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Languages of Sudan

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Republic of the Sudan, Jamhuryat as-Sudan. 36,900,000. National or official language: Standard Arabic. Literacy rate: 57%. Immigrant languages: Maay. Information mainly from M. Bender 1975, 1983, 1989; J. Bendor-Samuel 1989; P. Doornbos and M. Bender 1983; T. Schadeberg 1981; R. Stevenson 1984. Blind population: 110,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 1. The number of individual languages listed for Sudan is 142. Of those, 133 are living languages and 9 have no known speakers.
Acheron

[acz]  North, Southern Kordofan Province, Moro Hills. Alternate names: Achurun, Asheron, Aceron, Garme.  Dialects: Eastern Acheron, Western Acheron.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho 
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Acholi

[ach] 45,000 in Sudan (2000). South, Opari District, Acholi Hills. Alternate names: Acoli, Acooli, Akoli, Atscholi, Dok Acoli, Gang, Log Acoli, Lwo, Shuli.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi 
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Afitti

[aft] 4,510 (1984 R. Stevenson). North, Nuba Hills, east Jebel ed Dair. Main center is Sidra. Alternate names: Affitti, Dinik, Ditti, Unietti.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 59% with Ama [nyi].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Nyimang 
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Aja

[aja] 200 (1993 SIL). South, Western Bahr el Ghazal Province. Alternate names: Adja, Ajja.  Dialects: They consider themselves a Kresh tribe, but their language is not intelligible to the Kresh; nearer to Banda in vocabulary and to Kresh in structure (Santandrea).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh 
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Aka

[soh] 300 (1989 Bender). North, Sillok (Silak) Hills, west of Berta-speaking [wti] people. Alternate names: Fa-C-Aka, Jebel Silak, Jebels Sillok, Sillok.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo 
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Ama

[nyi] 70,000 (1982 SIL). North, Kordofan Province, northwest of Dilling in hills of which Jebel Nyimang is part; Mandal (Male) range. Some villages: Kalara, Koromiti, Nitil, Al Fous, Kakara, Hajar Sultan, Salara, Tundia, Fuony (Funda). Alternate names: Inyimang, Nyima, Nyiman, Nyimang, Nyuwing.  Dialects: Ama, Mandal (Male). Lexical similarity: 59% with Afitti [aft], 80% between Ama and Mandal dialects.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Nyimang 
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Anuak

[anu] 52,000 in Sudan (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 97,600. Upper Nile Province, Pibor and Lower Akobo rivers. From Akobo Post to latitude 6.45N. Also in Ethiopia. Alternate names: Anyuak, Anywa, Anywak, Dho Anywaa, Jambo, Nuro, Yambo.  Dialects: More similar to Acholi [ach] and Luo languages of Uganda than to Shilluk [shk].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak 
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Arabic, Standard

[arb]  Middle East, North Africa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Arabic, Sudanese Creole

[pga] 20,000 (1987). South, widespread in Equatoria region, into Bahr al Ghazal and Upper Nile regions. Refugees have gone to other countries. Alternate names: Juba Arabic, Pidgin Arabic, Southern Sudan Arabic.  Dialects: Dialectal variations in different areas due to different local vernaculars.  Classification: Creole, Arabic based 
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Arabic, Sudanese Spoken

[apd] 15,000,000 in Sudan (1991). Population total all countries: 16,833,000. Primarily north. Also in Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Saudi Arabia. Alternate names: Khartoum Arabic.  Dialects: Khartoum, Western Sudanese, North Kordofan Arabic, Ja’ali, Shukri.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Avokaya

[avu] 40,000 in Sudan (2002). Population total all countries: 65,000. South, Western Equatorial Province. Ajugu is on Sudan-Congo border south of Maridi; Ojila mainly between Naam (Era) and Olo rivers and east. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Abukeia, Avukaya.  Dialects: Ojila (Odzila, Odziliwa), Ajugu (Adjiga, Ojiga, Agamoru). Similar to Logo [log]. Avokaya Pur near Faradje is more similar to Logo than to the Ojila dialect of Sudan.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Bai

[bdj] 2,500 (Welmers 1971). South, Western District, Wau-Deim Zubeir road, west of Sere. Some north of Tembura. 2 villages. Alternate names: Bari.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri 
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Baka

[bdh] 25,000 in Sudan (1993 UBS). Population total all countries: 26,300. South, Western Equatoria Province, south and west of Maridi, northwest of Yei. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Tara Baka.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka 
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Banda, Mid-Southern

[bjo]  South, Sopo, near Central African Republic border. Refugees in Khartoum. Dialects: Dukpu, Wasa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Banda, Togbo-Vara

[tor]  South. Dialects: Togbo (Tohgboh, Tagbo).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara 
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Banda, West Central

[bbp] 3,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). Between Wau and Mboro. Alternate names: Golo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, West Central 
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Banda-Banda

[bpd]  South, Sopo near Central African Republic border. Refugees in Khartoum. Dialects: Govoro (Govhoroh), Vidiri (Mvedere, Vodere, Vidri, Vadara), Wundu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Banda 
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Banda-Mbrès

[bqk]  South, Sopo, near Central African Republic border. Refugees in Khartoum. Alternate names: Banda of Mbrés, Banda-Mbre.  Dialects: Buka (Bouka), Mbre (Mbere, Mbele), Moruba (Morouba, Maraba), Sabanga (Sangbanga), Wada (Ouadda).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Mbres 
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Banda-Ndélé

[bfl]  South, Sopo near Central African Republic border. Refugees in Khartoum. Alternate names: Banda of Ndélé, Nyele.  Dialects: Junguru (Djingburu, Nguru), Tangbago (Tambolo, Tambaggo, Tombaggo, Tangago), Banda-Kpaya.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Ndele 
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Bari

