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Languages of Chad

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Republic of Chad, République du Tchad. 10,146,000. National or official languages: Standard Arabic, French. Literacy rate: 11%. Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Hausa (100,000). Information mainly from D. Barreteau 1978; J. Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989; P. Boyeldieu 1977, 1985; J. Caprile 1977; P. Doornbos and M. Bender 1983; H. Jungraithmayr 1981; SIL 1971–2007. Blind population: 110,000 to 175,000. The number of individual languages listed for Chad is 133. Of those, 131 are living languages and 2 have no known speakers.
Amdang

[amj] 41,100 (2000). Population now greater in Batha and Ouaddaï regions than in the home region of Wadi Fira. Wadi Fira region, Biltine Departement, Biltine Sous-Préfecture, Mimi Goz and Mimi Hadjer cantons north of Biltine; Batha region; Ouaddaï region. Alternate names: Andangti, Biltine, Mima, Mime, Mimi, Mututu.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Fur 
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Arabic, Babalia Creole

[bbz] 3,940 (1993 census). West, Chari Baguirmi Prefecture, N’Djamena Subprefecture. North of Djermaya and between Karal and Tourba. Possibly in Bokoro Subprefecture, Ngoura area. 23 villages. Alternate names: Babalia, Babaliya, Bubalia.  Dialects: A creole developed from Chadian Arabic [shu] (90% of the vocabulary) and Berakou [bxv] (10%; Decobert). Babalia shares structural similarities with Juba Arabic [pga]. There is a post-creole continuum from Chadian Arabic [shu] to the Bagirmian basilect [bmi].  Classification: Creole, Arabic based 
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Arabic, Chadian Spoken

[shu] 896,000 in Chad (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,139,000. Salamat, Ouaddaï, Wadi Fira regions, Batha region center and west, much of Chari-Baguirmi; Mayo-Kebbi; north Tandjilé; Guéra. Also in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Niger, Nigeria. Alternate names: Arabe Choa, Chad Arabic, Chadian Arabic, Chowa, L’arabe du Tchad, Shua, Shua Arabic, Shuwa Arabic, Suwa.  Dialects: Dialects depend on whether their speakers are sedentary or nomads, rural or urban, and on migration routes. A pidginized variety, commonly called ‘Bongor Arabic’, is spoken as L2 by many in the Mayo-Kebbi and other parts of south Chad.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Arabic, Standard

[arb]   Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Assangori

[sjg] 23,500 (1993 census). Ouaddaï region, Assoungha Department, northwest of Adré and of the Masalit [mls]. Alternate names: Asong, Assoungor, Asungore, Azanguri, Bognak-Asungorung, Goran, Madungore, Soungor, Sungor.  Dialects: Sungor, Walad Dulla. Girga and Walad Dulla are ethnic groups which may or may not speak different dialects. Madungore may be a dialect of Tama [tma]. Lexical similarity: 62%–73% with Tama.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Tama-Sungor 
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Bagirmi

[bmi] 44,800 in Chad (1993 census). West, Chari Baguirmi Prefecture. 2 groups: Massénya Subprefecture, Massénya area; Bousso Subprefecture, Bousso area. Gol are at Massénya; Kibar east of Massénya; Bangri west of Massénya and along Chari River between Guélendeng and N’Djaména; Dam along Chari River from Bousso to Guélenden. Also in Nigeria. Alternate names: Baghirmi, Bagrimma, Baguirme, Baguirmi, Barma, Lis, Lisi, Mbarma, Tar Bagrimma, Tar Barma.  Dialects: Gol, Kibar, Bangri, Dam. Many dialects.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi 
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Barein

[bva] 4,100 (1993 census). Guéra region, Bahr Signaka Department, Melfi Subprefecture, west (Jalkia), south, southwest (Komi), and east (Sakaya) of Melfi. Alternate names: Baraïn, Guilia, Jalkia.  Dialects: Jalkia, Guilia, Sakaya (Dagne, Jelkin), Komi. Lexical similarity: 92% between the Jalkia dialect and the Guilia dialect, 70% between the Sakaya dialect and both Jalkia and Guilia.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 
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Bedjond

[bjv] 36,000 (Caprile and Fedry 1969). Mandoul region, Mandoul Occidental Department, Bediondo area, west of the Day [dai]. Alternate names: Bediondo, Bediondo Mbai, Bédjonde, Bedjondo, Mbay Bediondo, Mbay Bejondo, Nangnda.  Dialects: Bedjond, Bébote, Yom.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Berakou

[bxv] 2 (1995 D. Djarangar). West, Chari Baguirmi Prefecture; N’Djamena Subprefecture, north of Djermaya and between Karal and Tourba; Bokoro Subprefecture, Ngoura area. 23 villages. Alternate names: Babalia, Bubalia.  Dialects: Bolo Djarma, Mondogossou, Manawadji, Yiryo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi  Nearly extinct.
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Besme

[bes] 1,230 (1993 census). Southwest, Tandjilé Prefecture, Kélo and Laï subprefectures, in Besmé, Bodor, and 3 other villages along Logone River northwest of Laï. Alternate names: ’Unar, Beseme, Besemme, Bodor, Hounar, Huner.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 51% with Kim [kia].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim 
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Bidiyo

[bid] 14,000 (Jungraithmayr 1981). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Mongo Subprefecture, south of Mongo and west of Abou Telfane. Alternate names: ’Bidio, ’Bidiyo, Bidio, Bidiya, Bidiyo-Waana, Bidyo.  Dialects: Garawgino (Kafila), Jekkino (Kofilo), Bigawguno (Tounkoul), Nalguno (Niergui), ’Oboyguno (Zerli). The first 2 dialects listed are eastern, the others western. Dambiya is probably a Bidiyo dialect instead of a Migaama [mmy] dialect.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 
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Birgit

[btf] 10,400 (2000). Salamat region, Abou Déïa and Barh-Azoum Departments; Ouaddaï region, Djourf-al-Ahmar Department; centered in Abgué. Alternate names: Bergit, Berguid, Birgid.  Dialects: Abgue, Eastern Birgit, Duguri, Agrab.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 
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Bolgo

[bvo] 1,800 (1993 census). Guéra region, Bahr Signaka Department, Melfi Subprefecture, east of the Barain, southeast of Melfi. Dialects: Bolgo Dugag (Small Bolgo), Bolgo Kubar (Big Bolgo). Lexical similarity: 68% between the 2 dialects and between Bolgo Dugag and a form of Koke [kou] spoken in Daguéla.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua 
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Bon Gula

