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Languages of Togo

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Republic of Togo, République Togolaise. 6,239,000. National or official languages: Éwé, Kabiye, French. Literacy rate: 39% all, 40% males. Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Hausa, Mampruli, Yoruba. Also includes languages of Lebanon (3,500). Information mainly from J. Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989; B. Heine 1968; G. Manessy 1975, 1981; J. Stewart 1971. Blind population: 12,052 (1981 census). Deaf institutions: 1. The number of individual languages listed for Togo is 39. Of those, all are living languages.
Adangbe

[adq] 2,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Togo and Ghana border directly east of Ho, Ghana. Alternate names: Adan, Adantonwi, Agotime, Dangbe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili 
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Adele

[ade] 16,300 in Togo (2003 SIL). Population total all countries: 27,300. West central, Koué Mpotì, Yégué are main centers. Difficult access to area. Upper Adele in Togo, Lower Adele in Ghana. Also in Ghana. Alternate names: Bedere, Bidire, Gadre, Gidire.  Dialects: Upper Adele, Lower Adele. 85%–90% inherent intelligibility between dialects, minor differences in tone and lexicon. Ghana and Togo dialects differ.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele 
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Aja

[ajg] 152,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Southeast, southeast corner of Plateau Province north and south of ‘Forêt de Togodo’, Moyen-Mono, ‘des Lacs’, and Yoto prefectures, both sides of Mono River; Lome and other towns south. Alternate names: Adja, Ajagbe.  Dialects: Dogo, Hwe (Ehoue), Tado (Stado, Sado, Tadou), Sikpi, Tala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja 
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Akaselem

[aks] 47,500 (2002 SIL). Central region east of Sokodé, Tchamba Prefecture. Alternate names: Akasele, Cemba, Chamba, Kamba, Kasele, Tchamba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham 
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Akebu

[keu] 56,400 (2002 SIL). South, Prefecture de Wawa, Canton Akebou, into Ghana. Main centers Kougnohou, Veh-Nkougna, Kamina. Alternate names: Akebou, Ekpeebhe, Gakagba, Kabu, Kebu, Kegberike.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere 
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Anii

[blo] 12,300 in Togo (2002 SIL). Both sides of Togo-Benin border. Central region, Tchamba Prefecture. Alternate names: Akpe, Baseca, Basila, Bassila, Gisida, Ounji-Ounji, Winji-Winji.  Dialects: Akpe, Balanka, Gikolodjya, Gilempla, Giseda, Gisème, Ananjubi (Anandjoobi).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele 
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Anufo

[cko] 57,800 in Togo (2002 SIL). North, Savannah region, Mango town area, into Ghana. Alternate names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi, Tiokossi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern 
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Bago-Kusuntu

[bqg] 7,500 (2000). Ethnic population: 8,000. Central region, Tchamba Prefecture, Koussountou (25 km southeast of Tchamba) and Bagou (35 km south of Koussountou) are main centers. Alternate names: Bago, Koussountou.  Dialects: Bago, Kusuntu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern 
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Bissa

[bib] 3,000 in Togo (1991 SIL). Northwest corner, Savana region, Tone Prefecture, Burkina Faso border. Alternate names: Bisa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa 
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Delo

[ntr] 5,400 in Togo (1998). Central region, Blitta Prefecture, Ghana border. Alternate names: Ntribou, Ntribu, Ntrubo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern 
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Ditammari

[tbz] 27,500 in Togo (2002 SIL). Kara region, Kande Prefecture, east of Kanté, Benin border. Nadoba, Wantema, Warengo, Koutougou are main centers. Alternate names: Soma, “Somba” , Some, Tamari, Tamberma.  Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern 
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Ede Nago, Manigri-Kambolé

[xkb] 40,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Central region, Tchamba Prefecture, Kambolé town area. Alternate names: Kambolé, Southwest Ede.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Éwé

