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Languages of Turkey (Asia)

Also see Turkey in Europe for a listing of languages in Europe. Immigrant languages: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Avar, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, Chechen (8,000), Dargwa, Lak (300), Lezgi (1,200), Mesopotamian Spoken Arabic (100,000), North Levantine Spoken Arabic (500,000), Northern Uzbek, Western Farsi (500,000). The number of individual languages listed for Turkey (Asia) is 24. Of those, 23 are living languages and 1 has no known speakers.
Abaza

[abq] 10,000 in Turkey (1995).  Alternate names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ahuwa, Tapanta.  Dialects: Tapanta, Ashkaraua (Ashkar), Bezshagh.  Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin 
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Abkhaz

[abk] 4,000 in Turkey (1980). Ethnic population: 39,000 in Turkey (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Northeast, Coruh; northwest; mainly Bolu and Sakarya provinces. Alternate names: Abxazo.  Dialects: Bzyb, Abzhui, Samurzakan.  Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin 
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Adyghe

[ady] 278,000 in Turkey (2000). 6,409 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 130,000 in Turkey (1965 census). Central and western Anatolia, Kayseri, Tokat, Karaman Maras, many other provinces. Alternate names: Adygey, Cherkes, Circassian.  Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian 
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Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken

[ayp] 400,000 in Turkey (1992). Mardin and Siirt provinces. Alternate names: Syro-Mesopotamian Vernacular Arabic.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Azerbaijani, South

[azb] 530,000 in Turkey. Kars Province. Alternate names: Azeri.  Dialects: Kars.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani 
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Crimean Tatar

[crh] 2,000 in Turkey. Number of speakers in Turkey is not known, though there are definitely some Crimean Tatar villages, such as Karakuyu in Polatli District of Ankara Province. Alternate names: Crimean Turkish.  Dialects: Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Central Crimean, Southern Crimean.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern 
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Dimli

[diq] 1,000,000 in Turkey (Wiesenfeld 1999). Between 1.5 and 2.5 million speakers (including all dialects) (Paul 1998). East central, mainly Elazig, Bingol, and Diyarbakir provinces, upper courses of Euphrates, Kizilirmaq, and Murat rivers. Also in Germany. Alternate names: Dimili, Southern Zaza, Zaza, Zazaki.  Dialects: Sivereki, Kori, Hazzu (Hazo), Motki (Moti), Dumbuli (Dumbeli). Several dialects. Related to Gurani group.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani 
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Georgian

[kat] 40,000 in Turkey (1980). 4,042 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 91,000. North and northwest Anatolia, Artvin, Ordu, Sakarya, and other provinces. Alternate names: Gruzin, Kartuli.  Dialects: Imerxev.  Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian 
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Hértevin

[hrt] 1,000 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Originally Siirt Province. Most emigrated to the West, but some may still live in Turkey. Dialects: Hértevin Proper (Arton), Umraya, Jinet. Considerable differences from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties, and not intelligible with any or most of them.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern 
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Kabardian

[kbd] 1,000,000 in Turkey (2005 Circassian Association). Uzun Yayla plateau east of Kayseri; Samsun area; Amasya; Çorum. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian 
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Kazakh

[kaz] 600 in Turkey (1982). Manisa Province, Salihli; Istanbul; Kayseri Province; refugees from Afghanistan, now Turkish citizens. Alternate names: Kaisak, Kazakhi, Kazax, Kosach, Qazaqi.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian 
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Kirmanjki

[kiu] 140,000 in Turkey. Tunceli Province, Tunceli Merkez, Hozat, Nazmiye, Pülümür, and Ovacik subprovinces; Erzincan Province, Erzincan and Cayirli subprovinces; Elazig Province, Elazig Merkez and Karakoqan subprovinces, 8 or more villages; Bingöl Province, Kigi and Karkiova subprovinces, 3 villages; Mush Province, Varto Subprovince, 46 villages; Sivas Province, Zara, Imranli, Kangal, and Divrigi subprovinces, 15 or more villages; Erzerum Province, Hinis and Tekman subprovinces, 11 or more villages; many major cities. Also in Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom. Alternate names: Alevica, Dersimki, Dimilki, Northern Zaza, So-Bê, Zaza, Zazaki, Zonê Ma.  Dialects: Tunceli, Varto. Most similar to Dimli [diq]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Dimli.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani 
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Kumyk

[kum]  A few villages. Alternate names: Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki.  Dialects: Khasav-Yurt, Buinak, Khaidak.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian 
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Kurdish, Northern

