Ethnologue.com home
Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Americas > United States

Languages of United States

See language maps.
United States of America. 299,846,000. 1,900,000 American Indians, Inuits, and Aleut, not all speaking indigenous languages (1990 census). National or official languages: Hawaiian (in Hawaii), Spanish (in New Mexico). Literacy rate: 95%–99%. Immigrant languages: Adamawa Fulfulde (12,600), Adivasi Oriya (2,370), Adyghe (3,000), Afrikaans (16,000), Amharic (82,100), Armenian (203,000), Assamese (750), Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (80,000), Bahamas Creole English, Bahnar, Balkan Romani (2,570), Basque (2,760), Belarusan (2,370), Belize Kriol English (40,000), Bengali (129,000), Bukharic (50,000), Bulgarian (28,600), Burmese (19,700), Cajonos Zapotec, Carpathian Romani (2,570), Catalan-Valencian-Balear (1,660), Cebuano (7,260), Central Khmer (182,000), Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (80,000), Chru, Chuukese (2,270), Copala Triqui (5,000), Corsican, Crimean Tatar, Czech (70,500), Danish (33,400), Dutch (150,000), Eastern Cham (920), Eastern Frisian (420), Eastern Kanjobal, Eastern Mnong, Eastern Panjabi (142,000), Efik (5,260), El Nayar Cora, Estonian (26,600), Fijian (3,340), Fijian Hindustani, Finnish (39,800), Garifuna (65,000), Georgian (760), Gheg Albanian (39,900), Greek (365,000), Gujarati (236,000), Guyanese Creole English, Haitian (453,000), Hakka Chinese (960), Halh Mongolian (2,580), Hebrew (195,000), Hiligaynon, Hindi (317,000), Hmong Daw (168,000), Hmong Njua (100,000), Hulaulá, Hungarian (118,000), Icelandic (5,660), Ilocano (76,600), Indonesian (48,100), Irish Gaelic (30,000), Italian (1,010,000), Iu Mien (24,000), Japanese (478,000), Jarai, Judeo-Tunisian Arabic (307,000), Kabardian (3,500), Kabuverdianu (400,000), Kalmyk-Oirat, Kannada (24,400), Karachay-Balkar (680), Kashmiri (940), Kazakh (180), Khmu, Khuen, Klao, Koho, Korean (894,000), Kosraean (570), Krio (4,770), Ladin, Ladino (310), Lahu Shi (1,200), Lao (149,000), Latvian (19,800), Laven, Laz, Lithuanian (38,300), Lombard, Lower Sorbian (240), Luxembourgeois (830), Maay, Macedonian (19,200), Mal, Malay (10,700), Malayalam (79,900), Maltese, Mandaic, Mandarin Chinese (175,000), Maori (260), Marathi (35,000), Marshallese (5,650), Mbum (160), Mezquital Otomi, Min Nan Chinese, Mixtepec Mixtec, Najdi Spoken Arabic (307,000), Nepali (10,700), North Marquesan (290), Northern Kurdish (10,200), Northern Pashto (7,710), Northern Uzbek, Nubi (120), Nung, Palauan (2,340), Pampangan (5,550), Papiamentu (800), Parsi (75,000), Peñoles Mixtec, Phu Thai, Piemontese, Pingelapese (500), Plateau Malagasy (200), Polish (667,000), Pontic, Portuguese (564,000), Rade, Rapa Nui, Romanian (115,000), Samoan (63,100), San Juan Guelavía Zapotec (550), Scottish Gaelic (1,610), Senaya (400), Serbian (45,400), Shelta (50,000), Sherpa (500), Silacayoapan Mixtec, Sindhi (7,820), Sinhala (13,900), Slovak (41,300), Slovene (9,760), South Azerbaijani (660), Southwestern Caribbean Creole English (17,500), Standard German (1,380,000), Swahili (36,700), Swedish (67,700), Sylheti, Tagalog (1,220,000), Tai Daeng, Tai Dam (3,000), Tamil (84,000), Tatar (8,500), Tày, Telugu (86,200), Thai (120,000), Tibetan (5,110), Tondano, Tongan (24,100), Tosk Albanian (39,900), Traveller Scottish, Turkish (74,100), Turkmen (170), Turoyo (5,000), Ukrainian (129,000), Upper Guinea Crioulo (156,000), Upper Sorbian (240), Upper Ta’oih, Urdu (263,000), Uyghur (1,690), Vietnamese (1,900,000), Vlaams (2,000), Vlax Romani (2,570), Welsh (2,650), Western Bru, Western Cham (920), Western Farsi (312,000), Western Highland Purepecha, Western Kanjobal, Western Panjabi, Xiang Chinese (24,400), Yalálag Zapotec, Yapese (580), Yatzachi Zapotec, Yoruba, Yue Chinese (260,000), Zoogocho Zapotec (400). Also includes Arabic (3,000,000), Chinese (1,645,000), and languages of the Gypsies (1,000,000), others in Europe, the Philippines (1,405,000), South Asia (634,000), elsewhere in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Pacific. Information mainly from C. Callaghan 1998; L. Campbell and M. Mithun 1979; W. Chafe 1962, 1965; SIL 1951–2007; M-L Tarpent and D. Kendall 1998. Blind population: 500,000. Deaf population: nearly 2,000,000 (1988). Deaf institutions: Many. The number of individual languages listed for United States is 245. Of those, 176 are living languages, 4 are second languages without mother-tongue speakers, and 65 have no known speakers.
Abnaki, Eastern

[aaq] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,800 including Western Abnaki in Canada (1982 SIL). Near Bangor, Maine. 1 village (Penobscot). Alternate names: Abenaki.  Dialects: Penobscot.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
More information.

Achumawi

[acv] 16 (2000 census). 8 nonfluent speakers (2000). Ethnic population: 1,000. Northeastern California. Alternate names: Achomawi, Pitt River.  Dialects: Originally 9 dialects.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Karok-Shasta, Shasta-Palaihnihan, Palaihnihan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Afro-Seminole Creole

[afs] Population total all countries: 200. Bracketville, Texas. Also in Mexico. Alternate names: Afro-Seminole, Black Seminole, Seminole.  Dialects: Texas Afro-Seminole, Mexico Afro-Seminole. Separated from coastal Sea Island Creole [gul] between 1690 and 1760. Similar to Sea Island Creole [gul] and Bahamas Creole [bah]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Sea Island Creole [gul].  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern 
More information.

