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Languages of Tanzania

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United Republic of Tanzania, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania. Formerly German East Africa, Tanganyika. 38,478,000. National or official languages: Swahili, English. Some population figures updated from 1957 census. Literacy rate: 80%–85%. Immigrant languages: Rundi (150,000). Also includes Konkani, Panjabi, Urdu, Chinese, and languages of Europe (70,000), Rwanda (25,000), Mozambique. Information mainly from G. Dimmendaal 1989; F. Huntingford 1953; D. Nurse 1982; E. Polomé and C. Hill 1980; F. Rottland 1981; B. Taylor 1962; W. Whiteley 1969; R. Willis 1966. Blind population: 40,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 7. The number of individual languages listed for Tanzania is 129. Of those, 128 are living languages and 1 has no known speakers.
Aasáx

[aas] 350 (1999 J. Carr). North, central Maasai Steppe, Landenai, Ndovu Okutu, Lolbeni villages. Also reportedly in Lemelebo, Landrobo, Naitomani districts. Alternate names: Aasá, Asá, Asak, Asax, Assa, “Dorobo” , Il Konono, Lamanik, “Ndorobo”.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Alagwa

[wbj] 30,000 (2001 R. Kiessling). Dodoma region, Kondoa District. Alternate names: Alagwaisi, Alagwase, Alawa, Asi, Chasi, Kialagwa, Wasi.  Dialects: Related to Iraqw [irk], but not inherently intelligible. Also similar to Burunge [bds] and Gorowa [gow].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Arabic, Omani Spoken

[acx] Ethnic population: 195,000 in Tanzania (Johnstone 1993). Zanzibar. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Arabic, Standard

[arb]  Middle East, North Africa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Aramanik

[aam] 3,000 (2002). Arusha region, Masaai Steppe. Alternate names: “Dorobo” , Laramanik, “Ndorobo”.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi 
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Asu

[asa] 500,000 (2000). 5% monolingual. Northeast, Kilimanjaro region, Pare Mountains, Mwanga and Same districts. Alternate names: Athu, Casu, Chasu, Chiasu, Pare.  Dialects: Related to Taveta [tvs].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.20) 
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Bembe

[bmb]  Kigoma region, Kigoma Vijinini District. Lake Tanganyika shore, from Kigoma town north to Gombe National Park. Alternate names: Beembe, Ebembe, Ibembe, Kibembe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe (D.50) 
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Bena

[bez] 670,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Southwest central, Iringa region, Njombe District. Alternate names: Ekibena, Kibena.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Pangwa [pbr], 65% with Hehe [heh], 55% with Sangu [sbp], 53% with Kinga [zga], 51% with Vwanji [wbi], 47% with Kisi [kiz].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Bende

[bdp] 27,000 (1999). Rukwa region, Mpanda District, Kabungu, Karema, and Mwese divisions. Alternate names: Kibende, Si’bende.  Dialects: Tongwe [tny] and Bende may be dialects of one language. Lexical similarity 74% with Sumbwa [suw], 72% with Nyamwezi [nym], 70% with Sukuma Hu [suk], 67% with Ha [haq], 71% with Rundi [run], 60% with Hangaza [han], 58% with Nyankore [nyn] and 65% with Holoholo [hoo] and 90% with Tongwe [tny].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Bondei

[bou] 80,000 (1987). Northeast, Tanga region, Usambara Mountains, inland from Tanga. Alternate names: Bonde, Kibondei.  Dialects: It has been influenced linguistically by Doe [doe] and Kwere [cwe], and it has influenced them. Lexical similarity: 75% with Shambala [ksb] and Zigula [ziw], 73% with Ngulu [ngp].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.20) 
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Bungu

[wun] 36,000 (1987). Mbeya region, Chunya District. Alternate names: Kibungu, Wungu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Burunge

[bds] 13,000 (2002). Dodoma region, Kondoa District, southeast of Langi [lag], Goima, Chambalo, and Mirambu villages. Alternate names: Bulunge, Burungi, Mbulugwe.  Dialects: Similar to Alagwa [wbj], Gorowa [gow], Iraqw [irk].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Cutchi-Swahili

[ccl]  Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Mwanza, Arusha. Alternate names: Asian Swahili.  Classification: Creole, Swahili based 
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Datooga

[tcc] 87,800 (2000). Singida and Manyara regions; Mara region, Bunda and Serengeti districts. Barabaig mainly in north volcanic highlands near Mt. Hanang. Alternate names: Datog, Datoga, “Mangati” , Tatog, Tatoga, Taturu.  Dialects: Bajuta, Gisamjanga (Kisamajeng, Gisamjang), Barabayiiga (Barabaig, Barabayga, Barabaik, Barbaig), Tsimajeega (Isimijeega), Rootigaanga (Rotigenga, Rotigeenga), Buraadiiga (Buradiga, Bureadiga), Bianjiida (Biyanjiida, Utatu). Sabaot [spy] is probably the most similar language. Barabaik and Kisamajeng dialects are very similar and are completely inherently intelligible. There are several other dialects or ethnic groups: Darorajega, Gidang’odiga, Bisiyeda, Daragwajega, Salawajega, Ghumbiega, Mangatiga. Lexical similarity: 50% with Kalenjin [kln] languages and Omotik [omt] of Kenya.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Tatoga 
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Dhaiso