[ewe] 862,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Maritime and Plateau regions south of Atakpamé. Kpalimé, Notsé, Tsévié are main centers. Alternate names: Ehwe, Eibe, Eve, Krepe, Krepi, Popo, Vhe.  Dialects: Adan, Agu, Anglo (Anlo, Awlan), Aveno, Be, Gbin, Ho, Kpelen, Togo, Vlin, Vo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Fon

[fon] 35,500 in Togo (1991). Plateau region, Atakpame town north and south, scattered small groups. Alternate names: Dahomeen, Djedji, Fo, Fogbe, Fon-Gbe, Fonnu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon 
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French

[fra] 3,000 in Togo (1993).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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French Sign Language

[fsl]   Alternate names: Langue des Signes Française, LSF.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Fulfulde, Borgu

[fue] 48,200 in Togo (Johnstone 1993). North. Alternate names: Benin-Togo Fulfulde, Fulani, Peul, Peulh.  Dialects: Atakora Fulfulde.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central 
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Gbe, Maxi

[mxl] 25,300 in Togo (1991). Central region and northwest Plateau region, north and south of Atapkame, some linguistically isolated communities south. Alternate names: Mahi, Maxi-Gbe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon 
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Gbe, Waci

[wci] 366,000 in Togo (1991). Population total all countries: 476,000. Main centers Vogan, Tabligbo, Attitigon. Also in Benin. Alternate names: Ouatchi, Wachi, Waci, Waci-Gbe, Watyi.  Dialects: One of 10 languages that make up the Gbe language subgroup that extends from southeastern Ghana across southern Togo and southern Benin into southwestern Nigeria. The subgroup also includes Ci Gbe [cib], Defi Gbe [gbh], Gbesi Gbe [gbs], Eastern Xwla Gbe [gbx], Maxi Gbe [mxl], Kotafon Gbe [kqk], Western Xwla Gbe [xwl], Tofin Gbe [tfi], Xwela Gbe [xwe].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Gbe, Western Xwla

[xwl] 21,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Southeast along Mono River. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Gen

[gej] 201,000 in Togo (1991). Population total all countries: 327,000. Southeast, Maritime region. Also in Benin. Alternate names: Ge, Gebe, Gen-Gbe, Guin, Mina, Mina-Gen, Popo.  Dialects: Anexo, Gliji, Agoi, Gen.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina 
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Ginyanga

[ayg] 12,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 12,500. Central region, Blitta Prefecture, west and south of Blitta. Alternate names: Agnagan, Anyanga, Genyanga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang 
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Gourmanchéma

[gux] 121,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Northeast, Savana region, Mandouri Subprefecture. Main centers: Korbongou, Mandouri. Alternate names: Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gurma, Migulimancema.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma 
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Ifè

[ife] 102,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 182,000. South, Northeast Plateau region, Ogou and Est-Mono prefectures. Atakpamé, Kamina, Dadja, and Ese-Ana are main centers. Also in Benin. Alternate names: Ana, Ana-Ifé, Baate.  Dialects: Tschetti, Djama, Dadja. A member of the Ede language subgroup. Lexical similarity: 78% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 87%–91% with Ede Nago [xkb].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Igo

[ahl] 6,000 (1995 H. Massanvi Gblem). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. Plateau region, Apeyeme Prefecture, Bogo-Ahlon Canton, Sassanou village area. Alternate names: Achlo, Ago, Ahlõ, Ahlon, Ahlon-Bogo, Ahonlan, Anlo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili 
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Ikposo

[kpo] 155,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 162,500. Plateau region, Amou, Wawa and Ogou prefectures, west of Atakpamé. Main centers are Amlamé, Amou-Oblo, Atakpamé. Also in Ghana. Alternate names: Akposo, Akposso, Kposo.  Dialects: Amou Oblou, Ikponu, Iwi (Uwi), Litime (Badou), Logbo, Uma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili 
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Kabiyé

[kbp] 700,000 in Togo (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 730,000. Kara region, mostly Kozah and Binah prefectures. 2/3 in Central and Plateau regions, Sotouboua, Blitta, Kloto, Ogou, Amlame, Wawa, and Haho prefectures. Also in Benin, Ghana. Alternate names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabre, Kabure, Kabye.  Dialects: Kewe, Kijang, Lama-Tissi, Boufale. Lexical similarity 60% between Kabiye [kbp], Lama [las], Tem [kdh], and Lukpa [dop].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern 
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Konkomba