Ahtena

[aht] 35 (2000 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500 (Krauss 1995). Alaska, Copper River above mouth of Eyak River, upper Susitna and Nenana drainages. 8 communities; Washington. Alternate names: Ahtna, Atna, Copper River, Mednovskiy.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanaina-Ahtna  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Alabama

[akz] 100 (1997 T. Montler), decreasing. Ethnic population: 460 (2000 US census). Southeastern Texas, Alabama-Coushatta Reservation near Livingston. Alternate names: Alibamu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: less than 50% with Koasati [cku].  Classification: Muskogean, Eastern 
More information.

Aleut

[ale] 300 in United States (Krauss 1995). Population total all countries: 490. Ethnic population: 1,024 (2000, US census). Western Aleut on Atka Island (Aleutian Chain); Eastern Aleut on eastern Aleutian Islands, Pribilofs, and Alaskan Peninsula. Also in Russian Federation (Asia). Dialects: Western Aleut (Atkan, Atka, Attuan, Unangany, Unangan), Eastern Aleut (Unalaskan, Pribilof Aleut).  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Aleut 
More information.

Alsea

[aes] Extinct. Oregon, on Alsea River and Bay. Alternate names: Alséya.  Dialects: Yaquina (Yakwina, Yakon, Yakona).  Classification: Penutian, Oregon Penutian, Coast Oregon, Yakonan 
More information.

American Sign Language

[ase] No accurate census figures available that distinguish language use from audiological deafness. Reportedly third largest language in USA (1993 Honolulu Advertiser); has 100,000 to 500,000 primary users (VanCleve 1986) out of nearly 2,000,000 profoundly deaf persons in the USA (1988), Below 1% of USA population. Also in Barbados, Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Jamaica, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Philippines, Singapore, Togo, Zimbabwe. Alternate names: ASL.  Dialects: Black American Sign Language, Tactile ASL (TASL). Some lexical variation across the United States and much of Canada, but intelligibility is high among all dialects called ASL. Black American Sign Language developed in schools for African-American Deaf people due to segregation in the southern U.S. It contains some distinctive vocabulary and grammatical structure. Tactile ASL (TASL) is used throughout the United States by and with deaf-blind people, especially those with Usher’s Syndrome, concentrations of which are found in Louisiana and Seattle. TASL uses ASL vocabulary and grammar, except (1) the deaf-blind person receives signs through touch by feeling signs in the palms, and (2) minor syntactic modifications to compensate for the deaf-blind person’s lack of access to the signer’s facial expressions. Some Deaf-blind people have learned Braille for reading English. Dialects or closely-related languages derived from ASL, are used in many other countries. Lexical similarity: 57% between modern ASL and French Sign Language (LSF) [fsl] on a comparison of 872 signs. Although the 2 are related, ASL has undergone substantial creolization (Woodward 1975, 1976).  Classification: Deaf sign language 
More information.

Angloromani

[rme] 100,000 in United States.  Alternate names: English Romani, Romani English, Romanichal, Romanis.  Classification: Mixed language, English-Romani 
More information.

Apache, Jicarilla

[apj] 680 (2000 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: All Apache varieties: 13,270 (2000 census). Northern New Mexico, area of Dulce. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Navajo-Apache, Eastern Apache 
More information.

Apache, Kiowa

[apk] 18 (1990 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Western Oklahoma, Caddo County. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Kiowa Apache  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Apache, Lipan

[apl] 2 (1981 R. Young). Ethnic population: 100 (1977 SIL). New Mexico, Mescalero Reservation. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Navajo-Apache, Eastern Apache  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Apache, Mescalero-Chiricahua

[apm] 1,800 (1977 SIL), decreasing. 175 Chiricahua speakers, 149 in New Mexico (2000 US census). Ethnic population: 2,395 (2000). New Mexico, Mescalero Reservation; some Chiricahua at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma. Dialects: Chiricahua, Mescalero.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Navajo-Apache, Eastern Apache 
More information.

Apache, Western

[apw] 12,700 (1990 census). 303 in San Carlos. East central Arizona, several reservations. Alternate names: Coyotero.  Dialects: White Mountain, San Carlos, Cibecue, Tonto.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Navajo-Apache, Western Apache-Navajo 
More information.

Arapaho

[arp] 1,040 (1990 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,218 (2000 census). Wind River Reservation, Wyoming; also associated with Cheyenne in western Oklahoma. Alternate names: Arrapahoe.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains, Arapaho 
More information.

Arikara

[ari] 20 (1997 D. Parks), decreasing. Ethnic population: 94 (2000 census). North Dakota, Fort Berthold Reservation. Alternate names: Arikaree, Arikari, Arikaris, Ree, Ris.  Classification: Caddoan, Northern, Pawnee-Kitsai, Pawnee  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Assiniboine

[asb] Ethnic population: 1,983 (2000). Fort Belknap and Fort Peck reservations, Montana. Alternate names: Assiniboin, Hohe.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
More information.

Atakapa

[aqp] Extinct. Southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas. Classification: Gulf 
More information.

Atsugewi

[atw] 3 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). 1,350 with Achumawi (2000 A. Yamamoto). Northeast California. Classification: Hokan, Northern, Karok-Shasta, Shasta-Palaihnihan, Palaihnihan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Barbareño

[boi] Extinct. South California, near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties.  Classification: Chumash 
More information.

Biloxi

[bll] Extinct. Lower Mississippi Valley. Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Southeastern, Biloxi-Ofo 
More information.

Blackfoot

[bla] 100 in United States (2001 I. Goddard), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 to 8,000 in USA (2001 I. Goddard). 1,604 (2000 US census). Blackfeet Reservation, Montana. Alternate names: Blackfeet, Pikanii.  Dialects: Piegan (Peigan).  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains 
More information.