[dhs] 5,000 (1999). Tanga region, Muheza District, east Usambara Mountains north side base, Bwiti and Magati villages. Alternate names: Daiso, Daisu, Kidhaiso.  Dialects: Related to Kamba of Kenya. Lexical similarity: 32% with Digo [dig].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.20) 
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Digo

[dig] 88,000 in Tanzania (1987). Northeast coast, Tanga area. Alternate names: Chidigo, Kidigo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika (E.40), Mijikenda 
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Doe

[doe] 24,000 (1987). Pwani region, Bagamoyo District, north of Kwere [cwe]. Alternate names: Dohe, Kidoe.  Dialects: Doe has influenced Zigula [ziw] and Bondei [bou] linguistically, and has been influenced by them. Lexical similarity: 74% with Kwere, 64% with Kami [kcu], 61% with Kutu [kdc] and Zaramo [zaj], 70% with Zigula, 54% with Luguru [ruf].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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English

[eng]   Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Fipa

[fip] 195,000 in Tanzania (2002 census). About 140,000 speakers of Northern, 45,000 of Kwa, and 10,000 of Milanzi varieties. Rukwa region, Sumbawanga Urban and Nkansi districts, between lakes Tanganyika and Rukwa. Also in Malawi. Alternate names: Cifipa, Fiba, Icifipa, Kifipa.  Dialects: Kwa, Milanzi (Sukuma, Sukuuma), Northern (Kandasi, Kandaasi). Over half of the ethnic Fipa speak a speech variety called Fipa-Mambwe, which is a dialect of Mambwe-Lungu [mgr]. More research needs to be carried out into whether the Kwa dialect speakers can adequately understand the Northern variety.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Gogo

[gog] 1,440,000 (2006). Dodoma region; Singida region, Manyoni District. Alternate names: Chigogo, Kigogo.  Dialects: Nyambwa (West Gogo), Nyaugogo (Central Gogo), Tumba (East Gogo). Lexical similarity: 50% with Hehe [heh] and Sangu [sbp], 48% with Kimbu [kiv], 45% with Nilamba [nim].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo (G.10) 
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Gorowa

[gow] 50,000 (1999 R. Kiessling). Manyara region, Mbulu District; Dodoma region, Kondoa District, near Babati, Mt. Ufiome area. Alternate names: Fiome, Goroa.  Dialects: Similar to Burunge [bds], Alagwa [wbj], Iraqw [irk]. May be a dialect of Iraqw.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Gujarati

[guj] 250,000 in Tanzania (Johnstone 1993). Small communities. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Gusii

[guz] 300 in Tanzania (2005 SIL). Mara region, Serengeti District, Kyambahi Ward. Alternate names: Ekegusii, Guzii, Kisii, Kosova.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Gweno

[gwe] 2,200 (2006). Few speakers (2000 M. Brenzinger). Ethnic population: 2,000 or more. Kilimanjaro region, northernmost North Pare Hills. Alternate names: Kigweno.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 54%–56% with Chaga dialects (most similar), 46% with Taita [dav].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Ha

[haq] 990,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Kigoma region. Alternate names: Giha, Ikiha, Kiha.  Dialects: Dialects in border area near Burundi are reportedly intelligible with Rundi [run] (Polomé 1980). Lexical similarity: 78% with Rundi, 77% with Hangaza [han] and Shubi [suj], 72% with Rwanda [kin].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60) 
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Hadza

[hts] 800 (2000 M. Brenzinger). Ethnic population: 800. Singida region, southeast of Lake Eyasi, camps south and northwest; Manyara region, Iramba and Mbulu districts; Shinyanga region, Masawa District. Alternate names: Hadzabi, Hadzapi, Hatsa, Kangeju, Kindiga, “Tindiga” , Wakindiga.  Dialects: Bali [bcp] may be a dialect.  Classification: Khoisan, Hatsa 
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Hangaza

[han] 150,000 (1987). Northwest, Kagera region, Ngara and Biharamulo districts, southwest of Bukoba. Alternate names: Kihangaza.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Shubi [suj], 83% with Rundi [run], 77% with Ha [haq], 72% with Rwanda [kin].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60) 
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Haya

[hay] 1,300,000 (2006). Kagera region, mainly Bukoba Urban and Bukoba Rural districts. Alternate names: Ekihaya, Kihaya, Ruhaya, Ziba.  Dialects: Bumbira, Edangabo, Ganda-Kiaka, Hamba, Hangiro, Mwani, Nyakisisa, Ekiziba, Yoza.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Hehe

[heh] 805,000 (2006). Iringa region, south of Gogo. Alternate names: Kihehe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65% with Bena [bez] (most similar), 59% with Pangwa [pbr], 56% with Sangu [sbp], 50% with Kinga [zga], 48% with Vwanji [wbi].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Ikizu

[ikz] 132,000 (2007 SIL). Mara region, Bunda District, Chamriho Division; Musoma District, near Zanaki; Lake Victoria southeast shore area, northeast of Kerewe [ked]. Alternate names: Ikikizo, Ikikizu, Kiikizu.  Dialects: Ikizu, Sizaki. Related to Zanaki [zak].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Ikoma-Nata-Isenye

[ntk] 36,000 (2005 SIL). Mara region, Serengeti District, Gurumeti Division. Dialects: Ikoma (Kiikoma), Nata (Kinata, Natta, Kinatta), Isenye (Isenyi, Issenye, Kiisenye, Kiissenye Ikisenyi). Lexical similarity: 81% with Zanaki [zak], 73% with Ngoreme [ngq], 68% with Kuria [kuj], 44% with Gusii [guz].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Iraqw

