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Languages of Suriname

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Republic of Suriname. 452,000. National or official language: Dutch. Literacy rate: 65%–95%. Immigrant languages: English, Korean, North Levantine Spoken Arabic, Portuguese. Information mainly from SIL 1964–2003. Blind population: 1,300 (1982 WCE). Deaf population: 25,646. Deaf institutions: 1. The number of individual languages listed for Suriname is 17. Of those, 16 are living languages and 1 is a second language without mother-tongue speakers.
Akurio

[ako] 10 (2000 E. Carlin). Ethnic population: 50. Southeast jungle. Alternate names: Akoerio, Akuliyo, Akuri, Akurijo, Akuriyo, Oyaricoulet, Triometesem, Triometesen, Wama, Wayaricuri.  Dialects: Related to, but not inherently intelligible with, Trió [tri].  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wama  Nearly extinct.
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Arawak

[arw] 700 in Suriname (1980 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 2,450. Ethnic population: 2,051 in Suriname (1980 census). North Suriname, scattered. Also in French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela. Alternate names: Arowak, Lokono.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Caribbean 
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Aukan

[djk] 15,500 in Suriname. 10%–20% monolingual. 14,353 Aukan, 33 Aluku, 1,156 Paramaccan (1980 census). Population total all countries: 22,090. Near Brokopondo, east along Marowijne and Tapanahony rivers, northeast along Cottica River. Aluku are along French Guiana border; Paramaccan in northeast Suriname. Also in French Guiana. Alternate names: Aukaans, “Djoeka” , “Djuka” , Ndjuká, Ndyuka, Njuká, Okanisi.  Dialects: Aukan, Aluku (Aloekoe, Boni), Paramaccan. Kwinti [kww] is less similar to Aukan than the Aluku and Paramaccan dialects.  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka 
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Carib

[car] 1,200 in Suriname (Carlin 2001). Ethnic population: 3,000. North coast. Eastern dialect primarily in Albina and in French Guiana, Brazil, and Venezuela; western dialect in central and western areas of Suriname and in Guyana. Alternate names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibí, Kali’na, Kalihna, Kalinya, Maraworno.  Dialects: Murato (Myrato, Western Carib), Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib).  Classification: Carib, Northern, Galibi 
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Chinese, Hakka

[hak] 7,010 in Suriname (2000). Ethnic population: 12,000 Chinese, including Yue (1971).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Dutch

[nld] 200,000 in Suriname (1997 C. DeKleine).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian 
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Guyanese Creole English

[gyn] 50,000 in Suriname (1986 SIL).  Alternate names: Creolese, Guyanese Creole.  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Southern 
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Hindustani, Caribbean

[hns] 150,000 in Suriname (1986). Population total all countries: 165,600. Coastal region. Also in Guyana, Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago. Dialects: Trinidad Bhojpuri, Sarnami Hindustani (Sarnami Hindi, Aili Gaili). More similar to Bhojpuri [bho] than to Hindi. Similar dialect to Trinidad-Tobago.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari 
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Javanese, Caribbean

[jvn] 60,000 in Suriname (1986). Coastal area. Also in French Guiana. Alternate names: Suriname Javanese.  Dialects: Significantly different from Javanese [jav] of Indonesia.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese 
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Kwinti

[kww] 130 (1980 census). North central, along Coppename River, upstream from Kaimanstan and Witagron. Dialects: Further removed from Ndyuka [njt] than Aluku and Paramaccan. Probably needs literature adapted from Ndyuka.  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka 
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Ndyuka-Trio Pidgin

[njt]  South Suriname, upper Tapanahonij River. Classification: Pidgin 
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Saramaccan

[srm] 23,000 in Suriname (1995 SIL). 1,000 Matawari. Population total all countries: 26,000. Central, along Saramacca and upper Suriname rivers. Refugees in Paramaribo. Also in French Guiana. Dialects: Matawari (Matawai, Matuari, Matoewari). Ian Hancock classifies it as Portuguese based rather than English. Linguistic influences from Kongo [kng] (Hancock 1988). 20% or more of the lexicon has an African component.  Classification: Creole, English based 
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Sikiana

[sik] 15 in Suriname (Carlin 2001). Ethnic population: 50. Sipaliwini River in Kwamalasamutu. Alternate names: Chikena, Sikiyana, Tshikiana.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waiwai, Sikiana  Nearly extinct.
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Sranan

[srn] 120,000 in Suriname (1993). Population total all countries: 126,400. Mainly Paramaribo and along the coast. Also in Aruba, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles. Alternate names: Sranan Tongo, Surinaams, Suriname Creole English, Surinamese, Taki-Taki.  Dialects: Similar to Ndyuka [njt], but with cultural differences. Many similarities to Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone.  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname 
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Trió

[tri] 1,400 in Suriname (2003 ISA). Population total all countries: 2,300. South central, Tepoe and Alalapadu villages. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Tirió.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio 
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Warao

[wba] Few in Suriname. Near Guyana border. Alternate names: Guarao, Guarauno, Warrau.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Wayana

[way] 400 in Suriname (1980 census). Population total all countries: 750. Southeast Suriname villages. Also in Brazil, French Guiana. Alternate names: Alukuyana, Oayana, Oiana, Oyana, Roucouyenne, Uaiana, Upurui, Wajana.  Dialects: Partially intelligible with Apalaí [apy].  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio 
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