Caddo

[cad] 25 (1997 W. Chafe). No monolinguals (2000 Levy). Ethnic population: 45 (2000 census). Western Oklahoma, Caddo County. Formerly northeast Texas, extending into southwestern Arkansas. Alternate names: Caddoe, Kado, Kadohadacho.  Dialects: Related to Pawnee [paw], Wichita [wic], and 2 extinct languages: Kitsai [kii] and Adai [xad].  Classification: Caddoan, Southern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Cahuilla

[chl] 14 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 15 (2000 census). Southern California, San Gorgonio Pass and Mohave Desert areas. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cupan, Cahuilla-Cupeno  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Carolina Algonquian

[crr] Extinct. Northeastern North Carolina. Classification: Algic, Algonquian 
More information.

Carolinian

[cal] 100 in United States (2000 census).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Trukic 
More information.

Catawba

[chc] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 500 (1977 SIL). Near Rock Hill, northern South Carolina. Dialects: Formerly several dialects.  Classification: Siouan, Catawba 
More information.

Cayuga

[cay] 10 in United States (1991 M. Kinkade), decreasing. Ethnic population: 45 (2000 census). Western New York, Cattaraugus Reservation; formerly in northeast Oklahoma. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Seneca-Cayuga 
More information.

Chamorro

[cha] 16,000 in United States (2000 census).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Chamorro 
More information.

Chehalis, Lower

[cea] Extinct. Southwest coast of Washington. Classification: Salishan, Tsamosan, Inland 
More information.

Chehalis, Upper

[cjh] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). Washington, south of Puget Sound. Alternate names: Chehalis, Kwaiailk.  Dialects: Separate from Lower Chehalis [cea]. Different from Halkomelem [hur] on the Chehalis River in British Columbia.  Classification: Salishan, Tsamosan, Inland 
More information.

Cherokee

[chr] 16,400 (2000 census). 130 monolinguals. 14,000 on Oklahoma rolls (1986 D. Feeling), 1,000 in North Carolina (1997 R. Sabino). Ethnic population: 308,132 (1990 census) including 70,000 on Oklahoma rolls (1986 D. Feeling), 9,800 in Eastern Band (1997 R. Sabino). East and northeast Oklahoma and Cherokee Reservation, Great Smokey Mountains, western North Carolina. Alternate names: Tsalagi, Tslagi.  Dialects: Elati (Lower Cherokee, Eastern Cherokee), Kituhwa (Middle Cherokee), Otali (Upper Cherokee, Western Cherokee, Overhill Cherokee), Overhill-Middle Cherokee.  Classification: Iroquoian, Southern Iroquoian 
More information.

Chetco

[ctc] 5 (1962 W. Chafe), decreasing. Ethnic population: 100 possibly (1977 SIL). South coast, Oregon. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, Oregon, Tolowa-Galice  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Cheyenne

[chy] 1,720 (1990 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,320 (2000 census). Northern Cheyenne Reservation, southeastern Montana; associated with Arapaho in western Oklahoma. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains 
More information.

Chickasaw

[cic] 1,000 (Munro and Willmond 1987), decreasing. Ethnic population: 35,000 to 37,000 (1999 Chickasaw nation). Principally south central Oklahoma, from Byng or Happyland (near Ada) north, and from Davis or Ardmore west to Fillmore and Wapanucka in east. Some in Los Angeles, California. Dialects: Choctaw [cho] find Chickasaw unintelligible.  Classification: Muskogean, Western 
More information.

Chimariko

[cid] No known speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic group members left (1997 K. Turner). Northwest California. Classification: Hokan, Northern 
More information.

Chinese, Min Dong

[cdo] 800 in United States (2000 census). Identified as Fuchow in US Census. New York, Pennsylvania. Alternate names: Eastern Min.  Dialects: Fuzhou (Fuchow, Foochow).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinese, Wu

[wuu] 1,820 in United States.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chinook

[chh] 12 (1996), decreasing. Ethnic population: 140 (2000 census). Lower Columbia River, Oregon, and Washington. Alternate names: Lower Chinook.  Dialects: Klatsop (Tlatsop), Clackama, Kiksht.  Classification: Penutian, Chinookan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Chinook Wawa

[chn] 17 in United States (1990 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 119 (2000 census). Formerly along Pacific coast from Oregon to Alaska. All now probably scattered. Alternate names: Chinook Jargon, Chinook Pidgin, Tsinuk Wawa.  Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Chippewa

[ciw] 5,000. Ethnic population: 103,826 in USA (1990 census). Upper Michigan west to North Dakota. Alternate names: Ojibway, Ojibwe, Southwestern Ojibwa.  Dialects: Upper Michigan-Wisconsin Chippewa, Central Minnesota Chippewa, Red Lake Chippewa, Minnesota Border Chippewa. Turtle Mountain in North Dakota shares features with Central Minnesota. Red Lake includes Northwest Angle on shore of Lake of the Woods. Nett Lake on the Minnesota border is closely related to Lac la Croix (Rainy River Ojibwa of Northwestern Ojibwa [ojb]) in Ontario.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
More information.

Chitimacha

[ctm] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 300 (1977 SIL). Southern Louisiana. Classification: Gulf 
More information.

Choctaw

[cho] 11,400, decreasing. Ethnic population: 120,400 including 111,400 in Oklahoma (1998 Choctaw Language Department, Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma). Southeast Oklahoma (McCurtain County), east central Mississippi. Some in Louisiana and Tennessee. Dialects: Choctaw find Chickasaw [cic] unintelligible.  Classification: Muskogean, Western 
More information.

Chumash

[chs] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 156 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Southern California coast near Santa Barbara. Classification: Chumash 
More information.

Clallam

[clm] 10 (1997 T. Montler), decreasing. Ethnic population: Several thousands (1997 T. Montler). Washington, northeast Olympic Peninsula, Port Angeles. Alternate names: Klallam, Na’klallam, S’klallam.  Dialects: Similar to the Saanich dialect of Straits Salish [str].  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Straits  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Cocopa

[coc] 150 in United States (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 321 in the USA (1990). Arizona, Lower Colorado River south of Yuma. Alternate names: Cocopah, Cucapá, Delta River Yuman, Kikima, Kwikapa.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-Californian 
More information.