[irk] 462,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Manyara region, Mbulu District, highlands southwest of Arusha in the north. Alternate names: Erokh, Iraku, Kiiraqw, Mbulu, Mbulunge.  Dialects: Asa. The Asa dialect may be a separate language.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Isanzu

[isn] 32,400 (1987). Singida region, Iramba District. Alternate names: Kinyihanzu, Kinyisanzu.  Dialects: Closely related to Nyaturu [rim].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Jita

[jit] 205,000 (SIL 2005). Mara region, Musoma Rural and Bunda districts. Alternate names: Echijita, Ecijita, Kijita.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with Kwaya [kya], 81% with Kara [reg], 62% with Kerewe [ked].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Kabwa

[cwa] 8,500 (SIL 2005). Mara region, Musoma Rural District, Makongoro Division, Bukabwa Ward. Alternate names: Ekikabwa, Kikabwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Kachchi

[kfr]  Cities. Alternate names: Cutchi, Kacchi, Kachi, Katchi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi 
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Kagulu

[kki] 241,000 (2006 M. Petzell). Morogoro region; Dodoma region, Kilosa District. Alternate names: Chikagulu, Kaguru, Kigaguru, Kigalulu, Kiningo, Northern Sagara, Solwa.  Dialects: Tumba, Mangehele. Lexical similarity: 63% with Sagala [sbm], 56% with Gogo [gog].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo (G.10) 
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Kahe

[hka] 2,700 (1987). Southeast of Moshi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Kami

[kcu] 16,400 (2000). Morogoro region, Morogoro Rural and Kilosa districts, 30 km north and northeast of Morogoro, and Dar es Salaam south main road. Farthest village 60 km south of this road. Alternate names: Kikami.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Kutu [kdc] and Kwere [cwe], 65% with Zaramo [zaj], 64% with Doe [doe], 54% with Luguru [ruf].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Kara

[reg] 86,000 (1987). Lake Victoria southeast shore, Ukerewe island, between Zanaki [zak] and Kerewe [ked]. A few in Mwanza. Alternate names: Regi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Jita [jit], 80% with Kwaya [kya].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Kerewe

[ked] 100,000 (1987). Lake Victoria area, northwest Ukerewe Island. A few on mainland, Kibara town area. Alternate names: Ekikerebe, Kerebe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 76% with Zinza [zin], 75% with Haya [hay], 69% with Nyambo [now], 68% with Nyankore [nyn], 63% with Chiga [egg] and Toro [tdv], 62% with Nyoro [nyo].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Kimbu

[kiv] 78,000 (1987), decreasing. Mbeya region, Chunya District, Kipembawe ward; Singida region, Manyoni District; Tabora region, Sikonge District. Alternate names: Ikibungu, Kikimbu, Yanzi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Nilamba [nim], 57% with Sukuma [suk], 53% with Nyaturu [rim], 48% with Sumbwa [suw], 47% with Langi [lag].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Kinga

[zga] 140,000 (2003). 57,000 in Makete District. Iringa region, Makete District, Kipengere Mountain Range. Alternate names: Ekikinga, Kikinga.  Dialects: Kinga, Mahanji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Kisankasa

[kqh] 4,670 (1987).  Alternate names: “Dorobo” , “Ndorobo”.  Dialects: Distinct from others called “Dorobo”: Aramanik [aam], Mediak [mwx], Mosiro [mwy]. See also Aasáx [aas].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi 
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Kisi

[kiz] 10,200 (2001). Ethnic population: 18,000. Iringa region, Ludewa District, Mwambao Division, Lupingu and Makonde Wards; Lake Nyasa (L. Malawi) northwest shore. Main villages: Lifuma, Lupingu, Makonde, and Nindi. Alternate names: Kikisi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with Pangwa [pbr], 55% with Kinga [zga], 53% with Sangu [sbp], 52% with Vwanji [wbi], and 47% with Bena [bez].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Konongo

[kcz] 51,000 (1987). Rukwa region, Mpanda District northwest corner, south of Nyamwezi [nym], across Ugalla River. 25% live in the traditional area. Alternate names: Kikonongo.  Dialects: May be a dialect of Nyamwezi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Kuria

[kuj] 430,000 in Tanzania (2005 SIL). Population total all countries: 604,000. Mara region, Tarime and Musoma Rural districts, near Kenya border. Some in north Serengeti. Also in Kenya. Alternate names: Igikuria, Ikikuria, Kikuria, Kikuria cha juu, Kikuria cha Mashariki, Kurya, Kurye, Tende.  Dialects: Kiroba, Simbiti, Sweta. About 15–20 clans in Tanzania, each with their own slightly different dialect. Clans consider themselves to speak the Kuria language rather than the language of their clan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Kutu

[kdc] 45,000 (1987). Morogoro region, Morogoro Rural and Kilosa districts. Alternate names: Khutu, Kikutu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Kami [kcu], 68% with Zaramo [zaj], 64% with Kwere [cwe], 61% with Doe [doe].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Kw’adza

[wka] Extinct. Manyara region, Mbulu District. Alternate names: Qwadza.  Dialects: Related to Iraqw [irk].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Kwaya