[glc] 1,200 (1997 SIL). Guéra region, Bahr Signaka Department, Melfi Subprefecture, north of Lake Iro, northeast of Zan. Bon and Ibir villages. Alternate names: Bon, Bon Goula, Bun, Gula Guera, Poun, Taataal.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 46% with Zan Gula [zna].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua 
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Boor

[bvf] 100 (1999 SIL). Chari-Baguirmi region, Loug-Chari Department, Bousso Subprefecture; Moyen-Chari region, Barh Kôh Department Sarh Subprefecture, Dumraw area (Bwara) village on Chari River north bank, just east of Miltu. Alternate names: Bwara, Damraw.  Dialects: Some have classified it as a dialect of Miltu [mlj]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Miltu (most similar).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2 
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Bua

[bub] 7,710 (1993 census). Moyen-Chari region, Barh Kôh Department, Sarh Subprefecture, Korbol area and northeast; Guéra region, Barh Signaka Department, Melfi Subprefecture. Alternate names: ’Ba, Boa, Boua, Bwa.  Dialects: A separate language from Niellim [nie], Fania [fni], Tunia [tug], and Day [dai]. ‘Mana’, or ‘Kobe’ may be an alternate name or dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua 
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Buduma

[bdm] 51,600 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 54,800. Lac region, Mamdi Department, Bol Subprefecture, islands and Lake Chad north shore. Also in Cameroon, Nigeria. Alternate names: Boudouma, Yedima, Yedina, Yidana, Yidena.  Dialects: Southern Buduma, Northern Buduma. 90% inherent intelligibility between dialects.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma 
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Buso

[bso] 40 (Welmers 1971). Chari-Baguirmi region, Loug-Chari Department, Bousso Subprefecture, Maffaling and Bousso. Alternate names: Bousso, Busso, Dam de Bousso.  Dialects: Boyeldieu says it is not in the Bua group, but Chadic.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1  Nearly extinct.
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Chadian Sign Language

[cds] 390 (1989 M. Yonadjiel). Ethnic population: Large deaf population (1989). Schools and an association for the deaf in N’Djamena, Sarh, and Moundou. Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Dagba

[dgk] 10,000 in Chad (2007). Moyen Chari region, Grande Sido Department, Maro and Sido subprefectures, villages: Sido, Ngokorio, Ntilo, and quartier Jardin in Sarh. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Daju, Dar Daju

[djc] 34,000 (1993 census). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Mongo Subprefecture, Mongo and Eref area. Alternate names: Dadjo, Dadju, Dajo, Dajou, Daju, Daju Mongo, Daju Oum Hadjer.  Dialects: Bardangal, Eref, Gadjira. Not inherently intelligible with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Lexical similarity: 64% with Dar Sila Daju.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju 
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Daju, Dar Sila

[dau] 63,100 in Chad (2000). Ouaddaï region, Sila Department; Goz-Beïda area and east to Sudan border; Salamat region, Barh Azoum Department, camps of internally displaced people. Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Bokorike, Dadjo, Dajou, Daju, Sila, Sula.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Dar Daju Daju [djc]. Lexical similarity: 74% with Daju [daj] of Darfur (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Shatt [shj], 57% with Logorik [liu].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju 
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Dangaléat

[daa] 45,000 (1999 SIL). 30,000 in Dangaléat Canton. Guéra region, Guéra Department, Mongo and Bitkine subprefectures, west of Mongo. Western dialect around Korbo; Central around Barlo, Koubo Adougoul; East around Korlongo. Alternate names: Danal, Dangal, Dangla.  Dialects: West Dangaléat (Korbo, Karbo), Central Dangaleat, East Dangaleat. Intelligibility between east and west dialects is low, but central dialect well understood.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 
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Day

[dai] 49,900 (1993 census). Moyen-Chari region, Barh Kôh Department (Sarh); Mandoul region, Barh Sara Department (Moïssala), southwest of Sarh. Alternate names: Dai.  Dialects: Bouna, Bangoul, Ngalo, Takawa-Béngoro. Dialects are mutually inherently intelligible.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Day 
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Dazaga

[dzg] 331,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 381,000. Kanem and BET regions, Borkou, Ennedi Est and Ennedi Ouest departments, north of Lake Chad and Faya-Largeau area. Also in Niger. Alternate names: Dasa, Daza, Dazza.  Dialects: Similar to Tedaga [tuq]. The Azzaga dialect, the speech of the Azza, a caste Division, is different from Dazaga. Its relation to Dazaga and speech of the Azza among the Teda is not known.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu 
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Disa

[dsi] 2,370 (2000). Guéra region, Barh Signaka Department, Chinguil Subprefecture. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi 
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Fania

[fni] 1,100 (1997 SIL). Guéra region, Barh Signaka Department, Melfi Subprefecture, west of Lake Iro; north of Sarh, Mouraye area, Sengué, Malakonjo, Rim, Sisi, Karo villages. Alternate names: Fagnia, Fana, Fanian, Fanya, Fanyan, Kobe, Mana.  Dialects: Northern Fania, Southern Fania. A separate language from Bua [bub]. Lexical similarity: 79% between dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua 
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Fongoro

[fgr] 1,000 (Doornbos and Bender 1983). Ouaddaï region, Sila Department, canton Fongoro; Dar Fongoro region along Sudan border south of Mongororo and the Sinyar, rather inaccessible. Alternate names: Gele, Kole.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi 
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French

[fra] 3,000 in Chad (1993).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Fulfulde, Adamawa

[fub] 148,000 in Chad (2006). Kano-Katsina-Bororro Fulfulde. 152,146 all Fulfulde varieties in Chad. Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region, Lac Léré Department. Alternate names: Adamawa Fulani, Biira, Boulbe, Domona, Dzemay, Eastern Fulani, Foulfoulde, Ful, Fula Fulbe, Nagapelta, Palata, Paldena, Paldida, Pelta Hay, Peul, Peulh, Pladina, Pule, Pullo, Sanyo, Taareyo, Zaakosa, Zemay.  Dialects: Maroua, Garoua, Ngaoundéré, Kambariire, Nomadic Fulfulde, Bilkire Fulani (Bilkiri).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Eastern 
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Fulfulde, Bagirmi

[fui] 24,000 in Chad. Population total all countries: 180,000. Chari-Baguirmi region, Baguirmi Department, Massénya Subprefecture; Hadjer Lamis region, Dababa Department, Bokoro Subprefecture, between Bokoro and Massénya. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Baghirmi Peul, Bagirmi Fula.  Dialects: May be similar to Bororo Fulfulde [fuv]; a nomadic group of Mbororo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Eastern 
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Fulfulde, Kano-Katsina-Bororro