Coeur d’Alene

[crd] 5 (1999 R. McDonald). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). Northern Idaho, Coeur d’Alene Reservation. Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Columbia-Wenatchi

[col] 75 (1990 M. Kinkade). 39 Columbia speakers(1990 census). Ethnic population: 500 possibly (1977 SIL). North central Washington, Colville Reservation. Alternate names: Chelan, Columbian, Moses-Colombia Salish, Moses-Colombia, Nxa’amxcin, Wenatchee, Wenatchi, Wenatchi-Columbia.  Dialects: Columbia (Sinkiuse, Columbian), Wenatchi (Wenatchee, Entiat, Chelan).  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Comanche

[com] 200 (2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000). Western Oklahoma. Dialects: Similar to Shoshoni [shh], Timbisha [par].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central 
More information.

Coos

[csz] 1 (1962 W. Chafe). Ethnic population: 250 (1977 SIL). South Oregon coast. Alternate names: Hanis.  Classification: Penutian, Oregon Penutian, Coast Oregon, Coosan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Coquille

[coq] Extinct. Southwest Oregon, formerly on upper Coquille River. Alternate names: Mishikhwutmetunee, Upper Coquille.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, Oregon, Tolowa-Galice 
More information.

Cowlitz

[cow] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (1990 M. Kinkade). Southwest Washington. Alternate names: Lower Cowlitz.  Classification: Salishan, Tsamosan, Inland 
More information.

Cree, Plains

[crk] 100 in United States (2001 I. Goddard), decreasing. Ethnic population may include Chippewa [ciw]. Ethnic population: 1,555 (2000 census). North central Montana, Rocky Boy Reservation. Alternate names: Western Cree.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
More information.

Croatian

[hrv] 58,400 in United States (2000 census).  Dialects: Croatian.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western 
More information.

Crow

[cro] 4,280 (1990 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 9,840 enrolled in the nation (1999 BIA). 4,350 (2000 census). Southern Montana. Alternate names: Apsaalooke.  Dialects: Similar to Hidatsa [hid].  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Missouri Valley 
More information.

Cruzeño

[crz] Extinct. Southern California, near Santa Barbara. Alternate names: Island Chumash, Isleño.  Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Had multiple dialects.  Classification: Chumash 
More information.

Cupeño

[cup] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 700 (2000 A. Yamamoto); 20 (2000 census). Southern California, near the Pala Reservation, north of Valley Center. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cupan, Cahuilla-Cupeno 
More information.

Dakota

[dak] 15,400 in United States (1990 census), decreasing. 31 monolinguals (1990 census). 250 Yanktonais (1997 D. Parks); Census (2000) data may include Lakota [lkt]. Population total all countries: 19,280. Ethnic population: 5,000 Yanktonais (1997 D. Parks); 20,475 (2000 census). Northern Nebraska, southern Minnesota, North and South Dakota, northeastern Montana. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Sioux.  Dialects: Dakota (Dakhota, Santee, Santee-Sisseton), Nakota (Nakoda, Yankton, Yankton-Yanktonais). Lexical similarity: 83%–86% with Stoney [sto], 89%–94% with Assiniboine [asb], 90%–95% among dialects.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
More information.

Degexit’an

[ing] 25 (1997 S. Hargus), decreasing. Ethnic population: 250 to 300 (Krauss 1997); 19 (2000 census). Alaska, Shageluk, Anvik, and Athapaskans at Holy Cross, below Grayling on the Yukon River. Alternate names: Deg Xinag, Deg Xit’an, “Ingalik” , “Ingalit”.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Ingalik-Koyukon, Ingalik  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Delaware

[del] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 78. 
More information.

Delaware, Pidgin

[dep] Extinct. Middle Atlantic region. Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian 
More information.

English

[eng] 215,000,000 in United States (2000 census).  Dialects: African American Vernacular English (AAVE).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
More information.

Esselen

[esq] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 80 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Central California coast near Carmel. Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Esselen 
More information.

Evenki

[evn] 35 in United States (2000 census).  Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Northern, Evenki 
More information.

Eyak

[eya] No known speakers. Last speaker died January 2008. Ethnic population: 50 (Krauss 1995). Alaska, mouth of the Copper River. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Eyak 
More information.

French

[fra] 1,640,000 in United States (2000 census). Massachusetts, Woonsocket Rhode Island, Maine, Connecticut, Manchester New Hampshire, Vermont. Dialects: Québécois, Acadian (Acadien).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
More information.

French, Cajun

[frc] 17,200 (2000 census), decreasing. Southern Louisiana west of the Mississippi as far north as Avoyelles, Evangeline, Allen, and Calcasieu parishes. Alternate names: Acadian, Cadien, Cajan, Cajun, Français Acadien.  Dialects: Marsh French, Prairie French, Big Woods French. Ancestors came from French Canada in the 18th century. Reportedly Cajun speakers can partially understand Standard French. Different from the variety of ‘Broken French’ used by 8,000 African Americans, or ‘Napoleanic Era French’.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
More information.

Galice

[gce] Extinct. Formerly in southwest Oregon. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, Oregon, Tolowa-Galice 
More information.

German, Hutterite

[geh] 12,000 in United States. 128 colonies in USA. Average 95 people in each colony. Alternate names: Hutterian German, Tirolean, Tyrolese, Carinthian German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian 
More information.

German, Pennsylvania

[pdc] 83,700 in United States (2000 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 98,700. Ethnic population: 200,000 (Kloss and McConnell 1978). Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, Virginia, West Virginia, and Florida, and new communities in other states. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Pennsylvania Deitsh, Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvanish.  Dialects: Amish Pennsylvania German (Plain Pennsylvania German), Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Pensylvanisch Deitsch, Non-Plain Pennsylvania German). Blending of several German dialects, primarily Rhenish Palatinate (Pfalzer) German, with syntactic elements of High German and English. Mostly incomprehensible those from the Palatinate (Kloss 1978).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German 
More information.

Gros Ventre

[ats] 10 (1977 SIL), decreasing. Very few semispeakers in 2000 (2001 I. Goddard). Ethnic population: 80 (2000 census). North central Montana, Fort Belknap Reservation, Milk River. Alternate names: Ahahnelin, Ahe, Ananin, Atsina, Fall Indians, Gros Ventres, White Clay People.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains, Arapaho  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Gwich’in

[gwi] 300 in United States (Krauss 1995), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,100 (Krauss 1995); 614 (2000 census). Northeast Alaska on Yukon River and tributaries: Fort Yukon, Chalkyitsik, Birch Creek, Venetie, and Arctic village. Alternate names: Kutchin.  Dialects: Fort Yukon Gwich’in, Arctic Village Gwich’in, Western Canada Gwich’in (Takudh, Tukudh, Loucheux), Arctic Red River.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Han-Kutchin 
More information.