[bfa] 420,000 in Sudan (2000). 26,400 in Kuku, 18,000 in Nyangbara, 3,400 in Nyepu, 25,000 in Pojulu. Population total all countries: 480,000. South, both banks of the Nile, south of Terakeka on west bank, south of Mongalla on east bank, as far as Kajo Kaji Escarpment. Also in Uganda. Alternate names: Beri.  Dialects: Bari, Kuku, Nyangbara (Nyangwara, Nyambara), Nyepu (Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho, Ngyepu), Pöjulu (Pajulu, Fadjulu, Fajelu, Madi), Ligo (Liggo). Lexical similarity: 86% between the Bari and Nyepu dialects, 85% between Bari and Pöjulu, 81% between the Bari and Kuku, 80% between the Bari and Nyangbara.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari 
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Baygo

[byg] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 850 (1978 GR). North, Southern Darfur, southeast of Nyala, hills east of Kube (Kubbi), Jebel Beygo. Alternate names: Baigo, Bego, Beigo, Beko, Béogé, Beygo.  Dialects: Similar to Daju [daj] of Darfur.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju 
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Bedawiyet

[bej] 951,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). 30,000 Hadendoa, 15,000 Bisharin (1992). Population total all countries: 1,186,000. Northeast along Red Sea coast. Also in Egypt, Eritrea. Alternate names: Bedauye, Bedawi, Bedawiye, Bedja, Beja, Tu-Bedawie.  Dialects: Hadendoa (Hadendowa, Hadendiwa), Hadareb (Hadaareb), Bisharin (Bisariab), Beni-Amir.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North 
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Belanda Bor

[bxb] 8,000 (1983 SIL). South between Wau and Tambura; Bahr-el-Ghazal in Raffili, Tirga, Bazia, Ayo, Gitten, and Taban villages; Western Equatoria Province, Komai, Nagero, Bangazegino, and Tambura villages. Alternate names: De Bor.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Bor 
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Belanda Viri

[bvi] 16,000 (Welmers 1971). South, scattered villages (Bringi, Bagari, Dadu, Ngoku, Ngisa, Farajallah, Ngotakala, Ngongba, Natabo, Momoyi, and some others), Raffili area; on Wau road; on Kuru River, 65 km from Deim Zubeir; Tembura area among Zande [zne]; Iba River near Yambio. Alternate names: Belanda, Biri, BGamba, Gumba, Mbegumba, Mvegumba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri 
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Beli

[blm] 6,600 (1982 SIL). 5,000 Beli, 1,600 Sopi. South, southwest of Rumbek, Wulu, Bahr Gel road west, south toward Lakes Province south border; east of Mvolo with no links to those at Wulu. Bahri Girinti (Lake Nyiropo) is center, just west of Yei River. Some heavily intermingled with Dinka. Alternate names: ’Beli, Behli, Beili, Jur Beli.  Dialects: Wulu, Bahri Girinti, Sopi (Supi). Lexical similarity: 46% with Jur Modo [bex], 45% with Bongo [bot], 41% with Mo’da [gbn] and Morokodo [mgc], 39% with Baka [bdh].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli 
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Berta

[wti] 22,000 in Sudan. Blue Nile Province, on Ethiopia border. Alternate names: Barta, “Beni Shangul” , Burta, Wetawit.  Dialects: Shuru, Bake, Undu, Mayu, Fadashi.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Berta 
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Berti

[byt] Extinct. North, Tagabo Hills, Darfur, and Kordofan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern 
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Birked

[brk] Extinct. North, north Darfur, north and east of Daju and Baygo, east of Jebel Marra between Jebel Harayt and Rizaykat (Arab) country; north of Nyala; north Kordofan south of El Obeid. Alternate names: Birgid, Birguid, Birkit, Birqed, Kajjara, Murgi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Kadaru [kdu]; 51% with Midob [mei].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Birked 
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Boguru

[bqu] 490 in Sudan. Mariko, Baambu, Ibba, Bagasu. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Buguru, Kogoro, Koguru.  Dialects: Boguru, Bukur (Bukum, Bukuru).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Bongo

[bot] 10,100 (2000). Sparsely populated from Tonj and Wau north, Beli [blm] east, Zande [zne] south, and Bor [dks] west. Alternate names: Bungu, Dor.  Dialects: Busere Bongo, Tonj Bongo, Bungo. Slight dialect differences between those on the River Busere, who have had Zande influence, and those around Tonj. Bungo dialect has minor differences. Similar to the Jur Beli [blm] subgroup.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Bongo 
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Burun

[bdi] 18,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). North, Blue Nile Province. Alternate names: Barun, Borun, Cai, Lange.  Dialects: Ragreig, Abuldugu (Bogon, Mugo-Mborkoina), Maiak, Mufwa (Mopo), Mughaja (Mugaja, Mumughadja). Some southern dialects are intelligible with Mabaan [mfz].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Burun 
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Dagik

[dec] 38,000 including Ngile speakers (1982 SIL). North, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains; Mesakin Hills, Reika village. Alternate names: Buram, Dagig, Dengebu, Masakin, Masakin Dagig, Masakin Gusar, Reikha, Thakik.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Ngile [jle] (most similar).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu 
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Dair

[drb] 1,000 (1978 GR). North, west and south Jebel Dair, Kordofan. Alternate names: Dabab, Daier, Thaminyi.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified 
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Daju, Dar Fur

[daj] 80,000 (2007 SIL). North, Dar Fur Province, Daju Hills 40 km northeast of Nyala; Geneina District in Dar Masalit. West Kordofan dialect in Daju Hills near Lagowa, main settlements at Dar el Kabira (Kidong), Silecce, and Warina; Jebel Miheila, Nyukri, and Tamanyik. Alternate names: Beke, Dagu, Daju Ferne, Fininga, Nyala-Lagowa.  Dialects: Nyala, Lagowa. Lexical similarity: 83% between the Nyala and Lagowa dialects, 74% with Dar Sila [dau], 62% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Logorik [liu].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju 
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Daju, Dar Sila