[fuv]  Ouest region, Pala and Léré area; Chari-Baguirmi region, Baguirmi Department, Massenya Subprefecture; Hadjer Lamis region, Dagana Department, Massakory Subprefecture; Kanem region, Kanem Department, Rig-Rig Subprefecture. Nomadic Bororro travel along the banks of Chari River and elsewhere. Alternate names: Fulbe, Peul.  Dialects: Kano-Katsina, Bororro (Bororo, Mbororo, Ako, Nomadic Fulfulde).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central 
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Fur

[fvr] 1,800 in Chad.  Alternate names: For, Four, Kondjara, Konjara.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Fur 
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Gabri

[gab] 34,400 (2000). Tandjilé region, Tandjilé Est Department, Laï Subprefecture, northwest of Laï, Dormon and Darbé villages area. Alternate names: Gabere, Gaberi, Ngabre, Southern Gabri.  Dialects: Darbé, Dormon.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 
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Gadang

[gdk] 2,500 (1997 SIL). Chari-Baguirmi region, Loug-Chari Department, Bousso Subprefecture, southeast of Bousso, along N’Djaména-Sarh road, between Mogo and Mbarlé; Somrai region. Dialects: Related to Sarua [swy], Miltu [mlj].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2 
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Gidar

[gid] 11,700 in Chad (1993 census). Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region, Lac Léré Department, northwest of Léré in Chad to Guider in Cameroon. At least 25 villages. Alternate names: “Baynawa” , Gidder, Guidar, Kada.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, C 
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Gor

[gqr] 87,000 (2006). Logone Oriental region, La Pendé Department, Bodo center area. Alternate names: Bodo.  Dialects: Bodo, Yamod. Similar to Bedjond [bjv], Gor [gqr], with high inherent intelligibility.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Goundo

[goy] 30 (1998). Tanjilé Prefecture, Laï and Kélo subprefectures, Goundo-Bengli, Goundo-Nangom, and Goundo-Yila villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Besmé [bes], 51% with Kim [kia].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim  Nearly extinct.
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Gula

[glu] 10,300 (2000). Ethnic population: 788 Malé, 580 Moufa, 549 Kofoy, 524 Souka, 260 Toussa, 143 Bemounou (census 1993). Moyen-Chari region, Lac Iro Department, Alako and Boum-Kebir subprefectures, southwest of Lake Iro. Alternate names: Bayo, Goula, Sara Goula, Sara Gula.  Dialects: Kofoy, Malé, Moufa, Souka, Toussa. Probably related to Disa [dsi].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi 
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Gula Iro

[glj] 3,500 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Pongaal, 725 Tiaala, 200 (?) Tiitaal, 350 Patool, 165 Korintal. Moyen-Chari region, Lac Iro Department; Salamat region, Barh-Azoum Department; Lake Iro, Boum Kabir area, northeast of Sarh. Pongaal dialect in Boum Kabir, Boum Saher, Madjok, Teonen, and Karou; Tiaala in Masidjanga (Cheroba), Bouni, and Kore; Patool in Badi and Foundouk; Korintal in Cheou (Tieou); west Salamat region, Tiitaal. Alternate names: Goula d’Iro, Goula Iro, Kulaal.  Dialects: Pongaal (Ponaal), Tiaala, Tiitaal, Patool, Korintal. Not intelligible with Bon Gula [glc], Zan Gula [zna].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua 
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Gulay

[gvl] 163,000 (1993 census). 23,500 Pen in 26 villages (1995 D. Djarangar). Moyen-Chari (6 cantons), Logone Oriental (1 canton), and Tandjilé (1 canton) regions, between Koumra, Laï, and Doba. Alternate names: Goulai, Goulaye, Goulei, Gulai, Gulei.  Dialects: Gulay, Pen (Peni).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Herdé

[hed] 40,000 (1999 SIL). Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region, Mayo-Dallah (Pala) and Lac Léré Departments (Léré), Pala and Lamé area; near the Pevé, west of the Ngueté. Alternate names: He’dé, Ka’do Herdé, “Kado” , Zime.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa 
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Horo

[hor] Extinct. Béhor north of Sarh on the Chari River. Alternate names: Hor.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Jaya

[jyy] 2,200 (1993 census). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Bitkine Subprefecture, 50 kms. north-northwest of Bitkine. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 44% with Naba [mne].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi 
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Jonkor Bourmataguil

[jeu] 1,500 (1993 SIL). Salamat region, Abou Deïa Department, west of Abou Deïa. Originally centered in Bourmataguil village, now centered in Ader-Ader. Alternate names: Djongor Bourmataguil, Dougne, Karakir.  Dialects: Dougne, Musunye. Relationship with other Dangla languages needs investigation, especially Toram [trj] and Mogum [mou].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 
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Kaba

[ksp] 11,000 in Chad (Welmers 1971). Logone Oriental region, La Nya Pendé Department, Goré Subprefecture, around Goré and to the southeast. Alternate names: Kaba de Baibokoum, Kaba de Paoua, Kabba, Western Kaba.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Kaba Démé, Sara

[kwg] 40,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). Moyen-Chari region, Barh Kôh and Lac Iro Departments, between Sarh and Kyabé. Along Chari River, Bobé, Hélibongo, Banda, Moussafoyo, Kemata villages. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Kaba ’Dem, Kaba Démé, Kaba Demi, Sara Kaba Dem, Tà Sàra.  Dialects: Sime, Mara, Kuruwer (Kuwaré?), Boho.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba 
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Kaba Náà, Sara

[kwv] 35,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). 5,564 in Bale village, 4,937 in Koskabo, 4,548 in Kyabé. Moyen-Chari region, Lac Iro Department, centered in Kyabé. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Dana, Kaba Na, Kaba Naa, Kaba Nar, Na, Sara Kaba.  Dialects: Dunje (Dendje, Dindje, Dinje, Denje, Dounje), Na, Mbanga (Banga), Tie (Tiye). The Dunje dialect may be the same as Sara Dunjo [koj] of Central African Republic. Sara Kaba Náà [kwv] may be the same as Sara Kaba [sbz] of Central African Republic.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba 
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Kabalai

[kvf] 17,900 (1993 census). Southwest Chad, Tandjile Prefecture, Lai Subprefecture; Lai and to the south on the eastern bank of Logone River. Alternate names: Gablai, Kaba-Lai, Kabalay, Kabalaye, Keb-Kaye, Lai, Lay.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Nancere [nnc].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 
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Kajakse