Haida, Northern

[hdn] 15 in United States (Krauss 1995). Ethnic population: 600 in the USA (Krauss 1995); 130 (2000 US census). South tip of Alaska panhandle, south half of Prince of Wales Island, Hydaburg, Kasaan, Craig, and Ketchikan. Alternate names: Masset.  Classification: Na-Dene, Haida  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Halkomelem

[hur] 25 in United States (1997 B. Galloway), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,267 (1997 B. Galloway). Washington. Alternate names: Holkomelem.  Dialects: Chiliwack, Cowichan, Musqueam, Nanaimo.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Halkomelem 
More information.

Han

[haa] 7 in United States (Krauss 1995). Population total all countries: 14. Ethnic population: 40 (2000 census). Alaska, Yukon River near Alaska-Canada border, Eagle. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Moosehide.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Han-Kutchin  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai

[yuf] 2,690 (1990 census). 530 Havasupai, 1,000 Walapai (2000 A. Yamamoto), 163 Yavapai. Ethnic population: 3,857 including 565 Havasupai, 1,872 Walapai, 1,420 Yavapai (2000). Central and northwest Arizona. Walapai are on south rim of the Grand Canyon, the Havasupai at the bottom of the canyon. Alternate names: Upland Yuman, Upper Colorado River Yuman.  Dialects: Walapai (Hualapai, Hualpai, Hwalbáy), Havasupai, Yavapai. 78%–98% intelligibility among dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–95% among dialects.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Upland Yuman 
More information.

Hawai’i Creole English

[hwc] 600,000 (1986 M. Forman). 100,000 to 200,000 with low proficiency in Standard English and near Standard English (1986 M. Forman). Another 100,000 on the USA mainland. Hawaiian Islands, USA mainland (especially the west coast, Las Vegas, and Orlando). Alternate names: Hawai’i Pidgin, HCE, Pidgin.  Dialects: The basilect is barely intelligible with Standard English (McKaughan and Forman 1982).  Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific 
More information.

Hawai’i Pidgin Sign Language

[hps] A few users from about 6,000 profoundly deaf people in Hawaii (1987 Honolulu Star-Bulletin), 72,000 deaf or hard-of-hearing people in Hawaii (1998 Honolulu Advertiser). Hawaiian Islands. Alternate names: Pidgin Sign Language.  Classification: Deaf sign language  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Hawaiian

[haw] 1,000. 500 with Ni’ihau Island connections, another 500 in their 70s or 80s (1995 L. Wong). 8,000 can speak and understand it (1993 K. Haugen). In 1900 there were 37,000 L1 speakers (1995 Honolulu Advertiser). Census (2000) lists 27,160. Ethnic population: 237,128 in Hawaii (1996 Hawaii State Dept. of Health), 18.8% of the population (1990 Hawaii State Dept. of Health), and 99,269 ethnic Hawaiians on the USA mainland (1990 census), including 24,245 in California. Ethnic Hawaiians include 8,244 pure Hawaiian, 72,809 between 50% and 99% Hawaiian, 127,523 less than 50% Hawaiian in Hawaii (1984 Office of Hawaiian Affairs). In 1778 there were believed to have been more than 500,000 pure Hawaiians (1995 W. Harada). Hawaiian Islands, mainly Ni’ihau Island, Island of Hawai’i, some on all other islands. Alternate names: ’Olelo Hawai’i, ’Olelo Hawai’i Makuahine.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 79% with Rarotongan [rar], 77% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 76% with Tahitian [tah] (Elbert), 71% with Maori [mri] (Schütz), 70% with Marquesan [mqm], 64% with Rapa Nui [rap].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic 
More information.

Hidatsa

[hid] 100 (1986 SIL), decreasing. 6 monolinguals. 25 to 50 semifluent speakers. Ethnic population: 1,200 (1986 SIL); 603 (2000 US census). North Dakota, Fort Berthold Reservation. Alternate names: Hinatsa, Hiraca, Minitari.  Dialects: Similar to Crow [cro].  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Missouri Valley 
More information.

Ho-Chunk

[win] 11 (2004), decreasing. 230 reported in 1997 (1997 V. Zeps). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1995 V. Zeps). 822 enrolled in Nebraska (1968 BIA). Central Wisconsin scattered; eastern Nebraska, Winnebago Reservation. Alternate names: Hocák, Hocak Wazijaci, Hocank, Hochank, Winnebago.  Dialects: Wisconsin, Nebraska.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Winnebago  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Holikachuk

[hoi] 12 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 200 (1995 M. Krauss). Alaska, lower Yukon River, Grayling village. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Ingalik-Koyukon, Koyukon-Holikachuk  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Hopi

[hop] 5,260 (2000 census), decreasing. 40 monolinguals. Northeast Arizona, several villages; a few in Utah and New Mexico. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Hopi 
More information.

Hupa

[hup] 8 (1998 J. Brook), decreasing. Ethnic population: 223 (2000 census). Northwest California, Hoopa Valley Reservation. Alternate names: Hoopa.  Dialects: Whilkut.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, California, Hupa  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Ineseño

[inz] Extinct. Southern California, near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties.  Classification: Chumash 
More information.

Inupiaq

[ipk] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 2,420. 
More information.

Inupiatun, North Alaskan

[esi] Name used in US Census is Inupiak. May include Northwest Alaska Inupiatun [esk]. Ethnic population: 6,420 (2000 census). Alaska, Norton Sound and Point Hope. Also in Canada. Alternate names: “Eskimo” , Inupiat, North Alaskan Inuktitut, North Alaskan Inupiat.  Dialects: North Slope Inupiatun (Point Barrow Inupiatun), West Arctic Inupiatun, Point Hope Inupiatun, Anaktuvik Pass Inupiatun.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit 
More information.

Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska

[esk] 2,420 (2000 census), decreasing. All Inuit languages: 75,000 out of 91,000 in the ethnic group (1995 M. Krauss). US Census lists this as “Eskimo”. Alaska, Kobuk River, Noatak River, Seward Peninsula, and Bering Strait. Alternate names: “Eskimo” , Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska Inupiat.  Dialects: Northern Malimiut Inupiatun, Southern Malimiut Inupiatun, Kobuk River Inupiatun, Coastal Inupiatun, Kotzebue Sound Inupiatun, Seward Peninsula Inupiatun, King Island Inupiatun (Bering Strait Inupiatun).  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit 
More information.

Iowa-Oto

[iow] Extinct. Formerly north central Oklahoma; northeast Kansas, Iowa Reservation. Dialects: Iowa (Baxoje, Ioway), Oto (Jiwere, Otoe, Jiwele, Chiwere), Niutaji (Nyut’chi, Missouri, Missouria).  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Chiwere 
More information.

Javanese

[jav] 170 in United States (2000 census).  Alternate names: Djawa, Jawa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese 
More information.

Jemez

[tow] 1,300 (1990 census), decreasing. 6 monolinguals (1990). Listed as Towa in US Census (2000). Ethnic population: 2,009 (2000 census). North central New Mexico. Alternate names: Towa.  Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Kiowa-Towa, Towa 
More information.

Jingpho

[kac] 60 in United States (2000 census). Identified as Kachin by US Census.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho 
More information.

Kalapuya

[kyl] 1 (1962 W. Chafe). Northwest Oregon. Alternate names: Lukamiute, Santiam, Wapatu.  Classification: Penutian, Oregon Penutian, Kalapuyan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Kalispel-Pend D’oreille

[fla] 64 (2005 T. Pete), decreasing. 58 in Salish and Pend D’oreille; 4 in Kalispel (2000 US census). Ethnic population: 6,800 (1997). Northeast Washington, Kalispel Reservation; northwest Montana, Flathead Reservation. Alternate names: “Flathead-Kalispel” , “Kalispel-Flathead” , Salish.  Dialects: Pend D’oreille, Kalispel, Bitterroot Salish.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Kansa

[ksk] 19 (1990 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 74 (2000 census). Oklahoma, north central. Alternate names: Kanze, Kaw, Konze.  Dialects: Similar to Omaha [oma], Osage [osa], Ponca [oma], Quapaw [qua].  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dhegiha  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Karkin

[krb] Extinct. Formerly in north Central California. Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Costanoan 
More information.

Karok

[kyh] 10 (1997 W. Bright), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,900 (2000 A. Yamamoto); 335 (2000 census). Northwest California, along Klamath River. Alternate names: Karuk.  Dialects: No significant dialect differences.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Karok-Shasta  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Kashaya

[kju] 45 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing.  Alternate names: Southwestern Pomo.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Russian River, Southern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Kato

[ktw] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 92 (1982 SIL). Northwest California, Laytonville Reservation. Alternate names: Batem-Da-Kai-Ee, Cahto, Kai Po-Mo, Tlokeang.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, California, Mattole-Wailaki 
More information.

Kawaiisu

[xaw] 5 (2005 J. Turner). Ethnic population: 150–250 (2005 J. Turner). California, south, Tehachapi-Mojave area of the Mojave Desert. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Keres, Eastern

[kee] 4,580. 463 Zia, 229 Santa Ana, 1,560 San Felipe, 1,888 Santo Domingo, 384 Cochiti; US Census (2000) lists 11,210 as “Keres”. Ethnic population: 5,701 including 602 Zia, 374 Santa Ana, 1,789 San Felipe, 2,140 Santo Domingo, 796 Cochiti. North central New Mexico. Alternate names: Eastern Keres Pueblo.  Dialects: Zia, Santa Ana, San Felipe, Santo Domingo, Cochiti.  Classification: Keres 
More information.

Keres, Western

[kjq] 3,390 (1980 census). 1,695 Laguna, 1,696 Acoma; US Census (2000) lists 11,210 as “Keres”. Ethnic population: 5,880, including 3,526 Laguna, 2,354 Acoma (1980 census). New Mexico, north central. Alternate names: Western Keres Pueblo.  Dialects: Acoma (Laguna).  Classification: Keres 
More information.

Kickapoo

[kic] 820 in United States (2000 census), decreasing. 6 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 1,120. Northeast Kansas, Horton; central Oklahoma, McCloud, Jones; Texas, Nuevo Nacimiento. Also in Mexico. Alternate names: Kikapoo, Kikapú.  Dialects: Possibly intelligible with Meskwaki [sac].  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
More information.

Kiowa

[kio] 1,100 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1977 SIL). Oklahoma, west central. Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Kiowa-Towa, Kiowa 
More information.

Kiribati

[gil] 140 in United States (2000 census). Hawai’i. Alternate names: Gilbertese, Ikiribati.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ikiribati 
More information.

Kitsai

[kii] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 S. DeLancey). West central Oklahoma among the Caddo, Caddo County. Alternate names: Kichai.  Dialects: More similar to Pawnee [paw] than to Wichita [wic].  Classification: Caddoan, Northern, Pawnee-Kitsai, Kitsai 
More information.

Klamath-Modoc

[kla] 1 (1998). Ethnic population: 165 (2000 census). Oregon, south central, around and east and north of Klamath and Agency lakes; Modoc to the south. Dialects: Most similar to Molale [mbe].  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Klamath-Modoc  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Koasati

[cku] 200 (2000 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 224 (2000 census). Near Elton, Louisiana, Koasati Reservation; near Livingston, TX, Alabama-Koasati Reservation, others elsewhere; 1 family in Oregon. Alternate names: Coushatta.  Dialects: The grammars of Koasati and Alabama [akz] are significantly different. Less than 50% cognate with Alabama.  Classification: Muskogean, Eastern 
More information.

Koyukon

[koy] 100 (2000 census), decreasing. Krauss (1995) listed 300. Ethnic population: 2,300 (1995 M. Krauss). Alaska, Koyukuk and middle Yukon rivers. Alternate names: Ten’a.  Dialects: Upper Koyukon, Central Koyukon, Lower Koyukon, Central Koyukuk River.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Ingalik-Koyukon, Koyukon-Holikachuk 
More information.

Kumiai

[dih] 110 in United States (2000 census). Southern California east of San Diego; some in Imperial Valley. Alternate names: Campo, Diegueño, Digueño, Kamia, Kumeyaay.  Dialects: Kimiai, Ipai, Tipai.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-Californian 
More information.