[kmr] 3,950,000 in Turkey (1980). Population total all countries: 9,320,240. Ethnic population: 6,500,000 in Turkey (Johnstone 1993). Hakkari, Siirt, Mardin, Agri, Diyarbakir, Bitlis, Bingol, Van, Adiyaman, and Mus, most; also Urfa, Kars, Tunceli, Malatya, Erzurum, Marash, Sivas, and other provinces; communities in central Turkey (Cankiri, Cihanbeyli, near Konya); many in large cities in the west, including Istanbul, Adana, Ankara, Izmir. Also in Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Netherlands, Norway, Russian Federation (Europe), Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkmenistan, United Kingdom, United States. Alternate names: Kermancî, Kirmancî, Kurdi, Kurdî, Kurmancî, Kurmanji.  Dialects: Boti (Botani), Marashi, Ashiti, Bayezidi, Hekari, Shemdinani. Differences among dialects, but all use the same written form.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish 
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Kyrgyz

[kir] 1,140 in Turkey (1982). Van and Kars provinces. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian 
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Laz

[lzz] 30,000 in Turkey (1980). Population total all countries: 33,250. Ethnic population: 92,000 in Turkey (1980). Northeast, Rize, Kemer, Atin, Artasen, Vitse, Arkab, Hopa, Sarp; Artvin, Sakarya, Kocaeli, and Bolu provinces. Also in Belgium, France, Georgia, Germany, United States. Alternate names: Chan, Chanuri, Chanzan, Laze, Zan.  Dialects: Officially considered a single language with Mingrelian [xmf], called ‘Zan’, although linguists recognize they are not mutually inherently intelligible.  Classification: Kartvelian, Zan 
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Osetin

[oss]  Digor dialect reportedly in Bitlis and another small town in the west; Iron dialect in cities and towns of Sarikamis and Erzerum; also in Mugla, Kars, Antalya. May also be in Syria. Alternate names: Ossete.  Dialects: Digor, Tagaur, Kurtat, Allagir, Tual, Iron.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern 
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Syriac

[syc] Extinct.  Alternate names: Ancient Syriac, Classical Syriac, Lishana Atiga, Suryaya, Suryoyo.  Dialects: Western Syriac, Eastern Syriac. Syrian churches: Eastern (Nestorian), Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite), Syrian Catholic (Melkite, Maronite) developed a vast literature based on the Edessa (currently Sanliurfa, southeastern Turkey) variety of the Syrian dialect. Assyrian group (see Assyrian Neo-Aramaic in Iraq and elsewhere) separated denominationally from Chaldean (see Chaldean Neo-Aramaic in Iraq) and Jacobite (see Turoyo in Turkey and Syria) in the Middle Ages. Neo-Eastern Aramaic languages spoken by Christians are often dubbed ‘Neo-Syriac’, although not directly descended from Syriac.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern 
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Turkish

[tur] 46,300,000 in Turkey (1987). Population total all countries: 50,750,120. Widespread in Turkey as L1 or L2. Also in Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Denmark, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Honduras, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Netherlands, Romania, Russian Federation (Asia), Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Anatolian, Türkçe, Türkisch.  Dialects: Danubian, Eskisehir, Razgrad, Dinler, Rumelian, Karamanli, Edirne, Gaziantep, Urfa. Danubian is west; other dialects east.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish 
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Turkish Sign Language

[tsm]   Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Turkmen

[tuk] 920 in Turkey (1982). Tokat Province. Alternate names: Trukhmen.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian 
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Turoyo

[tru] 3,000 in Turkey (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 84,000. Ethnic population: 50,000 to 70,000 (1994). Southeast, Mardin Province (originally). Also in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Iraq, Lebanon, Netherlands, Sweden, Syria, United States. Alternate names: Surayt, Süryani, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani.  Dialects: Midyat, Midin, Kfarze, ’Iwardo, Anhil, Raite. Related to Northeastern Aramaic varieties. Turoyo subdialects exhibit a cleavage between Town Turoyo (Midyat Turoyo), Village Turoyo, and Mixed (Village-Town) Turoyo. The latter is spoken mainly by younger generation outside Tur ’Abdin, the language’s original location, and is gaining ground throughout the Jacobite diaspora in other countries.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern 
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Uyghur

[uig] 500 in Turkey (1981). Kayseri, Istanbul. Possibly in Iran. Alternate names: Uighur, Uigur, Uygur.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern 
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Uzbek, Southern

[uzs] 1,980 in Turkey (1982). Hatay, Gaziantep, and Urfa provinces. Possibly also in Germany. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern 
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Zaza

[zza] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 1,140,000. 
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