[dau]  North. Nearly all Daju of Dar Sila migrated into Dar Fur from Chad. Alternate names: Bokor, Bokorike, Bokoruge, Mongo-Sila, Sila, Sula.  Dialects: Mongo, Sila.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju 
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Didinga

[did] 60,000 (2007). 1997 parish survey indicated population of 117,000, but probably included many non-Didinga refugees. South, Didinga Hills (60 km northeast of Sudan, Kenya and Uganda borders); north of Nagishot. Alternate names: ’Di’dinga, Lango, Toi, Xaroxa.  Dialects: Ethnic groups: Chukudum, Lowudo. Slight differences in speech between Chukudum and Lowudo, apparently mainly phonetic. Lexical similarity: 83% with Narim [loh], 71% with Murle [mur].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim 
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Dilling

[dil] 5,300 (1984 R. Stevenson), decreasing. North, Southern Kordofan, Dilling town and surrounding hills, including Kudur. Alternate names: Delen, Warkimbe.  Dialects: Dilling, Debri. Lexical similarity: 94% between the Dilling and Debri dialects.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified 
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Dinka

[din] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 1,350,000. 
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Dinka, Northeastern

[dip] 320,000 (1986 UBS). 7,200 Abialang, 9,000 Dongjol, 2,500 Luac, 16,000 Ngok-Sobat, 20,000 Jok, 13,500 Ageer, 2,000 Rut, 400 Thoi. South, northeast of the Sudd, both sides of White Nile, along Sobat River. Alternate names: Padang, White Nile Dinka.  Dialects: Abiliang (Dinka Ibrahim, Akoon, Bawom, Bowom), Dongjol, Luac (Luaic), Ngok-Sobat (Ngork, Jok), Ageer (Ager, Ageir, Abuya, Beer, Niel, Nyel, Paloc, Paloic), Rut, Thoi.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka 
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Dinka, Northwestern

[diw] 80,000 (1986). South, north of Bahr el Ghazal River; south Kordofan, Abyei area. Dialects: Alor, Ngok-Kordofan, Pan Aru, Ruweng.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka 
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Dinka, South Central

[dib] 250,000. 2,000 Aker, 2,000 Thany, 22,000 Ciec, 25,000 Gok (Tucker and Bryan 1956). Total Dinka 2,000,000 or more. South, west of the Nile, south of the Sudd. Aker is southeast of Agar; Aliap south of Bor [dks] in fishing villages mainly on Nile east bank; Ciec in Lakes District on Nile west bank; Gok between Agar and Rek [dik] in Jur River and Lakes districts. Alternate names: Agar, Central Dinka.  Dialects: Aliap (Aliab, Thany, Aker), Ciec (Ciem, Cic, Chiech, Kwac, Ajak, Ador), Gok (Gauk, Cok), Agar. The Gok dialect influenced by Southwestern Dinka [dik] with Arabic loans; Agar being accepted as educational standard for South Central Dinka [dib].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka 
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Dinka, Southeastern

[dks] 250,000 in Sudan. 21,000 Atoc, 9,000 Ghol, 4,000 Nyarueng, 35,000 Twi, 21,000 Bor Gok (Tucker and Bryan 1956). Population total all countries: 265,900. South, east of the Nile, Bor [dks] area, and north. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Bor, Eastern Dinka.  Dialects: Bor (Bor Gok), Athoc (Athoic, Atoc, Borathoi, Bor Athoic), Ghol, Nyarweng (Nyarueng, Narreweng), Tuic (Twi).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka 
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Dinka, Southwestern

[dik] 450,000 (1982 UBS). 55,000 Abiem, 15,000 Luac, 40,000 Malual, 17,000 Paliet, 35,000 Palioupiny, 50,000 Tuic. South, north and northwest of Wau. Alternate names: Rek, Western Dinka.  Dialects: Rek (Raik), Abiem (Ajong Dit, Ajong Thi, Akany Kok, Akern Jok, Apuoth, Apwoth, Anei), Aguok (Agwok), Apuk, Awan, Lau, Luac, Malual (Malwal, Atoktou, Duliit, Korok, Makem, Peth), Paliet (Baliet, Ajak, Buoncwai, Bon Shwai, Bwoncwai, Kongder, Kondair, Thany Bur, Tainbour), Palioupiny (Palioping, Akjuet, Akwang, Ayat, Cimel, Gomjuer), Tuic (Twic, Twich, Twij, Adhiang, Amiol, Nyang, Thon). The Luac dialect is different from Luac dialect in Northeastern Dinka [dip].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka 
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Domari

[rmt]  North. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom 
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Dongotono

[ddd] 1,000. South, Eastern Equatoria Province, Dongotono Hills southeast of Torit. Dialects: May be a separate language or dialect of Lango [lno].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo 
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El Hugeirat

[elh] 50 (2007 SIL), decreasing. North, West Kordofan, El Hugeirat Hills, Sija, Bija, Shenshin, Baboy villages. Alternate names: El Hagarat.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Feroge

[fer] 8,000 (1982 SIL). South, Western Bahr el Ghazal at Khor Shamam, northeast of Raga. Alternate names: Feroghe, Ferroge, Kalige, Kaligi, Kalike, Kaliki.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya 
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Fulfulde, Adamawa

[fub] 90,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). North, Blue Nile and Kordofan regions. Alternate names: Fellata.  Dialects: Gombe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Eastern 
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Fur

[fvr] 500,000 in Sudan (1983 Bender). Population total all countries: 501,800. North, Darfur; east. Also in Chad. Alternate names: Dala, For, Fora, Fordunga, Forok, Forta, Furakang, Furawi, Kadirgi, Konjara, Korra, Kungara, Kurka, Lali, Onage, Yerge.  Dialects: Largely uniform with some dialect differences.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Fur 
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Gaam

[tbi] 67,200 (2000). North, Tabi Massif and area hills, Jebel Tabi area; a few in Khartoum. Alternate names: Ingassana, Ingessana, Kamanidi, Mamedja, Mamidza, Metabi, Muntabi, Tabi.  Dialects: Soda (Tao), Kukur (Gor), Kulang (Kulelek, Bau), Buwahg (Buek).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Gaam 
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Gbaya