[kya] 115,000 (SIL 2005). Ethnic population: 70,000 Kwaya and 45,000 Ruri. Mara region, Musoma Rural District, Nyanja Division, and Musoma Urban District. Alternate names: Kikwaya.  Dialects: Ruri (Ciruri, Eciruri, Eciruuri, Kirori, Kiruri, Kishyola, Luri, Rori). Lexical similarity: 83% with Jita [jit], 80% with Kara [reg].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Kwere

[cwe] 98,000 (1987). Pwani region, Bagamoyo District. Many live among Zaramo [zaj] and Luguru [ruf]. Alternate names: Kakwere, Kikwere, Kinghwele, Kwele, Ng’were, Ngwele, Tsinghwele.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Doe [doe], 69% with Kami [kcu], 64% with Kutu [kdc], 61% with Zaramo, 62% with Zigula [ziw], 54% with Luguru.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Lambya

[lai] 40,000 in Tanzania (1987). Mbeya region, Ileje District, south Ulambya Division, on Malawi border. Alternate names: Ichilambya, Ici-Rambia, Icilambya, Iramba, Lambia, Lambwa, Rambia.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Langi

[lag] 350,000 (1999 SIL). 35,000 monolinguals. Many ethnic Burunge (in Chemba, Goima, and elsewhere) and some Alagwa (in Kolo, Mnenya, and elsewhere) who are Langi L1 speakers. Dodoma region, Kondoa District; Dodoma, Mwanza, Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Tanga, Morogoro, Babati, and Singida communities. West of Maasai [mas], northeast of Sandawe [sad]. Alternate names: Irangi, Kilaangi, Kilangi, Kirangi, Rangi.  Dialects: Kondoa, Haubi, Kolo, Mondo. Similar to Mbugwe [mgz]. Limited comprehension of other languages. Lexical similarity 74% with Mbugwe, 49% with Nyaturu [rim] and Sukuma [suk], 48% with Nyamwezi [nym], 47% with Kimbu [kiv] and Nilamba [nim], 40% with Sumbwa [suw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30) 
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Logooli

[rag] 300 in Tanzania (SIL 2005). Mara region, Serengeti District, Kyambahi Ward. Alternate names: Maragoli.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luyia (J.30), Luyia 
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Luguru

[ruf] 692,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Morogoro region, Morogoro and Kilosa districts; Pwani region, Bagamoyo District, Luguru Mountains, and Dar-es-Salaam. Alternate names: Guru, Ikiruguru, Kiluguru, Kiruguru, Lughuru, Lugulu, Ruguru.  Dialects: People have little comprehension of other languages. Lexical similarity: 54% with Kami [kcu].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Luo

[luo] 140,000 in Tanzania (SIL 2005). Mara region, Tarime District; Girango, Nyancha, Luo Imbo and Suba divisions. Alternate names: Dholuo, Kavirondo, Kidjaluo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Luo 
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Maasai

[mas] 455,000 in Tanzania (2006). 170,000 Arusa, 30,000 Baraguyu (1987). North central, on Kenya border, east of Serengeti National Park. Baraguyu from Indian Ocean nearly to Malawi. Alternate names: Kimaasai, Lumbwa, Maa, Masai.  Dialects: Arusha (Il-Arusha, L-Arusha), Parakuyo (Baraguyu, Kwavi), Kisonko.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa 
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Machame

[jmc] 300,000 (1992 UBS). Chagga area. Alternate names: Kimashami, Machambe.  Dialects: Masdama, Siha (Shira), Ng’uni, Bosho, Hai. A member of the Chaga dialect continuum which includes Rombo [rof], Mochi [old], Vunjo [vun].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Machinga

[mvw] 36,000 (1987). Lindi region, Kilwa and Lindi districts, along the coast, above 10th parallel south, near Mwera [mjh] and Ngindo [nnq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Magoma

[gmx] 9,000 (SIL 2003). Iringa region, Makete District, near Kitulo Plateau. Alternate names: Kimagoma.  Dialects: 2 very closely related varieties: one in the lower villages and one in the villages with a higher elevation.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Makhuwa-Meetto

[mgh] 385,000 in Tanzania (2006). Extreme south, Mtwara region, Masasi District. Alternate names: Imakua, Kimakua, Makhua, Makoa, Makua, Makuwa, Maquoua, Mato.  Dialects: Medo (Meto, Emeto).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) 
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Makonde

[kde] 980,000 in Tanzania (2006). Population total all countries: 1,340,000. Mtwara region, primarily Mtwara Urban, Mtwara Rural, Tandahomba, and Newala districts. Also in Mozambique. Alternate names: Chimakonde, Chinimakonde, Konde, Matambe, Matambwe, Mekwengo.  Dialects: “Maviha” , Matambwe. The Matambwe dialect may be more similar to Yao [yao] than Makonde, and may even be a separate language or dialect of Mwera [mwe].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Malila

[mgq] 65,000 (2003 SIL). Mbeya region, 40 km southwest of Mbeya town. South of Safwa [sbk], north of Ndali [ndh], west of Nyakyusa [nyy], east of Nyiha [nih]. Alternate names: Ishimalilia, Kimalila, Malilia, Shimalilia.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Mambwe-Lungu