[ckq] 10,000 (Bender 1983). Ouaddaï region, Djourf-Al-Ahmar Department,. South and southeast of Am Dam. Some refugees in Sudan near the border. Alternate names: Kadjakse, Kajeske, Kawa Tadimini, Kujarke, Mini.  Dialects: Partially intelligible with Masmaje [mes] and Mubi [mub].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 
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Kanembu

[kbl] 461,000 (2006). 168,441 in the Lac region and 68,032 in the Chari-Baguirmi region. Kanem, Lac regions; and Hadjer-Lamis region, Dagana Department, Massakory Subprefecture. Alternate names: Kanambu, Kanembou.  Dialects: Kanembu, Kanuri, Karkawu, Mando, Nguri. There is a gradual differentiation between dialects of Kanembu and Kanuri [knc].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri 
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Kanuri, Central

[knc] 104,000 in Chad (2006). 34,549 in Chari-Baguirmi and 23,287 in N’Djaména. Communities in Chari-Baguirmi, Batha, Guéra, and Mayo-Kebbi regions. Alternate names: Aga, “Baribari” , “Beriberi” , Bornouan, Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Kolere, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri.  Dialects: Dagara, Kaga (Kagama), Sugurti, Lare, Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri 
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Karang

[kzr] 1,000 in Chad (1995 SIL). Logone Oriental region, Monts de Lam Department, Baibokoum Subprefecture, northwest of Baïbokoum along the Cameroon border: Loumbogo, Lawtiko I, Lawtiko II, Sarkaluki villages, and possibly another, as well as 2 Sakpu villages. Alternate names: Eastern Mbum, Kareng, Laka, Lakka, Lakka Mbum, Mbum Bakal, Nzák Kàráng.  Dialects: Karang, Sakpu, Ngomi, Mbere.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang 
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Karanga

[kth] 10,000 (1999 SIL). 4,696 Karanga and 1,419 Bakha. Ouaddaï region, Djourf-Al-Ahmar and Ouara departments. Around Am Dam and between Am Dam and Abéché, south of the Maba. Bakha are southwest of Am Dam, Karanga and Koniéré are northeast of Am Dam, Kashmere are south of Abéché and north of the Karanga. Alternate names: Kurunga.  Dialects: Karanga (Kurunga), Kashmere (Kachmere), Bakha (Baxa, Bakhat, Faala, Fala), Koniéré (Konyare, Kognere, Mooyo, Moyo). Lexical similarity: 73% with Maba [mde], 94% between Karanga and Kashmere dialects.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban 
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Kendeje

[klf] 1,860 (2000). Ouaddaï region, Assoungha and Ouara departments, rural Abéché and Adré subprefectures, north and west of Hadjer Hadid. Alternate names: Yaali.  Dialects: Yaali, Faranga. Lexical similarity: 89% between dialects with little contact between them.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban, Mabang 
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Kenga

[kyq] 40,000 (1997 SIL). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Bitkine Subprefecture, around Bitkine, 52 villages, including Bolongo, Bokiyo. Alternate names: Cenge, Kenge.  Dialects: Cenge (Tar Cenge), Banama (Tar Banama), Bidjir, Banala (Tar Banala), Bolong (Tar Bolongo). Related to Naba [mne], Jaya [jyy]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Jaya, 81%–93% with the Bolong (Tar Bolongo) dialect.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi 
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Kera

[ker] 44,500 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 50,500. Mayo-Kebbi Est region, Mont d’Illi Department, south of Fianga, near Lake Tikem. Also in Cameroon. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 42% with Kwang [kvi].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3 
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Kibet

[kie] 18,500 (Bender 1983). Salamat region, Barh-Azoum Department and Ouaddaï region, Sila Department. Northeast of Am Timan and southwest of Goz Beïda. Alternate names: Kibeit, Kibeet, Kabentang.  Dialects: Dagel (Daggal), Murru (Muro, Mourro), Kibet. Similar to Runga [rou]. Not a dialect of Tama [tma] as reported in some sources.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban, Mabang, Runga-Kibet 
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Kim

[kia] 15,400 (1993 census). Mayo-Kebbi Est region, Mayo Boneye Department, villages Eré, Djouman, Kolobo and Kim southeast of Bongor. Dialects: Garap (Éré), Gerep (Djouman, Jumam), Kolop (Kilop, Kolobo), Kosop (Kwasap, Kim). Dialects listed may be closely related languages. Formerly classified as Chadic.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim 
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Kimré

[kqp] 20,000 (2007 Oumounabidji). 700 Tchere-Aïba. Tandjilé region, Tandjile Est Department, east of Laï. Alternate names: Gabri-Kimré, Gawra.  Dialects: Kimruwa (Kim-Ruwa, Kimré), Buruwa (Bordo). Popularly called ‘Gabri’, but it is not intelligible with Gabri [gab].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1 
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Koke

[kou] 600 (1993 census). Guéra region, Barh Signaka Department, Melfi Subprefecture, southeast of Melfi; Daguéla, Sengué, and Djourab village areas. Alternate names: Khoke.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Bolgo Dugag [bvo].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua 
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Kujarge

[vkj] 1,000 (Bender 1983). Dar Fongoro, 7 villages near Jebel Mirra, and scattered among Fur and Sinyar in Sudanese villages along the lower Wadis Salih and Azum rivers. Classification: Unclassified 
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Kulfa

[kxj] 2,200 (2004). Ethnic population: 4,028 Koulfa, 2,199 Kouroumi, 910 Bara (census 1993). Southeast, Moyen Chari Prefecture, Kyabé Subprefecture, southwest of Lake Iro. Centered in Alako and Kirimikoro. Alternate names: “Kaba So” , Kulfe, Kurmi, Kurumi.  Dialects: Bara, Kulfa, Kurumi. Lexical similarity: 80% with Sara Kaba Náà [kwv].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba 
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Kuo

[xuo] 11,800 in Chad (2000). Population total all countries: 14,780. Logone Oriental region, Monts de Lam Department, Baibokoum Subprefecture, near Baibokoum, Pao, and Bouroum cantons. Villages are on roads: north-south road from Pao to Laramanay, northwest from Pao, and northwest from Laramanay to Bouroum. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Ko, Koh.  Dialects: Similar to Karang [kzr] and Nzakambay [nzy].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Koh 
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Kwang

[kvi] 16,800 (1993 census). 10,000 or more Kwang, 2,000 Mobou, 250 Aloa. Tandjilé region, Tandjilé Est Department. North of Laï, east of Bongor, southwest of Bousso. The Mobou are in Mobou, south of Bousso; Aloa are in Mogo. Alternate names: Kouang, Kuang, Kwong.  Dialects: Kwang, Mobou (Mobu), Ngam (Gam, Modgel), Tchagin (Tchakin), Aloa, Kawalké, Gaya, Mindéra. Includes Midigil village, sometimes erroneously listed as a language named ‘Modgel’ (Medegel) in some sources. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kera [ker].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3 
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Laal