[krs] 16,000 in Sudan (1987 SIL). South, western Bahr el Ghazal Province, Kuru, Deim Zubeir, Raga, Angbanga, Kata, Menangba, Boro, Kafia Kingi. Dongo reportedly in south Darfur Province, Hobbinya District, Wau and Khartoum. Most in Raga and Boro. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Kpala, Kpara, Kparla, Kredj, Kreich, Kreish, Kresh.  Dialects: Naka (Kresh-Boro), Gbaya-Ndogo (Kresh-Ndogo), Gbaya-Ngbongbo (Kresh-Hofra), Gbaya-Gboko, Orlo (Woro), Gbaya-Dara, Dongo. 8 tribes and dialects. Gbaya-Ndogo is prestigious and understood by all. Naka is largest and also well understood.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh 
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Ghulfan

[ghl] 16,000 (1984 R. Stevenson), decreasing. North, Kordofan, 2 hills 45 km south of Dilling: Ghulfan Kurgul and Ghulfan Morung. villages: Tarda, Ninya, Kurgul, Moring, Dabri, Katang, Shigda, Karkandi, Ota, Namang. Alternate names: Gulfan, Wunci, Wuncimbe.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan 
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Gula

[kcm] 1,100 in Sudan (1987 SIL). South, extreme western Bahr el Ghazal Province, Kafia Kingi; Kata. Alternate names: Kara, Kara of Sudan, Yamegi.  Dialects: Gula (Goula), Nguru (Bubu, Koyo).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara 
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Gule

[gly] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (1983 Bender). North, Jebel Gule, San and Roro hills north of the Gaam, west of Er Roseires. Alternate names: Anej, Fecakomodiyo, Hamej.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman 
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Gumuz

[guk] 40,000 in Sudan. North, east of Er Roseires, Famaka and Fazoglo areas on the Blue Nile; north along Ethiopia border. Alternate names: Debatsa, Deguba, Dehenda, Gombo, Gumis, Mendeya, Shankillinya, Shanqilla.  Dialects: Disoha (Desua), Dakunza (Degoja, Dukunza, Gunza, Ganza, Dukuna, Dugunza), Sai, Sese (Saysay), Dekoka, Dewiya, Kukwaya, Gombo, Jemhwa, Modea.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Gumuz 
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Hausa

[hau] 80,000 in Sudan (2007). North. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 
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Heiban

[hbn] 4,410 (1984). North, Heiban area, Abul (Obul), and nearby hills; Abri-Talodi road, Heiban town. Alternate names: Abul, Ebang.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru 
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Homa

[hom] Extinct. South, Mopoi and Tambura towns. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Indri

[idr] 700. South, southwest in Raga area. Alternate names: Yanderika, Yandirika.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo 
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Jumjum

[jum] 25,000 (1987). North Upper Nile Province, along Khor Jumjum: Jebels Tunga, Terta, and Wadega. Alternate names: Berin, Olga, Wadega.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban 
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Jur Modo

[bex] 100,000 (2004 SIL). South, Mvolo area; Naam (Olo) River. Alternate names: Jur, Modo.  Dialects: Lori, Modo (Jur Modo, Modo Lali), Wira, Wetu.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli 
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Kacipo-Balesi

[koe] 10,000 in Sudan (2003). Almost completely monolingual. Population total all countries: 14,120. South, Boma Plateau, near Ethiopia border. Also in Ethiopia. Dialects: Kichepo, Suri, Western Suri.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi 
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Kadaru

[kdu] 7,000. North, Kordofan Province, Nuba mountains, Kadaru Hills (known as ‘Jibaal as Sitta’) between Dilling and Delami. Alternate names: Kadaro, Kadero, Kaderu, Kodhin, Kodhinniai, Kodoro.  Dialects: Kadaru (Kodur), Kururu (Tagle), Kafir (Ka’e), Kurtala (Ngokra), Dabatna (Kaaral), Kuldaji (Kendal).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan 
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Kakwa

[keo] 40,000 in Sudan (1978 SIL). South, Yei District, into Democratic Republic of the Congo, west at Aba; south, Mahagi area. Alternate names: Bari Kakwa, Kakua, Kakwak, Kwakwak.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari 
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Kanga

[kcp] 8,000 (1989). North, Miri Hills, west and southwest of Kadugli. Kufa village cluster southeast of Miri, northeast of Lima, and north of Kanga. 4 main villages in Kufa: Toole, Lenyaguyox, Bilenya, and Dologi; Toole main center. Lima in villages Lima, Kilag, and Mashaish, 15 km west of Kadugli. Dialects: Abu Sinun, Chiroro-Kursi, Kanga, Kufa-Lima, Krongo Abdalla.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo 
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Kanuri, Central

[knc]  North. Alternate names: “Beriberi” , Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri.  Dialects: Dagara, Kaga (Kagama), Sugurti, Lare, Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa, Maiduguri.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri 
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Karko

[kko] 13,000 (1984 R. Stevenson). North, Karko Hills, Kordofan, 35 km west of Dilling, including Dulman. Alternate names: Garko, Kithonirishe.  Dialects: Karko, Kasha, Shifir. Varieties spoken by the Ilaki on Abu Junuk to the west (1,000) and by the Tamang at El Tabaq southwest of Katla (800) may be dialects or separate languages.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified 
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Katcha-Kadugli-Miri