[mgr] 295,000 in Tanzania (2002 census). 230,000 ethnic Fipa speaking the Fipa-Mambwe Dialect. Ethnic population: 65,000 in Tanzania (2002 census). Rukwa region, Sumbawanga Rural, Sumbawanga Urban districts, and far south Nkansi District, Matanga village south to Zambia border, Lake Tanganyika west to Tunko village east. Dialects: Mambwe (Icimambwe, Ichimambwe, Kimambwe), Lungu (Icilungu, Rungu, Cilungu, Kilungu, Kirungu), Fipa-Mambwe (Kifipa cha kimambwe).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Manda

[mgs] 22,000 (2002). Iringa region, Ludewa District; Ruvuma region, Mbinga District; east shore of Lake Nyasa. Alternate names: Kimanda, Kinyasa, Nyasa.  Dialects: Matumba. The Matumba dialect is recognized as a distinct dialect but is completely intelligible with Manda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Maraba

[ymk] 10,000 in Tanzania (2003). Southeast. Alternate names: Kimakwe, Makwe, Palma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40) 
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Matengo

[mgv] 150,000 (1987). Ruvuma region, southwest, east of Lake Malawi. Possibly in Malawi. Alternate names: Chimatengo, Kimatengo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.10) 
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Matumbi

[mgw] 72,000 (1978 MARC). Lindi region, Ruvuma banks, near Makonde [kde] and Makhuwa [vmw] (Polomé and Hill 1980). Alternate names: Kimatumbi.  Dialects: Kuchi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Mbugu

[mhd] 7,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 32,000. Tanga region, Lushoto District, Usambara Mountains. Alternate names: Kibwyo, Ma’a, Mbougou, Wa Maathi, Wama’a.  Dialects: Cha ndani, Cha kawaida.  Classification: Mixed language, Bantu-Cushitic 
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Mbugwe

[mgz] 24,000 (1999). Manyara region, Babati District. Alternate names: Kimbugwe, Mbuwe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 52% with Langi [lag].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30) 
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Mbunga

[mgy] 29,000 (1987). South central, southeast of Hehe [heh], north of Pogolo [poy]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Ndamba [ndj], 57% with Pogolo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Mediak

[mwx] 5,270 (2000).  Alternate names: Dorobo, Ndorobo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi 
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Mochi

[old] 597,000 (2000). Northeast corner, Chaga area. Alternate names: Kimochi, Kimoshi, Moshi, Mosi, Old Moshi.  Dialects: Uru. A member of the Chaga dialect continuum which includes Rombo [rof], Machame [jmc], Vunjo [vun].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Mosiro

[mwy] 5,270 (2000).  Alternate names: Dorobo, Ndorobo.  Dialects: A distinct language from others called “Dorobo”: Aramanik [aam], Mediak [mwx], Kisankasa [kqh].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi 
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Mpoto

[mpa] 80,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Ruvuma region, Mbinga District, southwest, Lake Nyasa northeast shore. Alternate names: Chimpoto, Kinyasa, Nyasa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.12) 
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Mwera

[mjh] 6,000 (2004). Southwest Tanzania, Ruvuma region, Mbinga District, Mbamba Bay, Lake Nyasa shore. Alternate names: Kinyasa, Nyanza, Nyasa.  Dialects: Similar to Mwera [mwe] in the Lindi region, but not the same. Also reportedly similar to Nyanja (N.30) languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Mwera

[mwe] 469,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Southeast, mostly Lindi region, Nachingwea, Ruangwa, and Lindi Urban and Rural districts, north of Makonde. Alternate names: Chimwera, Cimwera, Mwela.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Ndali

[ndh] 150,000 in Tanzania (1987), increasing. Population total all countries: 220,000. Mbeya region, Ileje District, into Malawi, between Lambya and Nyakyusa. Also in Malawi. Alternate names: Chindali, Ici-Ndali, Kindali.  Dialects: Sukwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Ndamba

[ndj] 55,000 (1987). South central, Iringa region, northeast of Bena, southeast of Hehe [heh], west of Pogolo [poy], southwest of Mbunga. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Mbunga [mgy], 56% with Pogolo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Pogoro (G.50) 
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Ndendeule

[dne] 100,000 (2000 Deo Ngonyani). Ruvuma region, inland, east of Ngoni [ngo] territory south of 10th parallel, Yao [yao] south and east, Ngoni [ngo] west, Bena [bez] north, Nindi [nxi] south, Ngindo [nnq] northeast beyond Selous Game Reserve. Alternate names: Kindendeule, Kindendeuli, Ndendeuli.  Dialects: Most similar to Ngindo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Ndengereko

[ndg] 110,000 (2000). Ruvuma region, east Songea District, Central coast, south of Zaramo [zaj], north of Rufiji [rui]. Alternate names: Kingengereko, Ndengeleko.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Ndonde Hamba

[njd] 10,000 (2002 PBT). Lindi region, Nachingwea District, primarily Kilimarondo Division. Alternate names: Chindonde, Chindonde Hamba, Kimawanda, Kindonde Hamba, Mawanda, Ndomde, Ndonde.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Ngasa

[nsg] 250 (1983). Ethnic population: 4,285 (2000). East Mt. Kilimanjaro slopes. Alternate names: Ongamo, Shaka.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Maasai [mas], 59% with Samburu [saq], 58% with the Chamus dialect of Samburu [saq].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa 
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Ngindo

[nnq] 220,000 (1987). East central, south of Rufiji [rui], west of Mwera [mj]. Alternate names: Kingindo, Magingo, Njindo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Ngoni