[gdm] 750 (2000). Damtar village had its own dialect called Laabe with 3 speakers left in 1977. Moyen-Chari region, Barh Kôh region, between Korbol and Dik. Centered in Gori, villages of Gori, Damtar, and Mailao near Kouno, northwest of Sarh. Alternate names: Gori.  Dialects: Laal, Laabe.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Lagwan

[kot]  Chari-Baguirmi region, and N’Djaména, south of N’Djaména along the Logone River, in the vicinity of Logone-Gana. Alternate names: Kotoko-Logone, Lagouane, Lagwane, Logone.  Dialects: Logone-Birni, Logone-Gana (Kotoko-Gana).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South 
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Laka

[lap] 55,100 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 57,150. Logone Oriental region, Monts de Lam Department, Baïbokoum Subprefecture and La Nya Pendé Department, Goré Subprefecture. Mang is in Ngadjibian Canton, north of Bessao, and in parts of the Békan and Timbéri cantons, Goré Subprefecture. Bémour is in Bessao and Pandzangué cantons south of Moundou. Maïngao is along the Ngamadja-Dodang II axis and along the Bessao-Oudoumian axis. Goula is in Andoum Canton and in the area around Pan in Pandzangué Canton. Paï is at Oudoumian. Total of 310 villages. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Kabba Laka.  Dialects: Mang, Bémour, Maïngao, Goula, Paï. Some consider it a dialect of Ngambay [sba].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Lele

[lln] 26,000 (1991 UBS). Tandjilé region, Tandjilé Ouest Department, south of Kélo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1 
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Lutos

[ndy] 1,980 in Chad (1993 census). Moyen-Chari region, Grande Sido Department, south of the Ngam. Dialects: Ruto (Routo, Rito, Louto, Luto).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale 
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Maba

[mde] 296,000 (2006 E. Zürcher). Ouaddaï region, Ouara and Djourf-al-Ahmar departments and Wadi Fira region, Biltine Department, Biltine Subprefecture; most of Ouara Department and villages south of Biltine. Alternate names: Borgu, Bura Mabang, Kana Mabang, Mabaa, Mabak, Mabang, Ouaddai, Ouaddaien, Wadai, Waddayen.  Dialects: Bakha, Abkar, Kajanga (Kajangan), Kelingan, Malanga, Mandaba (Ma Ndaba), Mandala (Ma Dala), Nyabadan, Kodoo, Ouled Djemma, Kujinga, Dondongo. Lexical similarity: 73% with Karanga [kth], 63% with Marfa [mvu], 42% with Masalit [mls].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban, Mabang, Maba 
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Mabire

[muj] 3 (2001 SIL). Guéra Province, Bidiyo canton, Mongo-Rural Subprefecture, village of Oulek. Dialects: Similar to Jegu dialect of Mogum [mou], Tounkoul dialect of Bidiyo [bid]. Lexical similarity: 37%–52% with Jegu (Mogum).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1  Nearly extinct.
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Majera

[xmj] 2,300 total in 2 villages, one of which is in Chad (2002). Mayo-Kebbi Est region, Mayo Lemie Department, north of Guélengdeng, Dogwea village. Alternate names: Da’a, Mazera, Mida’a, Midah.  Dialects: Majera (Mazra), Kajire-’dulo, Hwalem (Holom).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina 
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Malgbe

[mxf]  West, Chari-Baguirmi Prefecture, N’Djamena Subprefecture, north of N’Djamena along the Chari River. Douguia, Malalie, and Oulio (Walia) villages, and others. Alternate names: Goulfei, Goulfey, Gulfei, Kotoko-Gulfei, Malbe, Malgwe, Ngwalkwe, Sanbalbe.  Dialects: Goulfey, Walia, Mara, Douguia.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North 
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Mambai

[mcs] 2,000 in Chad (2002 SIL). Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region, Lac Léré Department, Cameroon border west of Léré. Alternate names: Mambay, Mamgbay, Mamgbei, Manbai, Mangbai, Mangbaï de Biparé, Mangbei, Momboi, Mongbay.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai 
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Mango

[mge] 52,200 (2006). Logone Oriental region, La Pendé Departmnt, Bodo Subprefecture. Alternate names: Doba, Mbay Doba, Mongo.  Dialects: Similar to Bedjond [bjv], Gor [gqr], with high inherent intelligibility.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Mararit

[mgb] 42,400 (1993 census). 15,376 Mararit, 27,012 Abou Charib. Wadi Fira region, Biltine Department, Am Zoer Subprefecture (Abou Charib), and Ouaddaï region, Assoungha Department, Mabrone Subprefecture (Mararit). Alternate names: Abiri, Abiyi, Ebiri, Mararet, Merarit.  Dialects: Mararit, Abou Charib (Abu Sharib, Abu Sharin). Limited intelligibility between the Abou Charib and Mararit dialects. Very difficult intelligibility with Tama [tma]. Not intelligible with Sungor [sjg]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Tama [tma], 75% between the Abou Charib and Mararit dialects.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Mararit 
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Marba

[mpg] 148,000 (2006). Tandjilé region, Tandjilé Ouest Department, north of Kélo. Alternate names: ’Azumeina, Azumeina, Kolong, Kulung, Maraba.  Dialects: Monogoy.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa 
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Marfa

[mvu] 7,500 (1999 SIL). Ouaddaï region, Ouara Department, south of Abéché. Alternate names: Marba.  Dialects: Not a dialect of Masalit [mls]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Maba [mde], 69% with Karanga [kth], 45% with Masalit.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban, Mabang, Maba 
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Masalit

[mls] 60,900 in Chad (2006). Ouaddaï region, Assoungha Department, around Adré. Northern Masalit is north and east of Geneina in Sudan, Western Masalit in Ouaddaï, Southern Masalit in Sudan. Alternate names: Kaana Masala, Masale, Masara, Massalit, Massolit.  Dialects: Northern Masalit, Western Masalit, Southern Masalit.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban, Mabang, Masalit 
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Masana

[mcn] 130,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 233,000. Mayo-Kebbi Est region, Mayo-Boneye Department, Bongor Subprefecture, along Logone River. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: “Banana” , Masa, Massa.  Dialects: Yagwa (Yagoua), Bongor, Wina (Viri), Walia (Walya), Domo, Gizay (Guissey, Gisey), Bugudum (Budugum), Gumay (Goumaye), Ham. All dialects understand Yagoua dialect well; Gizay and Yagoua dialects have 80% intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 97% between the Budugum dialect and the most similar other dialect.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa 
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Maslam