[xon] 50,100 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Kara region, north of Kabou, Ghana border. Main centers in Guérin-Kouka, Nawaré, Kidjaloum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma 
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Kpessi

[kef] 4,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,000. Central Togo, East Mono Prefecture, Kpessi and Nyamassila cantons; Blitta Prefecture, Langabou Canton. Alternate names: Kpesi, Kpétsi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Lama

[las] 117,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 177,000. Kara region, Kande and Doufelgou prefectures; 50% of the population in Central and Plateau regions, Sotouboua, Ogou, and Haho prefectures; important minority in Lomé. Also in Benin, Ghana. Alternate names: Lamba, Losso.  Dialects: Kande (Kante), Kadjala (Kadjalla), Defale. Similar to Tem [kdh], Kabiye [kbp].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern 
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Lukpa

[dop] 13,600 in Togo (2000 WCD). Kara region, Binah Prefecture along Benin border; Central region a few villages. Alternate names: Dompago, Legba, Logba, Lokpa, Lugba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern 
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Miyobe

[soy] 1,700 in Togo (1991). Kara region, Binah Prefecture, northeast of Kpagouda in Togo, Benin border. Main centers in Kouyoria, Sola. Isolated groups in Kounacire (Massédéna) and Sola (Koutougou). Alternate names: Bijobe, Biyobe, Kuyobe, Kyobe, Sola, Solamba, Solla, Sorouba, Soruba, Uyobe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma 
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Moba

[mfq] 189,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 190,800. Northwest Savana region. Main towns Dapaong and Bombouaka. Also in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Ben, Moa, Moab, Moare.  Dialects: Natchaba. Related to Bimoba [bim] in Ghana, but only limited intelligibility. Diverse dialect situation, varying almost from family to family. Possible dialect subgroup.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba 
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Mòoré

[mos] 19,700 in Togo (1991). 7,155 in Moore, 7,908 in Yanga dialect (1981 census). Savana region, villages north of Dapaon Senkanssé, Timbou, Tabi. Alternate names: Mole, Moose, More, Moshi, Mossi.  Dialects: Yanga (Yana, Yan, Yam, Yaan, Jaan, Timbou).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest 
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Nawdm

[nmz] 146,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Kara region, Niamtougou area, Doufelgou Prefecture; Central and Plateau regions, Sotouboua, Ogou, and Haho prefectures; important minority in Lomé. Also in Ghana. Alternate names: Losso, Losu, Naoudem, Naudm, Nawdam.  Dialects: Similar to Yom [pil].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm 
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Ngangam

[gng] 46,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 66,000. Savana region, Oti Prefecture, Gando-Namoni, Mogou, Koumongou, and Kountouri areas. Also in Benin. Alternate names: Dye, Gangam, Gangum, Migangam, Mijiem, Nbangam, Ngangan.  Dialects: Motiem (Mogou), Koumongou. Similar to Konkomba [xon], Ntcham [bud], Moba [mfq], Gurmanchema [gux].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma 
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Ntcham

[bud] 100,000 in Togo (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 157,000. West central, Bassar, Kabou, Kalanga areas. Also in Ghana. Alternate names: Basar, Basare, Basari, Bassar, Bassari, Natchamba, Ncham, Tobote.  Dialects: Ncanm, Ntaapum, Ceemba, Linangmanli.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham 
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Tem

[kdh] 204,000 in Togo (1991). Population total all countries: 307,000. Kara region, Bafilo Subprefecture; Central region, Tchoudjo and Sotouboua prefectures; Bafilo, Sokode, and Sotouboua are main centers; Plateau region near Badou. Also in Benin, Ghana. Alternate names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Temba, Tim, Timu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern 
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Wudu

[wud] 2,000. Gbékon and Glitho are main centers. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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