[ngo] 170,000 in Tanzania (1987). Population total all countries: 223,000. South central, Ruvuma region, south of Songea. Also in Mozambique. Alternate names: Angoni, Chingoni, Kingoni, Kisutu, Sutu.  Dialects: Different from ‘Ngoni’ which is an alternate name for Zulu [zul], Ngoni dialect of Nsenga [nse], Ngoni dialect of Tumbuka [tum]. Not related to Ngoni [nya] of Malawi. Low lexical similarity percentage with Zulu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.10) 
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Ngoreme

[ngq] 55,000 (SIL 2005). Mara region, Serengeti District, Ngoreme and Ikorongo divisions. Alternate names: Dengurume, Ikingurimi, Ngruimi, Ngurimi, Nguruimi.  Dialects: Limited comprehension of other languages. Lexical similarity: 84% with Kuria [kuj], 80% with Zanaki [zak], 73% with Ikoma [ntk], 49% with Gusii [guz].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Ngulu

[ngp] 132,000 (1987). Morogoro region, Morogoro Rural District; Tanga region, Handeni District; Dodoma region, Mpwapwa and Kongwa districts. Alternate names: Geja, Kingulu, Nguru, Nguu, Wayomba.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with Zigula [ziw], 73% with Bondei [bou], 68% with Shambala [ksb].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Nilamba

[nim] 455,000 (2006). 50,000 Iambi. West Shinyanga region, north of the Nyaturu [rim]. Alternate names: Ikinilamba, Ikiniramba, Ilamba, Iramba, Kinilamba, Kiniramba, Nilyamba, Niramba, Nyilamba.  Dialects: Iambi. Lexical similarity: 56% with Nyamwezi [nym], 55% with Sukuma [suk], 45% with Sumbwa [suw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30) 
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Nindi

[nxi] 100. South, Ruvuma region, East Songea District, near Mozambique border, south of Ndendeule [dne]. Dialects: Similar to Ndendeule [dne].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Nyakyusa-Ngonde

[nyy] 805,000 in Tanzania (2006). Population total all countries: 1,105,000. South Mbeya region, Lake Malawi north end; Iringa region, Makete District. Also in Malawi. Alternate names: Ikingonde, Ikinyakyusa, Kinyakyusa, Konde, Kukwe, Mombe, Ngonde, Nkonde, Nyakusa, Nyekyosa, Nyikyusa, Sochile, Sokile, Sokili.  Dialects: Nyakyusa, Kukwe, Mwamba (Lungulu), Ngonde, Selya (Salya, Seria), Sukwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyakyusa (M.30) 
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Nyambo

[now] 400,000 (2003). Kagera region, Karagwe District, northwest corner, Uganda border, west of Lake Victoria. Alternate names: Ekinyambo, Karagwe, Kinyambo, Ragwe, Rukaragwe, Runyambo, Ururagwe.  Dialects: Yakahanga. Lexical similarity: 84% with Haya [hay], 81% with Zinza [zin], 75% with Kerewe [cwe], 78% with Nyankore [nyn], 72% with Chiga [egg], 69% with Kerewe, 68% with Toro [tdv], 67% with Nyoro [nyo].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Nyamwanga

[mwn] 87,000 in Tanzania (1987). Rukwa region, Sumbawanga District southeast corner; Mbeya region, Mbozi District southwest corner, Zambia border south of Fipa [fip]; Southwest of Lake Rukwa; Saisi Valley northwest to forested plateau southeast. Alternate names: Chinamwanga, Kinamwanga, Mwanga, Namwanga.  Dialects: Tambo, Iwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Nyamwezi

[nym] 980,000 (2006). 73% are in the traditional area. Northwest central, Tabora region, between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa; Rukwa, Singida, and Shinyanga regions. Alternate names: Kinyamwesi, Kinyamwezi, Namwezi, Nyamwesi.  Dialects: Nyanyembe, Takama (Garaganza), Mweri (Sumbwa, Konongo, Kiya). Lexical similarity: 84% with Sukuma [suk], 61% with Sumbwa [suw], 56% with Nilamba [nim].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Nyaturu

[rim] 595,000 (2006). Singida region, Iramba and Singida Rural districts, north central, south of Singida, west of Wembere River. Alternate names: Keremi, Kinyaturu, Kiremi, Kirimi, Limi, Remi, Rimi, Turu.  Dialects: Girwana (Rimi), Chahi, Ginyamunyinganyi. Lexical similarity: 63% with Nilamba [nim], 59% with Sukuma [suk], 58% with Nyamwezi [nym], 53% with Kimbu [kiv], 49% with Nyaturu [rim], 44% with Sumbwa [suw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30) 
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Nyiha, Tanzania

[nih] 306,000 in Tanzania (1987). Population total all countries: 662,000. Mbeya region, Mbozi District, Lake Rukwa south and west. Also in Zambia. Alternate names: Ishinyiha, Kinyiha, Nyika, Nyixa, Shinyiha.  Dialects: Similar to Lambya [lai], Malila [mgq].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Nyika, Tanzania

[nkt] 25,000 (2007). Rukwa region, Sumbawanga Rural District, mainly Sandulula Ward; Mollo Ward. Alternate names: Kinyiha, Kinyika.  Dialects: Similar to Nyiha [nih], Malawi Nyiha [nyr], Malila [mgq].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Okiek