[msv]  Town of N’Djamena, Hadjer Lamis region, Haraze-Al-Biar Department, Mani Subprefecture. North of N’Djamena, along Chari River; Maltam in Miskini and Blabli villages; Sao in Farcha-Milezi and Ngara-Mandju (or ‘Gourmadjo’) villages. Alternate names: Kotoko-Maltam, Maltam.  Dialects: Maslam (Maltam), Sao (Sahu).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North 
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Masmaje

[mes] Ethnic population: 25,727 (1993 census). Batha region, Batha Est Department, Oum Hadjer Subprefecture, southwest of Oum Hadjer, north of the Mubi. Alternate names: Masmadje, Mesmedje.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 
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Massalat

[mdg] 10 (1991 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 29,836 (1993 census). Batha region, Batha Est Department, Oum Hadjer Subprefecture, and Ouaddaï region, Djourf-Al-Ahmar Department, Am Dam Subprefecture. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban, Mabang, Masalit  Nearly extinct.
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Mawa

[mcw] 6,560 (2000). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Bitkine Subprefecture, about 30 km south of Bitkine, centered around the village of Mahoua. Southeast of the Mukulu. Alternate names: Mahoua, Mahwa.  Dialects: ‘Gurara’ and ‘Roffono’ (‘Reupan’) are villages in which speech is very similar to that of Mahoua. Lexical similarity: 8% with Ubi [ubi].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 
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Mbara

[mpk] 1,000 (1980 H. Tourneux). Chari-Baguirmi region, Baguirmi Department, Massenya Subprefecture, and Mayo-Kebbi Est region, Mayo-Boneye Department, Bongor Subprefecture and Mayo Lemie Department, along Chari River, around Guélengdeng. Alternate names: G’kelendeg, G’kelendeng, Guelengdeng, Massa de Guelengdeng.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2 
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Mbay

[myb] 80,000 in Chad (1990 J. Keegan). Population total all countries: 88,300. Mandoul region, Barh Sara Department; around Moïssala. The traditional area is on the border of Chad and Central African Republic. Also in Central African Republic, Nigeria. Alternate names: Mbai, Mbay Moissala, Mbaye, Moissala Mbai, Sara Mbai.  Dialects: Bédjou, Kan (Mbay-Kan), Ngoka (Mbang), Bédégué, Mougo, Bbate.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Mesme

[zim] 20,100 (1993 census). Tandjilé region, Tandjilé Ouest Department, south and west of Kélo, between Kélo and Pala. Alternate names: Djime, Djiwe.  Dialects: Bero, Zamre. Related to Pévé [lme], Ngeté [nnn], Herdé [hed].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa 
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Migaama

[mmy] 20,000 (2000 W. Chesley). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 23,000 (1991 census). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Mongo Subprefecture, east of Mongo, Abou Telfane Canton centered in Baro, around Abu Telfan. Migaama dialect in Baro; Doga in Fityari; Gamiya in Game and Julkulkili; Dambiya in Mala. Alternate names: Dionkor, Djonkor, Djonkor Abou, Dyongor, Jongor, Migama, Telfane.  Dialects: Migaama, Doga, Gamiya, Dambiya (Ndambiya). A dialect subgroup. Dambiya is probably a Bidiyo [bid] dialect rather than a Migaama dialect.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 
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Miltu

[mlj] 270 (1993 census). Chari-Baguirmi region, Loug-Chari Department, Bousso Subprefecture, around the town of Miltou. Alternate names: Miltou.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 27% with Sarua [swy], Somrai [sor], Gadang [gdk], and Ndam [ndm], 36% with Boor [bvf].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2 
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Mire

[mvh] 1,400 (1990 census). Southwest, Tandjile Prefecture, Lai Subprefecture, between the Ndam and the Kimré language areas. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65% with Ndam [ndm], 32% with Kimré [kqp].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 
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Mogum

[mou] 7,000 (1997 SIL). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Bitkine and Mongo subprefectures and Barh Signaka Department, Melfi Subprefecture, south of the Bidiyo. Alternate names: Mogoum.  Dialects: Jegu, Koffa (Kofa), Mogum Déle, Mogum Diguimi, Mogum Urmi. A dialect subgroup. Mogum Diguimi may not be a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: above 96% among dialects.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 
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Morom

[bdo] 4,500 (2002). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Bitkine Subprefecture and Dababa Department, Bokoro and Gama subprefectures, west of Bolong village to Chari Baguirmi Prefecture border. Alternate names: Tar Murba.  Dialects: Bayo, Morbo, Morom. Bolong may be a dialect of Kenga [kyq]. Lexical similarity: 59% with Bagirmi [bmi], 53% to 72% with Kenga, 54%–73% with Jaya [jyy], 55%–70% with Naba [mne], 55%–70% with the Bilala dialect of Naba.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi 
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Mpade

[mpi]  Town of N’Djaména and Hadjer Lamis region, Haraze-Al-Biar Department, Mani Subprefecture, south of Lake Chad, Mani area on the Logone River, north of N’Djaména. Alternate names: Kotoko-Makari, Makari.  Dialects: Makari, Bodo, Woulki, Digam.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North 
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Mser

[kqx]  Town of N’Djaména, Cameroon border near N’Djaména. Alternate names: Klesem, Kotoko-Kuseri, Kousseri, Kuseri.  Dialects: Mser (Kousseri, Msir), Kalo (Kalakafra), Gawi, Houlouf, Kabe.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South 
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Mubi

[mub] 35,300 (1993 census). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Mangalmé Subprefecture, east of Mongo, centered in Mangalmé area. 135 villages. Possibly in Sudan. Alternate names: Moubi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Zirenkel [zrn], 35% with Dangaléat [daa].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 
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Mukulu

[moz] 12,000 (1990 SIL). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Bitkine Subprefecture, at the foot of Guéra Massif: Moukoulou, Séguine, Doli, Morgué, Djarkatché (Mezimi), and Gougué villages. Alternate names: Diongor Guera, Djonkor Guera, Dyongor Guera, Gergiko, Guerguiko, Jonkor-Gera, Mokilko, Mokoulou, Mokulu.  Dialects: Mokilko, Seginki, Doliki, Moriko, Mezimko, Gugiko.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.2 
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Mundang

[mua] 191,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 235,700. Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region, Lac Léré and Mayo-Dallah departments (Léré, Pala), Mayo Kebbi Est region, Mont d’Illi Department (Fianga). Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Kaele, Moundan, Moundang, Nda.  Dialects: Kabi, Zasing (Yasing). A subdialect of Kabi is Kiziere, of Zasing is Torrock-Kaélé.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai 
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Musey