[xtc] 75,000 (2004 SIL). 30,000 Katcha and Kadugli (2004), 4,000 Miri and 6,500 Tumma. North, Kordofan Province, hills south of Nuba Hills. Katcha is in Katcha, Tuna, Kafina, Dabakaya (Donga), Belanya and Farouq villages, south of Kadugli and southeast of the Miri Hills; Kadugli in villages surrounding Kadugli, namely, Murta, Kulba, ’Daalimo, Thappare and Takko; Miri in Miri Bara, Miri Guwa, Umduiu, Nyimodu, Luba, Kadoda, Kya, Tulluk, Hayar al-Nimr, Kuduru, Kasari and Sogolle villages which lie west of Kadugli. Dialects: Katcha (Tolubi, Dholubi), Kadugli (Dakalla, Talla, Dhalla, Toma Ma Dalla, Kudugli, Morta), Miri, Damba, Tumma. R. C. Stevenson treats them as dialects of one language. Ruhlen (1987) and Schadeberg (1989) treat them as separate. Samir Bulus says that Tumma is dialect of Katcha. Lexical similarity: 85% among Katcha, Kadugli, and Miri dialects, 88% between Kadugli and Damba.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo 
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Katla

[kcr] 14,200 (1984 R. Stevenson). North, Nuba Hills, Katla Hills 55 km southwest of Dilling. Katla in Bombori, Kateik, Kiddu, Kirkpong, Karoka, Koldrong; Julud in Karkarya, Karkando, Kolbi, Kambai, Rumber, Octiang, Sabba, Tolot, Kary, Kitanngo, Kimndang, Kabog, Koto Kork, Kabosh, Kabog North. Alternate names: Akalak, Kalak.  Dialects: Katla, Julud.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla 
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Keiga

[kec] 6,070 (1984 R. Stevenson). North, Nuba Hills, Jebel Demik, north of Miri; west Kadugli Province, 3 areas: Ambong (villages: Ambong, Ambongadi, Kandang, Kuluwaring, Tingiragadi, Lakkadi, Taffor, Arungekkaadi, Bila Ndulang, Roofik, Saadhing); Lubung (villages: Kuwaik, Tungunungunu, Miya Ntaarang, Miya Ntaluwa, Miya Ndumuru, Semalili); Tumuro (villages: Koolo, Kayide, Jughuba, Tumuro). Alternate names: Aigang, Demik, Keiga-Al-Kheil, Keiga-Timero, Yega.  Dialects: Demik (Rofik), Keiga (Aigang).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo 
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Keliko

[kbo] 10,000 in Sudan (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 22,500. South, south Yei District. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda. Alternate names: Kaliko.  Dialects: Eastern Keliko, Western Keliko.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Kelo

[xel] 200. North, Tornasi Hills, Jebels Tornasi (Keeli village) and Beni Sheko. West of Berta [wti]. Alternate names: Kelo-Beni Sheko, Ndu-Faa-Keelo, Tornasi.  Dialects: Beni Sheko, Kelo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo 
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Kenuzi-Dongola

[kzh] 180,000 in Sudan (1996). Population total all countries: 1,045,000. North, Northern Province, mainly Dongola area. North boundary with Nobiin [fia] is Burgeg. Also in Egypt. Alternate names: Dongola-Kenuz, Dongolawi.  Dialects: Dongola, Kenuzi (Kenuz, Kunuzi).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Dongolawi 
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Ko

[fuj] 2,680 (1984 R. Stevenson). North, extreme east Nuba hills, isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. Alternate names: Fungor, Fungur, Kau.  Dialects: Kau (Ko), Nyaro. Nyaro and Kau may be the same dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern 
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Koalib

[kib] 44,300 (1984 R. Stevenson). North, south Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains, around Delami, including Umm Berumbita and Turum (Nguqwurang), south and southwest of Abri around Koalib range (Ngunduna), Nyukwur area; Umm Heitan and Hadra (Nginyukwur), Abri (Ngirere) plain area villages. Alternate names: Abri, Kawalib, Kowalib, Lgalige, Ngirere, Nirere, Rere.  Dialects: Nguqwurang, Ngunduna, Nginyukwur, Ngirere, Ngemere.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Rere 
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Komo

[xom] 10,000 in Sudan (1979 James). Population total all countries: 11,500. North, Ahmar, Tombak, and Yabus rivers; Blue Nile Province, south Funj region. Also in Ethiopia. Alternate names: Central Koma, Como, Gokwom, Hayahaya, Koma of Daga, Madiin.  Dialects: Beilla, Chali. Dialects may be separate languages.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman 
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Krongo

[kgo] 21,700 (1984 R. Stevenson). North, Kordofan Province, Krongo Hills, south of Masakin range and west of Talodi. Mainly in Tabanya, Toroji and Angolo, and also in Damaguto, Dimadragu, Dimodongo, and Dar. Alternate names: Dimodongo, Kadumodi, Korongo, Kurungu, Tabanya.  Dialects: Fama-Teis-Kua.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo 
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Lafofa

[laf] 600 (2000 M. Brenzinger). North, Nuba Hills, Central Eliri Range; 2 hills south and east. Dialects: Jebel El Amira (El Amira), Jebel Tekeim (Jebel, Tekeim, Tegem), Lafofa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Tegem 
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Lango

[lno] 38,000 (2007). South, Eastern Equatoria Province, Ikotos area, between Kidepo and Logoforok villages. Alternate names: Langgo.  Dialects: Madial Lorwama, Logir, Dongotono, Imotong, and Lokwaa.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo 
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Laro

[lro] 40,000 (1998 local). North, Nuba Hills, Laro (Alleira) hills area, Oya, Rodong (Hajar Medani), Hajar Baco, Gunisaia, Serif, Tondly, Reli, Lagau (Serfinila), Getaw (Hajar Tiya), Orme (Ando) villages. Alternate names: Aaleira, Laru, Ngwullaro, Yillaro.  Dialects: Tunduli, Laro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru 
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Logol

[lof] 2,600. North, extreme east Nuba Hills, isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. Alternate names: Lukha.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Logol 
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Logorik

[liu] 2,000 (Welmers 1971). North, central Nuba Mountains, Jebel Liguri hills area northeast of Kadugli. Alternate names: Liguri.  Dialects: Saburi, Tallau (Talau, Talo, Tilow), Liguri.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Eastern Daju 
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Lokoya