[oki]  North, south Arusha region. Akie small groups south of Arusha among Maasai [mas]. Alternate names: Akiek.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Okiek 
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Pangwa

[pbr] 95,000 (2002). Iringa region, Ludewa District; Livingstone mountains, Lake Nyasa east shore. Alternate names: Ekipangwa, Kipangwa.  Dialects: Kimwela. Kimwela is spoken with a distinctly different accent and the people consider themselves a separate ethnic group, but is completely intelligible with Pangwa. Reportedly high Pangwa intelligibility with Bena [bez] not demonstrated by preliminary intelligibility testing. Lexical similarity: 71% with Bena [bez], 62% with Kisi [kiz], 61% with Kinga [zga], 59% with Hehe [heh], 58% with Sangu [sbp], 55% with Vwanji [wbi].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Pimbwe

[piw] 29,000 (1987). Rukwa region, Mpanda District. Rift Valley to northwest of Lake Rukwa. Alternate names: Cipimbwe, Ichipimbwe, Kipimbwe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Pogolo

[poy] 185,000 (1987). South central, Iringa and Morogoro regions, south of Mbunga [mgy], east of Ndamba [ndj]. Alternate names: Chipogolo, Chipogoro, Pogolu, Pogora, Pogoro, Shpogolu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 57% with Mbunga, 56% with Ndamba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Pogoro (G.50) 
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Rombo

[rof]  East, Chaga area. Alternate names: Kirombo.  Dialects: Keni, Mashati, Mkuu, Usseri. A member of the Chaga dialect continuum which includes Mochi [old], Machame [jmc], Vunjo [vun].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Rufiji

[rui] 200,000 (1987). Pwani region, Rufiji District, central coast, south of Ndengereko [ndg], north of Matumbi [mgw]. Alternate names: Fiji, Kiruihi, Ruihi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Rungwa

[rnw] 18,000 (1987). Rukwa region, Mpanda District, north Lake Rukwa plains. Alternate names: Ichirungwa, Icilungwa, Lungwa, Runga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Rwa

[rwk] 90,000 (1987). 50,000 Kihai. Arusha region, Mt. Meru area. Alternate names: Kirwo, Rwo.  Dialects: Kihai (Meru).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Safwa

[sbk] 158,000 (1987). Mbeya region, Mbeya Urban, Mbeya Rural, Chunya, and Mbozi districts, Mbeya and Poroto mountain ranges. Alternate names: Cisafwa, Ishisafwa, Kisafwa.  Dialects: Guruka, Mbwila, Poroto, Songwe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Sagala

[sbm] 79,000 (1987). Morogoro region, Kilosa and Ulanga districts; Dodoma region, Mpwapwa District; Iringa region. Alternate names: Kisagala, Kisagara, Sagara, Southern Kisagala.  Dialects: Itumba, Kondoa (Solwe), Kweny, Nkwifiya (Kwifa, Kwiva). Lexical similarity: 63% with Kagulu [kki], 60% with Gogo [gog].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Sandawe

[sad] 40,000 (2000). Dodoma region, Kondoa District, between Bubu and Mponde Rivers. Alternate names: Kisandawe, Sandaui, Sandaweeki, Sandawi, Sandwe.  Dialects: Bisa, Telha.  Classification: Khoisan, Sandawe 
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Sangu

[sbp] 75,000 (1987). Mbeya region, Mbarale District, Usangu Plains. Alternate names: Eshisango, Kisangu, Rori, Sango.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Segeju

[seg] 7,000, decreasing. Ethnic population: Less than 15,000. Tanga region, Muheza District, narrow strip of northeast coast between Tanga and Kenya border. Alternate names: Kisegeju, Sageju, Sengeju.  Dialects: Closely related to Digo [dig].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika (E.40), Mijikenda 
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Shambala

[ksb] 664,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Tanga region, Lushoto District, Usambara Mountains. Alternate names: Kisambaa, Kishambaa, Kishambala, Sambaa, Sambala, Sambara, Schambala, Shambaa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Bondei [bou], 68% with Ngulu [ngp] and Zigula [ziw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.20) 
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Shubi

[suj] 153,000 (1987). Kagera region, northwest of Sumbwa, near Lake Victoria. Alternate names: Sinja, Subi, Urushubi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Hangaza [han], 77% with Rundi [run] and Ha [haq], 71% with Rwanda [kin], 49% with Sumbwa [suw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60) 
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Suba-Simbiti

[ssc] 98,700 (2007). Mara region, Tarime District, Nyamagaro, Nyamtinga, Nyahongo, Kisumwa, Komuge, Nyamunga and Kyang’ombe Wards; Musoma Rural District, Nyankanga Ward; Musoma Urban District, Bweri Ward. Alternate names: Kisuba, Kisimbiti.  Dialects: Most similar to Kuria [kuj].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Subi

[xsj]  Kagera region, Biharamulo District. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Sukuma

[suk] 5,430,000 (2006). Northwest, between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa, Shinyanga to Serengeti Plain (Kiya); also Mwanza (Gwe). Few in cities; 88% in the traditional area. Alternate names: Kisukuma.  Dialects: Kiya, Gwe (Kigwe). Dialects contiguous with Nyamwezi are intelligible with it. Lexical similarity: 84% with Nyamwezi [nym], 59% with Sumbwa [suw] and Nyaturu [rim], 57% with Kimbu [kiv], 55% with Nilamba [nim], 49% with Langi [lag].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Sumbwa