[mse] 209,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 229,000. Mayo-Kebbi Est region, Kabbia and Mont d’Illi departments (Gounou Gaya, Fianga) and Tandjilé region, Tandjile Ouest Department (Kélo). Gounou Gaya is commercial and administrative center. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Bananna, Bananna Ho Ho, Mosi, Moussei, Moussey, Musei, Museyna, Mussoi, Mussoy.  Dialects: Bongor-Jodo-Tagal-Berem-Gunu, Pe-Holom-Gamé, Jaraw-Domo, Lew. Some intelligibility with Masana [mcn]. Marba [mpg] (Azumeina) is most similar linguistically. The Lew dialect is most similar to Marba. All dialects mutually intelligible. Dialect names are village names. The Pe dialect is in Cameroon.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa 
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Musgu

[mug] 24,400 in Chad (1993 census). Mayo-Kebbi Est region, Mayo-Boneye Department, Bongor Subprefecture, and N’Djaména town. Between Chari and Logone rivers, west of Guélengdeng. Alternate names: Mouloui, Mousgou, Mousgoum, Mousgoun, Mulwi, Munjuk, Musgum, Musuk.  Dialects: Mpus (Pus, Pouss, Mousgoum de Pouss, Musgum-Pouss), Beege (Jafga), Vulum (Vlum, Mulwi-Mogroum), Muzuk (Mousgoum de Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidik, Guirvidig).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2 
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Muskum

[mje] Extinct. Mayo-Kebbi Est region, Mayo-Boneye Department, Bongor Subprefecture or Mayo Lemie Department. Along Logone River, west of Guélengdeng, village of Muskum (Mouskoun), 10 kms. north of Katoa. Alternate names: Muzgum.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 40% with Musgu [mug].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2 
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Naba

[mne] 278,000 (2006). 136,629 Bilala, 76,660 Kuka, and 19,159 Medogo. Batha region, Batha Est Department, Ati Subprefecture; Batha Ouest Department, Oum Hadjer Subprefecture; Hadjer Lamis region, Dababa Department, Bokoro Subprefecture. Bilala around Lake Fitri and toward the east to Ati; Kuka between Moïto and Bokoro in Bokoro Subprefecture, and between Ati and Oum Hadjer; Medogo southwest of Ati. Dialects: Bilala (Bilaala, Boulala, Bulala, Mage, Ma), Kuka (Kouka, Lisi), Medogo (Modogo, Mud). Related but not inherently intelligible with Berakou [bxv] or Kenga [kyq]. Lexical similarity: between Bilala, Kuka, and Medogo dialects is 99%.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi 
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Nancere

[nnc] 81,000 (2006), increasing. Tandjilé region, Tandjile Ouest Department, Béré, Delban, and Kélo subprefectures. Alternate names: Nanjeri, Nanchere, Nantcere, Nangjere, Nangcere, Nangtchere.  Dialects: Mire, Bolo, Kwale, Nancere du Centre.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1 
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Ndam

[ndm] 6,500 (1990 census). Tandjilé region, Tandjilé Est Department, Laï Subprefecture, northeast of Laï, and southeast of Bousso d’Béré. Alternate names: Dam, Ndamm.  Dialects: Ndam-Ndam (Southern Ndam), Ndam Dik (Northern Ndam).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 
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Ngam

[nmc] 43,700 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 61,400. Moyen-Chari region, Grande Sido Department (Maro), Mandoul region, Barh Sara Department, Dembo Subprefecture, centered in Maro; Ngam Tel in Maro Canton and Moussafoyo Subprefecture; Barh Kôh Department; Ngam Tira at Maro, Moyo, and Danamadji; Kon Ngam in Djéké Canton; Kle at Nara in Djéké Canton; Ngam Gir Bor in Kabo in Central African Republic. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Ngahm, Ngama, Ngamh, Sarngam.  Dialects: Ngam Tel, Ngam Tira, Kon Ngam, Kle, Ngam Gir Bor.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Ngambay

[sba] 896,000 in Chad (2006). Logone Occidental region; Logone Oriental region, Lanya Department (Bébedjia), La Nya Pendé Department, Goré Subprefecture; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region, Mayo-Dallah Department. Centered in Moundou area. Also in Cameroon, Nigeria. Alternate names: Gamba, Gambaye, Gamblai, Ngambai, Sara, Sara Ngambai.  Dialects: Lara, Benoye, Murum (Mouroum), Kere, Bemar (Daba de Goré). Dialects reportedly completely mutually intelligible Laka [lap] is considered by some a dialect of Ngambay.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Ngete

[nnn] 10,000 (1991 UBS). Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region, Mayo-Dallah Department, east of Pala, Ngeté village area; near the Pévé [lme], east of Herdé [hed]. Alternate names: Ka’do Ngueté, Nge’dé, Ngueté, Nguetté, Zime.  Dialects: Linguistic and sociolinguistic differences with Pévé and Herdé. Used by outsiders to refer to this and related languages: Herdé, Pévé, Mesmé [zim].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa 
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Niellim

[nie] 5,160 (1993 census). 1,000 in the city of Sarh and 400 in Niou dialect. Moyen-Chari region, Barh Kôh Department, Niellim town area, southwest bank of Chari River; Niou in Niou on the northeast bank. Alternate names: Lua, Mjillem, Nielim, Nyilem.  Dialects: Niellim, Tchini (Cuni, Cini), Niou.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua 
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Noy

[noy] 36 (1993 census). Moyen-Chari and Mandoul regions, between Sarh, Djoli, Bédaya, Koumra, and Koumogo villages. Alternate names: Loo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua  Nearly extinct.
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Nzakambay

[nzy] 18,500 in Chad (2000). Population total all countries: 31,500. Logone Oriental region, Monts de Lam Department, Baïbokoum Subprefecture, Cameroon border, near Baïbokoum; Zoli in Monts de Lam area. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Mboum, Mbum, Mbum Nzakambay, Njakambai, Nzak Mbai, Nzaka Mbay, Nzakmbay.  Dialects: Nzakambay, Zoli. Similar to Karang [kzr], Kuo [xuo].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang 
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Pana

[pnz] 1,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Pana dialect is in Makele village; Gonge in Giriwon and Diahoke villages. Alternate names: Pani.  Dialects: Pana, Gonge.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang 
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Pévé