Kuskokwim, Upper

[kuu] 40 (1995 M. Krauss), decreasing. 3 households (1997). Ethnic population: 160 (1995 M. Krauss). Central Alaska, Nikolai, Telida, McGrath, Upper Kuskokwim River. Alternate names: Kolchan, Mcgrath Ingalik.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim, Upper Kuskokwim  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Kutenai

[kut] 6 in United States, decreasing. Ethnic population: 359 (2000 census). Northern Idaho, Flathead Reservation; Montana. Alternate names: Kootenai, Ktunaxa.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Lakota

[lkt] 6,200 in United States (1997 R. Pustet), decreasing. Not listed in US Census (2000) possibly included with Dakota [dak]. Population total all countries: 6,390. Ethnic population: 20,000 (1987 SIL and 1997 R. Pustet). 103,255 ethnic Sioux in USA (1990 Census Bureau). North Dakota, South Dakota, North Nebraska, south Minnesota, northeast Montana. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Lakhota, Teton.  Dialects: Brulé.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
More information.

Louisiana Creole French

[lou] 70,000 (1985 I. Neumann). Ethnic population: 4,000,000 (1997 M. Melançon). Louisiana, St. Martin Parish (St. Martinville, Breaux Bridge, Cecilia), New Roads and Edgard; east Texas; some in Sacramento, California. Dialects: Different from Standard French, Cajun French [frc] also spoken in Louisiana, Haitian [hat], and others of the Caribbean.  Classification: Creole, French based 
More information.

Luiseño

[lui] 35 (2000 L. Hinton), decreasing. 39 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Southern California. Dialects: Juaneño (Ajachema, Ajachemem, Agachemem, Acgachemem), Luiseño.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cupan, Luiseno  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Lumbee

[lmz] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1977 SIL). Southern North Carolina and into South Carolina and Maryland. Alternate names: Croatan.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Unclassified 
More information.

Lushootseed

[lut] 60 (1990 M. Kinkade), decreasing. Population evenly divided between the northern and southern dialects. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1990 M. Kinkade). Washington, Puget Sound area. Dialects: Northern Lushootseed (Northern Puget Sound Salish). Northern Lushootseed includes subdialect Swinomish.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Twana  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Mahican

[mjy] Extinct. Upper Hudson River and later in Wisconsin. Classification: Algic, Algonquian 
More information.

Maidu, Northeast

[nmu] 2 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 110 (2000 census). California, northern Sierras, Plumas and Lassen counties. Alternate names: Mountain Maidu.  Classification: Penutian, Maiduan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Maidu, Northwest

[mjd] 4 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). Lower foothills of the Sierras, central California. Ethnic group is scattered. Alternate names: Concow, “Digger” , Holólupai, Konkau, Konkow, Maiduan, Meidoo, Michopdo, Nákum, Secumne, Sekumne, Tsamak, Yuba.  Dialects: A separate language from other Maidu varieties.  Classification: Penutian, Maiduan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Maidu, Valley

[vmv] Extinct. California, between Sacramento and the Sierra foothills. Classification: Penutian, Maiduan 
More information.

Makah

[myh] Ethnic population: 2,224 (2000 US census). Northern tip of Olympic Peninsula of Washington, opposite Vancouver Island. Alternate names: Kwe-Nee-Chee-Aht, Kweedishchaaht.  Classification: Wakashan, Southern 
More information.

Malecite-Passamaquoddy

[pqm] 960 in United States, decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,500 to 3,000 (1997 Teeter). Maine, New Brunswick border area. Malecite mainly in Canada, Passamaquoddy mainly in Maine. Alternate names: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy.  Dialects: Malecite (Maliseet), Passamaquoddy.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
More information.

Mandan

[mhq] 6 (1992 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 130 in USA (2000 census). North Dakota, Fort Berthold Reservation. Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mandan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Maricopa

[mrc] 160 (2000 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 400 (1997 SIL). Near Phoenix, Arizona, associated with the Pima [ood] on Gila River and Salt River reservations. Alternate names: Cocomaricopa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Mohave [mov], 58% with Havasupai [yuf], 57% with Walapai [yuf] and Yavapai [yuf].  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, River Yuman 
More information.

Mattole

[mvb] Extinct. Northern California. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, California, Mattole-Wailaki 
More information.

Menominee

[mez] 39, decreasing. Ethnic population: 799 (2000 census). Northeast Wisconsin, former Menomini Reservation. Alternate names: Menomini.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Meskwaki

[sac] 250 (2001 I. Goddard). A handful of Sauk speakers (2000 I. Goddard). Ethnic population: 758 (2000 census). Tama, Iowa, Mesquakie; eastern Kansas-Nebraska border and central Oklahoma, Sac and Fox at Sac and Fox Reservation. Alternate names: Mesquakie, Sac and Fox, Sauk-Fox.  Dialects: Fox, Sac, Mesquakie. Kansas and Oklahoma groups closely related to Kickapoo [kic] of Oklahoma and Mexico.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
More information.

Miami

[mia] Ethnic population: 2,000 (1977 SIL). Miami in north central Indiana, Miami and Peoria in northeast Oklahoma, Illinois in Illinois and Iowa. Alternate names: Illinois, Miami-Illinois, Miami-Myaamia.  Dialects: Miami, Peoria.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
More information.

Michif

[crg] 230 in United States (2000 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 830. North Dakota, Turtle Mountain Reservation. Also in Canada. Alternate names: French Cree, Mitchif.  Dialects: Most similar to Plains Cree [crk]. Several varieties in Canada.  Classification: Mixed language, French-Cree 
More information.

Micmac

[mic] 330 in United States (2000 census). North Maine near Fort Fairfield; Boston, Massachusetts, and scattered elsewhere in the USA. Alternate names: Mi’gmaw, Mi’kmaw, Miigmao, Restigouche.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
More information.

Mikasuki

[mik] 400 (2000 census). 33 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,200 (1977 SIL). South Florida. Alternate names: Hitchiti, Miccosukee, Mikasuki Seminole.  Dialects: Hitchiti, Mikasuki. Not intelligible with Muskogee [mus], Alabama [akz], or Koasati [cku].  Classification: Muskogean, Eastern 
More information.