[suw] 191,000 (1987). Shinyanga region, Bukombe District. Alternate names: Kisumbwa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Nyamwezi [nym], 59% with Sukuma [suk], 45% with Nilamba [nim].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Swahili

[swa] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 730,573. 
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Swahili

[swh] 350,000 in Tanzania (2006). 313,200 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 787,630. Zanzibar, coastal areas. Also in Burundi, Canada, Kenya, Libya, Mayotte, Mozambique, Oman, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United States. Alternate names: Kisuaheli, Kiswahili.  Dialects: Mrima, Unguja (Kiunguja, Zanzibar), Pemba, Mgao. The Bajun dialect has 85% lexical similarity with the Amu dialect, 78% with the Mvita, 72% with the Mrima; Mvita has 86% with Amu, 79% with Mrima; Mrima has 79% with Amu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40) 
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Tanzanian Sign Language

[tza]   Alternate names: Lugha Ya Alama, “Lugha Ya Bubu”.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Temi

[soz] 30,000 (2002 SIL). Arusha region, Ngorongoro District, north central near Kenya border, Maasai area. 7 villages: Sale (Eroghata), Mdito, Samunge (Soyeta), Digodigo (Ebwe), Kisangiro (Raghari), Mugholo (Gheeri), Oldonyo Sambu (Kura). Alternate names: Kisonjo, Sonjo, Sonyo, Wasonjo, Watemi.  Dialects: Reportedly shows some similarities to Gikuyu [kik] of Kenya.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Tongwe

[tny] 13,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 31,551 (2000). Kigoma District, Kigoma region, Lake Tanganyika east shore, between Ilagala village north, and Kashagulu south; Kigoma and Rukwa regions boundary, east; Lake Tanganyika west shore; Small groups (20%- 30% of the population) in Uvinza and Nguruka villages. Alternate names: Kitongwe, Sitongwe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83%–91% with Bende [bdp] (with different varieties).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Vidunda

[vid] 32,000 (1987). East central, south of Mikumi town, Kidodi mountains west, west of Kutu Morogoro region, east of Hehe [heh]. Alternate names: Chividunda, Kividunda, Ndunda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Vinza

[vin] 10,000 (1987). Kigoma region, Kigoma Rural District, Uvinza town area west. West of Nyamwezi [nym], north of Tongwe [tny]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60) 
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Vunjo

[vun] 300,000 (1992 UBS). Kilimanjaro region, Chagga area. Alternate names: Kivunjo, Kiwunjo, Wunjo.  Dialects: Marangu, Lema (Kilema), Mamba, Mwika. A member of the Chaga dialect continuum which includes Rombo [rof], Mochi [old], Machame [jmc].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Vwanji

[wbi] 28,000 (SIL 2003). Iringa region, Makete District, Kipengere Mountain Range. West of Bena [bez], south of Sangu [sbp], north of Kinga [zga]. Alternate names: Kivwanji, Kiwanji, Wanji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Wanda

[wbh] 24,000 (1987). Mbeya region, Mbozi District; Rukwa region, Sumbawanga Rural District. Alternate names: Ichiwanda, Iciwanda, Kiwanda, Vanda, Wandia.  Dialects: Sichela. Lexical similarity: 68% with Nyamwanga [mwn].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Yao

[yao] 420,000 in Tanzania (2006). South central, Mtwara region, Masasi District and Ruvuma region, Tunduru District, east of Lake Malawi, Mozambique border area. Possibly in Zimbabwe. Alternate names: Achawa, Adsawa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Chiyao, Djao, Hajao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, Wajao.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Zanaki

[zak] 100,000 (2005 SIL). Mara region, Musoma Rural District, Makongoro Division. Alternate names: Ikizanaki, Kizanaki.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Ikoma [ntk], 80% with Ngoreme [ngq], 78% with Kuria [kuj], 50% with Gusii [guz].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Zaramo

[zaj] Few speakers (Brenzinger, Heine, and Sommer 1991). Ethnic population: 656,730 (2000). East central coast, Pwani region, Kisarawe and Bagamoyo districts, between Bagamoyo and Dar es Salaam. Alternate names: Dzalamo, Kizaramo, Myagatwa, Saramo, Zalamo, Zaramu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Kutu [kdc], 65% with Kami [kcu], 61% with Kwere [cwe] and Doe [doe].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Zigula

[ziw] 355,000 (Johnstone 1993). Pwani region, Bagamoyo District; Tanga region northeast, Maasai Steppe. Alternate names: Kizigula, Seguha, Wayombo, Wazegua, Zeguha, Zegura, Zigoua, Zigua, Zigwa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with Ngulu [ngp], 75% with Bondei [bou], 68% with Shambala [ksb], 70% with Doe [doe], 62% with Kwere [cwe].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Zinza

[zin] 138,000 (1987). Lake Victoria southwest shore; area islands. Alternate names: Dzinda, Dzindza, Echidzindza, Echijinja, Ecizinza, Jinja, Kizinza, Zinja.  Dialects: Longo, Kula. Lexical similarity: 81% with Nyambo [now] and Nyankore [nyn], 78% with Haya [hay], 76% with Kerewe [ked], 75% with Chiga [cgg], 67% with Nyoro [nyo] and Toro [tdv].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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