: Middle Tatar (Kazan), Western Tatar (Misher), Eastern Tatar (Siberian Tatar). Eastern Tatar is divided into 3: Tobol-Irtysh, Baraba, and Tom. Tobol-Irtysh is divided into 5: Tyumen, Tobol, Zabolotny, Tevriz, and Tara (Tumasheva). Mixed dialects are: Astrakhan, Kasimov, Tepter, and Ural (Poppe). 43,000 Astrakhan have assimilated to the Middle dialect. Kasim (5,000) is between Middle and Western Tatar. Tepter (300,000) is reportedly between the Tatar and Bashkort [bak] languages.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian 
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Tindi

[tin] 5,000 (2000). Southwestern Dagestan. Alternate names: Tindal, Tindin.  Dialects: Tindin-Echendin, Angidin-Aknadin. Bagvalal [kva] closely related, but probably not inherently intelligible.  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic 
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Tsakhur

[tkr] 9,770 in Russian Federation (2002 Census). Southern Dagestan. Alternate names: Caxur, Tsakhury, Tsaxur, Yiqny Miz.  Dialects: Tsakh (Mukhakh-Sabunchi, Jinagh, Mishkesh, Muslakh, Tsakh-Qum, Suvagil), Gelmets-Mikik (Gelmets-kurdul, Kirmico-Lek, Mikik).  Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic 
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Udmurt

[udm] 464,000 in Russian Federation (2002 census). Population total all countries: 479,800. Ethnic population: 636,906. Near Ural Mountains; Udmurtia, 1,000 kms. northeast of Moscow, bounded by Kama and Cheptsa rivers. Also in Kazakhstan. Alternate names: Votiak, Votyak.  Dialects: North Udmurt (Besermyan, Udmurt), South Udmurt (Southwestern Udmurt).  Classification: Uralic, Permian 
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Veps

[vep] 5,750 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 8,240. Among Russian speakers, St. Petersburg and Vologda oblasts bounday; Karelian Republic. Alternate names: “Chudy” , “Chuhari” , “Chukhari” , Vepsian.  Dialects: Southern Veps, Central Veps, Prionezh (North Veps).  Classification: Uralic, Finnic 
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Vod

[vot] 15 (1997). Ethnic population: 73. St. Petersburg, Kingisepp. Alternate names: Vodian, Vote, Votian, Votic, Votish.  Dialects: East Vod, West Vod. Intelligible with Estonian [est] of the northeast coast.  Classification: Uralic, Finnic  Nearly extinct.
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