[lky] 12,400. South, Eastern Equatoria Province, Torit District. Alternate names: Ellyria, Koyo, Loirya, Lokoiya, Lokoja, Loquia, Lowoi, Oirya, Owoi, Oxoriok.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo 
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Lopit

[lpx] 50,000 (1995 S. Randal). South, Eastern Equatoria Province, Lopit Hills, northeast of Torit. Alternate names: Lafiit, Lafit, Lafite, Lofit, Lopid, Loppit.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo 
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Lumun

[lmd] 45,000 (1980). North, Talodi, Moro Hills; Toromathan, To’ri, and Canya’ru villages. Alternate names: Kuku-Lumun, Lomon.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho 
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Luwo

[lwo] 80,000 (1983 census). South, Bahr el Ghazal, north of Wau toward Aweil, southeast of Wau to Tonj. Alternate names: Dhe Luwo, Dhe Lwo, Giur, Jo Lwo, Jur Luo, Jur Lwo, Lwo.  Dialects: Different from Langaj (Lwo) [laj] of Uganda, or Dholuo [luo] of Kenya and Luo [luo] of Tanzania, but related.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Jur 
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Mabaan

[mfz]  Blue Nile and Upper Nile provinces border, between Yabus and Tombak rivers north and Khor Daga south. Alternate names: Barga, Gura, Maaban, Meban, Southern Burun, Tonko, Tungan, Ulu.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban 
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Ma’di

[mhi] 18,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). South, Central Equatoria state, Madi subdistrict; Opari District. Alternate names: Ma’adi, Ma’diti.  Dialects: Pandikeri, Lokai, Burulo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern 
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Mandari

[mqu]  South, north of Bari, Taliarea; both sides of the Nile between Tombe and Mongalla. Alternate names: Chir, Kir, Mondari, Mundari, Shir.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari 
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Mangayat

[myj] 400 (1987 SIL). South, West Bahr el Ghazal, Mangayat, 30 km southeast of Raga; some in Raga. Alternate names: Buga, Mangaya, Mongaiyat.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya 
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Masalit

[mls] Population total all countries: 60,900. North, Darfur Province, Dar Masalit and Nyala District, scattered colonies in Dar Fongoro, south and east; Gedaref region; Geneina, Mistere, and Habila Kajangise. Also in Chad. Alternate names: Jwisince, Kaana Masala, Massalit.  Dialects: The dialect in Dar Masalit in Darfur differs from that spoken in Nyala District.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban, Mabang, Masalit 
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Midob

[mei] 50,000 (1993 R. Werner). North, Darfur Province, Jebel Midob, and settled communities in Omdurman and Gezira Aba. The center is Malha. Alternate names: Meidob, Midobi, Tid, Tid-N-Aal, Tidda.  Dialects: Shelkota (Shalkota), Kaageddi, Urrti (Uurti).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Western 
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Mittu

[mwu] Extinct. South. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli 
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Mo’da

[gbn] 600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). South, northwest of Mvolo, Lakes and Western Equatoria provinces border, both sides. Alternate names: Gbara, Gberi, Gweri, Muda.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da 
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Molo

[zmo] 100 (1988 M. Bender). Jebel Malkan, near the Berta, south of the Blue Nile, near Ethiopia border. Alternate names: Malkan.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo 
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Moro

[mor] 30,000 (1982 SIL). North, east Nuba Mountains, Kordofan Province. Alternate names: Dhimorong.  Dialects: Umm Dorein (Longorban), Umm Gabralla (Toberelda), Nderre, Laiyen, Nubwa, Ulba, Werria.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western 
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Morokodo

[mgc] 3,400 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 280 Biti. South, between Amadi and Maridi. Alternate names: Ma’di.  Dialects: Biti, Ma’du, Morokodo. A dialect subgroup.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da 
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Moru

[mgd] 70,000 (1982 SIL). 1,200 Agi, 2,500 Andri, 5,000 Kadiro, 9,000 Miza, 400 Wa’di. South, Equatoria Province, Mundri District. Alternate names: Kala Moru.  Dialects: Agi, Andri, ’Bali’ba, Kadiro, Lakama’di, Miza, Moruwa’di. Andri and ’Bali’ba dialects are similar, Kadiro and Lakama’di are nearly identical.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Northern 
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Mündü

[muh] 23,000 in Sudan. Population total all countries: 25,800. South, Western Equatoria Province, northwest of Yei, south of Maridi. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Mondo, Mondu, Mountou, Mundo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mundu 
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Murle

[mur] 60,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 60,200. South, Upper Nile Province, Pibor District, south of Akobo River, Boma Plateau, and east and north. Also in Ethiopia. Alternate names: Adkibba, Agiba, Ajibba, Beir, Merule, Mourle, Murelei, Murule.  Dialects: Ethnic subgroups: Lotilla, Boma, Olam (Ngalam). Maacir may be a dialect or ethnic group.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Murle 
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Narim

[loh] 3,620 (1983 Fukui). South, west Boya Hills, Mt. Kosodek and Mt. Lobuli areas. Alternate names: Lariim, Larim, Lariminit, Larimo, Longarim, Nariim.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim 
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Nding

[eli] Extinct. North, south Eliri range. Alternate names: Eliri.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Nding 
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Ndogo

[ndz] Few monolinguals. South, Western District, Wau-Deim Zubeir Road between Mboro and Kpango rivers; a few north of Tembura among Zande [zne]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere 
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Ngile

[jle] 38,000 (1982 SIL). Dajik. North, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains, Mesakin Hills, outlying hills. Alternate names: Daloka, Darra, Masakin, Mesakin, Taloka.  Dialects: Aheima (El Akheimar), Daloka (Taloka), Masakin Gusar (Mesakin Qusar, Masakin Buram), Masakin Tuwal (Tiwal, Towal).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu 
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Njalgulgule

[njl] 900 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). South, Sopo River just above Sopo-Boro confluence; west of the Dinka. 1 village. Alternate names: Bege, Begi, Beko, Ngulgule, Njangulgule, Nyolge, Nyoolne.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju 
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Nobiin