[lme] 30,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 35,720. Southwest near Cameroon border, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region, Lamé home of Chef de Canton, and administrative center. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Ka’do Pevé, “Kado” , Lamé, Zime.  Dialects: Lamé, Doe (Doué), Dari. Related to Herdé [hed] and Ngeté [nnn] with differences in phonology, grammar, and ethnic attitudes.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa 
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Runga

[rou] 21,500 in Chad (1993 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 43,000. Southeast Salamat region, Am Timan and Haraze-Mangueigne subprefectures; Ouaddaï Prefecture, Goz-Beïda Subprefecture, along Central African Republic border. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Rounga, Roungo, Aykindang.  Dialects: Similar to Kibet [kie].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban, Mabang, Runga-Kibet 
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Saba

[saa] 1,340 (2000). Guéra region, Bahr Signaka Department, Melfi Subprefecture, northeast of Melfi. Alternate names: Jelkung.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 
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Sango

[sag]  South. Alternate names: Sangho.  Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based 
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Sar

[mwm] 183,000 (1993 census). 74,670 Madjingay (1964), 16,260 No (1964), 32,000 Nar (1977). Moyen-Chari and Mandoul regions, Sarh, Koumra, Balimba, Bessada, Bédaya, Djoli, Matékaga, and Koumogo cantons. Alternate names: Sara, Sara Madjingay.  Dialects: Majingai (Majinngay, Madjingaye, Madjingay, Madja Ngai), Nar, No.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Sarua

[swy] 2,000 (1997 SIL). Chari-Baguirmi region, Loug-Chari Department, Bousso Subprefecture, between Bousso and Miltou, along Chari River. Alternate names: Saroua, Sarwa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 42% with Gadang [gdk], 27% with Miltu [mlj].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2 
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Sinyar

[sys] 12,300 in Chad (2000). Ouaddaï region, Sila Department, north of Mongororo, near confluence of Kaja, Azum, and Salih rivers. Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Shamya, Shamyan, Shemya, Sinya, Symiarta, Taar Shamyan, Zimirra.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sinyar 
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Sokoro

[sok] 5,000 (1994 SIL). Guéra region, Bahr Signaka Department, Melfi Subprefecture, north and northwest of Melfi, Gogmi to Badanga. Dialects: Sokoro, Bedanga. Related to Mawa [mcw]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Tamki [tax].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 
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Somrai

[sor] 7,410 (1993 census). Tandjilé region, Tandjilé Est Department, Laï Subprefecture, northeast of Laï, Domogou center. Alternate names: Sibine, Somre, Somrei, Soumrai, Soumray, Sounrai, Sumrai.  Dialects: Not intelligible with any other language. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ndam [ndm], 39% with Sarua [swy], 35% with Gadang [gdk], 33% with Tumak [tmc], 28% with Miltu [mlj].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 
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Surbakhal

[sbj] 7,890 (2000). Ouaddaï region, Assoungha Department, Adré Subprefecture, between Hadjer Hadid and Alacha. Alternate names: Sourbakhal.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Masalit [mls].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban, Mabang, Masalit 
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Tama

[tma] 62,900 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 67,900. East, Biltine Prefecture, Guéréda Subprefecture, Guéréda area. Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Tamok, Tamongobo, Tamot.  Dialects: Tama, Orra, Haura, Girga. Lexical similarity: 62%–73% with Assangori [sjg].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Tama-Sungor 
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Tamki

[tax] 500 (1999 SIL). Guéra region, Bahr Signaka Department, Melfi Subprefecture, about 60 kms. northeast of Melfi. Tamki village. Alternate names: Temki.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Sokoro [sok]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Saba [saa], 55% with Sokoro, 32% with Mawa [mcw].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 
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Tedaga

[tuq] 28,500 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 42,500. Far north desert, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti region, Tibesti Department, Bardai area. Also in Libya, Niger, Nigeria. Alternate names: Tebou, Tebu, Teda, Tibbu, Toda, Todaga, Todga, Toubou, Tubu, Tuda, Tudaga.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Daza [dzd].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu 
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Tobanga

[tng] 30,000 (1999 SIL). Tandjilé region, Tandjilé Est Department, Deressia Subprefecture. Alternate names: Gabri, Gabri-Nord, Gabri-North, Northern Gabri.  Dialects: Mande, Tobanga (Deressia).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 
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Toram

[trj] 8,460 (2000). Salamat region, Abou Deïa Department, southeast of Abou Deïa, south of the Birgit [btf], in and west of Ter. Alternate names: Torom, Torum.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 
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Tumak

[tmc] 25,200 (1993 census). Mandoul region, Mandoul Oriental Department, Gouindi Subprefecture, southwest of Niellim [nie]. Alternate names: Dije, Sara Toumak, Toumak, Tumac, Tumag, Tummok.  Dialects: Tumak, Motun (Mawer, Moden, Modin, Mod, Mot, Motin). Lexical similarity: 71% with Motun dialect.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 
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Tunia

[tug] 2,260 (1993 census). Moyen-Chari region, Barh Kôh Department, in Sarh and 3 small villages north. Alternate names: Tounia, Tun, Tunya.  Dialects: Tunya, Perim. Not intelligible with other Bua languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua 
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Tupuri

[tui] 104,000 in Chad (2006). Mayo-Kebbi Est region, Mont d’Illi Department, Fianga area. Alternate names: Ndore, Toubouri, Toupouri, Tuburi.  Dialects: Bang-Ling, Bang-Were, Faale-Piyew, Podokge.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai 
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Ubi

[ubi] 1,100 (1995 SIL). Guéra region, Guéra Department, Mongo Subprefecture, southwest of Tounkoul, Oubi village area. Alternate names: Oubi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 48% with Mawa [mcw] (most similar).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 
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Zaghawa

[zag] 87,000 in Chad (2006). 3,000 Bideyat. Wadi Fira region, Kobé Department, Iriba Subprefecture; Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti region, Ennedi Est and Ennedi Ouest departments. Alternate names: Beri, Beri-Aa, Beria, Berri, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua.  Dialects: Tuer-Gala (Bideyat, Baele, Anna, Awe, Terawia, Beria), Kobe-Kapka, Dirong-Guruf.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern 
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Zan Gula

[zna] 5,000 (2003 SIL). Melfi Prefecture, Chinguil Subprefecture, northwest of Lake Iro. Alternate names: Goula, Gula Guera, Moriil, Morre.  Dialects: Zan, Chinguil. Lexical similarity: 46% with Bon Gula [glc].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua 
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Zirenkel

[zrn] 2,240 (1993 census). Guéra Department, Mongo Subprefecture, Canton Dadjo I, Dambiro, Sirbodom, Nikel villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Mubi [mub], 34%–36% with Dangaléat [daa] (East, Central, and Western).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 
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