[fia] 295,000 in Sudan (1996). Population total all countries: 605,000. Northern Province, north from Burgeg to Egypt border at Wadi Halfa; Kassala Province, New Halfa. Also in Egypt. Alternate names: Fiadidja-Mahas, Mahas-Fiadidja, Mahas-Fiyadikkya.  Dialects: Mahas (Mahasi, Mahass), Fiyadikka (Fedicca, Fadicha, Fadicca, Fadija, Fiadidja).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Northern 
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Nuer

[nus] 740,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). 2,935 Western Jikany, 12,500 Lou, 1,100 Nyuong, 2,500 Thiang, 5,900 Bul, 2,400 Jagai, 6,700 Laak, 4,900 Leik, 1,600 Door, 17,600 Eastern Jikany (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Population total all countries: 804,900. South, east Upper Nile Province, upper Sobat River, Nasir, a triangle area formed between Bahr el Zeraf and Bahr el Jebel, up Sobat River across the Ethiopia border. Also in Ethiopia. Alternate names: Naadh.  Dialects: Dor (Door), Eastern Jikany (Jikain, Jekaing), Abigar, Western Jikany, Cien, Thognaath (Thok Nath), Lou (Lau), Nyuong, Thiang (Bul, Gawaar, Jagai, Laak, Leik). Dialects correspond mainly to geographic divisions.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer 
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Nyamusa-Molo

[nwm] 1,200 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). South, Western Equatoria Province, southeast of Beli, northeast of Morokodo. Dialects: Nyamusa, Molo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da 
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Olu’bo

[lul] 15,000 (1985 SIL). South, Eastern Equatoria Province, 50 km east of Nile River. Main town is Lokiliri, between Juba-Torit and Juba-Nimule roads. Alternate names: Lolubo, Luluba, Lulubo, Olubogo, Oluboti, Ondoe.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern 
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Opuuo

[lgn]  Upper Nile Province, Kigille and Maiwut area on Ethiopia border. Buldit in Daga River area, villages Paitath and Tedibi. Alternate names: Ansita, Ciita, Cita, Kina, Kwina, “Langa” , Opo, Opo-Shita, Opuo, Shita, Shitta.  Dialects: Buldit, Kusgilo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman 
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Otoro

[otr] 10,000 (2001). North, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains region, Otoro Hills south of Heiban and west of Heiban-Talodi road. Alternate names: Dhitoro, Kawama, Kawarma, Litoro, Utoro.  Dialects: Dugujur, Dukwara, Dorobe, Dogoridi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Utoro 
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Otuho

[lot] 135,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Dongotono (1998), 2,500 Koriot, 1,000 Lomya. South, Torit District, Eastern Equatoria Province, east and southeast of Olubo [lul] and Lokoya [lky]. Alternate names: Latooka, Lattuka, Latuka, Latuko, Lotuho, Lotuka, Lotuko, Lotuxo, Olotorit, Otuxo.  Dialects: Koriok, Logiri (Logir), Lomya (Lomia), Lorwama, Lowudo (Loudo, Lauda), Logotok. Logiri and Lorwama may be dialects of Lango [lno] not Otuho.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo 
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Päri

[lkr] 28,000 (1987 SIL). South, Eastern Equatoria Province, Jebel Lafon, Bura, Pucwaa, Pugari, Kor, Angulumeere, and Wiatuo villages, northwest of Lopit [lpx], northeast of Lokoya [lky]. Alternate names: “Lokoro”.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Unclassified 
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Reel

[atu] 50,000 (1998). South, Lakes Province; border Ciec Dinka [dib] north near Panekar; Agar Dinka [dib] west near Lake Nyibor; Jur Modo [bex] south; and Ador Dinka [dib] east near Yirol. Alternate names: Atwot, Thok Cieng Reel.  Dialects: No dialect differences.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer 
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Shatt

[shj] 15,000 (1984 R. Stevenson). North, Shatt Hills southwest of Kadugli (Shatt Daman, Shatt Safia, Shatt Tebeldia); Abu Hashim and Abu Sinam areas. Alternate names: Caning.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Eastern Daju 
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Shilluk

[shk] 175,000 (1982 SIL). South, Upper Nile Province, between Nile and Kordofan Province boundary, 130 km west of Tonga; Nile east bank, Nile and Sobat River junction area, and 35 km up Sobat River. Alternate names: Chulla, Colo, Dhocolo, Shulla.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Shilluk 
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Shwai

[shw] 3,500 (1989). North, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains, Shwai Hills villages, northwest of Otoro near Heiban-Kadugli road. Alternate names: Ludumor, Shirumba, Shuway.  Dialects: Shabun, Cerumba (Shirumba), Ndano.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Shirumba 
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Sinyar

[sys]  Foro Boranga is main center. Alternate names: Shemya, Sinya.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sinyar 
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Suri

[suq] 1,000 in Sudan (1983 SIL). South, Boma Plateau near Ethiopia border. Alternate names: Surma.  Dialects: Tirma (Tirima, Terema, Terna, Dirma, Cirma, Tirmaga, Tirmagi, Tid), Chai (Caci, Cai).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri 
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Tagoi

[tag] 13,000 (1982 SIL). 2,000 Tagoi, 552 Moreb, 1,100 Tumale (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). North, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains, Moreb, Tagoi, Turjok, Tumale Hill, possibly Tuling village. Tagoi in Tukum and Turum (1956 Tucker and Bryan). Alternate names: Tagoy.  Dialects: Moreb, Tumale, Tagoi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad 
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Talodi

[tlo] 1,500 (1989). North, Nuba Hills, Talodi town and hill, Tasomi and Tata villages. Alternate names: Ajomang, Gajomang, Jomang.  Dialects: Dialects nearly identical.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Jomang 
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Tama

[tma] 5,000 in Sudan (1970). North, Darfur. Masalit [mls] south, Arabic-speakers north. Mileere is in Jabal Muun area, Western Darfur, main town Salia, and west of Nyala; Erenga in Sirba area, Abu Suruj, Saraf Jidad, Bir Dagig, Kondobe villages. Dialects: Tama, Erenga, Murase, Mileere (Milerinka).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Tama-Sungor 
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Tegali

[ras] 35,700 (1984 R. Stevenson). North, Kordofan Province, Nuba Mountains, Tegali Range, Rashad hills and Rashad town. Alternate names: Tagale, Tegele, Tekele, Togole.  Dialects: Rashad (Kom, Ngakom, Kome), Tegali.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad 
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Temein

[teq] 13,000 (2006). 6,000 population in home area villages; 7,000 population in other towns in Northern Sudan. North, Nuba Hills, Temein hills southwest of Dilling, between Jebels Ghulfan Morung and Julud (Gulud), Tukur, Nekring, Kwiye, Tokoing, Tulu, Farik, Kuris villages. Alternate names: Rone, Ronge, Temainian.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Tese [keg].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Temein 
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Tennet

[tex] 4,000 (1994 SIL). South, Equatoria Province, Lopit Hills, northeast of Torit. 5 villages. Alternate names: Tenet.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Tennet 
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Tese

[keg] 1,400 (Welmers 1971). North, Nuba Hills, Keiga Jirru west of Debri; 6 villages northeast of Kadugli. Alternate names: Keiga Girru, Keiga Jirru, Teis-Umm-Danab.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Temein 
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Thuri

[thu] 6,600 (Tucker and Bryan 1956). South, between Wau and Aweil, between Jur and Lol rivers, Raga-Nyamlell and Wau-Deim Zubeir roads. Alternate names: Dhe Thuri, Jo Thuri, Shatt, Wada Thuri.  Dialects: Bodho (Dhe Boodho, Dembo, Demen, Dombo), Colo (Dhe Colo, Jur Shol, Jo Colo), Manangeer (Jur Manangeer).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Thuri 
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Tigré

[tig]  Red Sea coast between Eritrea border and Tokar. Alternate names: Khasa, Xasa.  Dialects: Mansa’ (Mensa).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North 
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Tima

[tms]  North, West Kordofan District, Nuba Hills, Jebel Tima area villages, 15 km southwest of Katla. Alternate names: Lomorik, Lomuriki, Tamanik, Yibwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla 
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Tingal

[tie] 8,000 (1982 SIL). North, Tegali Hills. Alternate names: Kajaja, Kajakja.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad 
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Tira

[tic] 40,000 (1982 SIL). North, Nuba Hills, Otoro to Talodi area. Alternate names: Lithiro, Thiro, Tiro.  Dialects: Kinderma (Kanderma), Tira El Akhdar (Tira Dagig), Tira Lumum (Luman), Tira Mandi. Slight variations among dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western 
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Tocho

[taz] 3,800 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). North, Talodi, Moro Hills. Alternate names: Tacho, Toicho.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho 
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Togoyo

[tgy] Extinct. South, west, Raga, small area. Alternate names: Togoy.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo 
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Toposa

[toq] 100,000 (2000 M. Schroeder). South, Singaita and Lokalyen rivers’ sides. Ritual center at Loyooro River. Migrate to Moruangipi, and farther east for seasonal grazing into Ilemi Triangle at Ethiopia border, but no permanent settlements there. Alternate names: Akara, Kare, Kumi, Taposa, Topotha.  Dialects: Eastern Toposa, Western Toposa, Jiye.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana 
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Torona

[tqr] Extinct. North, Talodi, Moro Hills. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho 
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Tulishi

[tey] 8,630 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 3,000 Kamda, 2,500 Tulishi. North, Nuba Hills west edge hills, Jebel Tulishi south of Katla; Jebel Kamdang north of Lagowa, south of Tulishi, Laati, Lawwa, Ntukungnge, Aabiisa, Nattilongke, Aliyooro Manadaha, Thudhi, Kirakaati vilages. Lagawa largest village, Kam’da administrative center. Alternate names: Kuntulishi, Thulishi, Tulesh.  Dialects: Tulishi, Kamda (Kamdang), Dar El Kabira (Turuj, Truj, Logoke, Minjimmina). Dar el Kabira and Kamdang dialects are similar.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo 
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Tumtum

[tbr] 7,300. 6,000 in Karondi, 1,300 in Tumtum. North, Nuba Hills; Kurondi south of Eliri; Eliri area north, Talassa. Dialects: Karondi (Kurondi, Korindi), Talassa (Talasa), Tumtum.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo 
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Uduk

[udu]  North, Upper Nile Province from Belila north, south along Blue Nile Province boundary to Yabus River. Alternate names: Burun, Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan, Twampa.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman 
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Wali

[wll] 9,000 (2007). Some monolinguals. North, Wali Hills, south of Karko Hills. Alternate names: Walari, Walarishe.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified 
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Warnang

[wrn] 1,100 (1956 census). North, far east Nuba Hills, isolated hills, between Talodi and the White Nile. Alternate names: Werni.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern 
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Yulu

[yul] 3,000 in Sudan (1987 SIL). 2,000 Yulu and 1,000 Binga. South, Western Bahr el Ghazal Province, Khor Buga, Yulu, 5 km west of Raga; Habbaniya District of Darfur. Binga at Menangba, west of Raga. Alternate names: Youlou.  Dialects: Binga, Yulu.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara 
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Zaghawa

[zag] 75,000 in Sudan (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 169,000. North, northwest Dar Fur, and scattered south; Kordofan. Also in Chad, Libya. Alternate names: Beri, Beri-Aa, Berri, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua.  Dialects: Wagi (Twer), Kube, Tuba (Bideyat). Wagi is the main dialect in Sudan. Ethnic subgroups are Kobe, Dor, Anka, with slight dialect differences.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern 
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Zande

[zne] 350,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). South. Alternate names: Azande, Badjande, Pazande, Sande, Zandi.  Dialects: Dio, Makaraka (Odio).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara 
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