Miwok, Bay

[mkq] Extinct. Northern California, San Francisco Bay. Alternate names: Saclan, Saklan.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Eastern 
More information.

Miwok, Central Sierra

[csm] 12. 6 Eastern Central Sierra, 6 Western Central Sierra (1994 L. Hinton); Census (2000) lists 50 “Sierra Miwok” which may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]. Ethnic population: Possibly 5,000 all Miwok (2000 A. Yamamoto). California, upper valleys of the Stanislause and Tuolumne. Dialects: Eastern Central Sierra Miwok, Western Central Sierra Miwok. Separate from other Miwok varieties.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Eastern, Sierra  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Miwok, Coast

[csi] Extinct. California, coast from San Francisco Bay to Bodega Bay. Dialects: Bodega, Huimen, Marin Miwok.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Western 
More information.

Miwok, Lake

[lmw] 2 (1994 L. Hinton). California, Clear Lake basin. Dialects: Separate from other Miwok varieties.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Western  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Miwok, Northern Sierra

[nsq] 6 (1994 L. Hinton). US Census (2000) lists 50 “Sierra Miwok” which may include Central [csm] and Southern [skd]. California, upper valleys of Mokelumne and Calaveras rivers. Dialects: Separate from other Miwok varieties.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Eastern, Sierra  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Miwok, Plains

[pmw] 1 (1962 H. Landar in Sebeok 1977). California, deltas of the San Joaquin and Cosumnes rivers. Alternate names: Valley Miwok.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Miwok, Southern Sierra

[skd] 7 (1994 L. Hinton). Census (2000) lists 50 “Sierra Miwok” which may include Central [csm] and Northern [nsq]. California, headwaters of the Merced and Chowchilla rivers and Mariposa Creek. Alternate names: Me-Wuk, Meewoc, Mewoc, Miwoc, Miwokan, Mokélumne, Moquelumnan, San Raphael, Talatui, Talutui, Yosemite.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Eastern, Sierra  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Mohave

[mov] 75 (1994 L. Hinton). 30 to 35 at Fort Mohave, 35 to 50 at Colorado River. Ethnic population: 767 (2000 A. Yamamoto); 204 (2000 US census). California-Arizona border, Fort Mohave and Colorado River reservations. Alternate names: Mojave.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Maricopa [mrc], 63% with Walapai and Havasupai [yuf], 62% with Yavapai [yuf].  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, River Yuman 
More information.

Mohawk

[moh] 3,000 in United States (1990 census), decreasing. US Census (2000) also lists 190 “Iroquois”. Ethnic population: 6,000 in the USA (1997 various sources); 1,303 (2000 US census). Northern New York, St. Regis Reservation. Alternate names: Kanien’kéha.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Mohawk-Oneida 
More information.

Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett

[mof] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,400 population (1977 SIL). Connecticut, Rhode Island, Long Island, New York, Wisconsin. Dialects: Pequot-Mohegan, Narrangansett, Montauk (Shinnecock-Poosepatuck), Stockbridge.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
More information.

Mokilese

[mkj] 180 in United States (2000 census).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic, Ponapeic 
More information.

Molale

[mbe] Extinct. Washington and Oregon, Deschutes River valley, later west in Molala and Santiam River valleys, to headwaters of Umpqua and Rogue rivers. Alternate names: Molala, Molalla, Molele.  Classification: Penutian, Unclassified 
More information.

Mono

[mnr] 39 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. 10 to 12 North Fork, 15 Auberry, 7 to 8 Big Sandy, 5 to 6 Dunlap, no Waksachi. Ethnic population: 600 (2000 A. Yamamoto); 103 (2000 US census). East central California. Alternate names: Monachi.  Dialects: Related to Northern Paiute [pao].  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Western  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Muskogee

[mus] 4,300 (1997 C. Pye). 43 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 52,000 (1997 C. Pye); 7,215 (2000 US census). East central Oklahoma, Creek and Seminole, south Alabama Creek, Florida, Seminole of Brighton Reservation. Alternate names: Creek.  Dialects: Creek, Seminole. Similar to Mikasuki [mik] in Florida. The dialects are very similar.  Classification: Muskogean, Eastern 
More information.

Nanticoke

[nnt] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 400 (1977 SIL). Southern Delaware and eastern Maryland. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
More information.

Natchez

[ncz] Extinct. Oklahoma. Classification: Gulf 
More information.

Navajo

[nav] 149,000 (1990 census). 7,616 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 178,030 (2000 census). Northeast Arizona, northwest New Mexico, southeast Utah; a few in Colorado. Alternate names: Navaho.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Navajo-Apache, Western Apache-Navajo 
More information.

Nawathinehena

[nwa] Extinct. Among the Arapaho [arp]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains, Arapaho 
More information.

Nez Perce

[nez] 200 (1997 H. Aoki), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,700 (1997 H. Aoki); 612 (2000 US census). North Idaho. Alternate names: Nuumiipuutimt, Nuumiipuutímt.  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Sahaptin 
More information.

Nisenan

[nsz] 1 (1994 L. Hinton). Central California, scattered, foothills of the Sierras. Alternate names: Neeshenam, Nishinam, Pujuni, Southern Maidu, Wapumni.  Dialects: Separate from other Maidu varieties.  Classification: Penutian, Maiduan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Nooksack

[nok] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,600 (1997 B. Galloway). Northwest corner of Washington. Alternate names: Nootsack.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Nooksack 
More information.

Nottoway

[ntw] Extinct. Southampton County, Virginia. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway 
More information.

Obispeño

[obi] Extinct. California, near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with other Chumash varieties.  Classification: Chumash 
More information.

Ofo

[ofo] Extinct. Lower Mississippi Valley. Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Southeastern, Biloxi-Ofo 
More information.

Ohlone, Northern

[cst]  North central California, Monterrey and San Benito counties. Alternate names: “Costanoan”.  Dialects: East Bay, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Soledad.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Costanoan 
More information.

Ohlone, Southern

[css] Extinct. North central California, Monterrey and San Benito counties. Alternate names: “Costanoan”.  Dialects: Monterey, Mutsun (San Juan Bautista), Rumsen (Runsien, San Carlos, Carmel).  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Costanoan 
More information.

Okanagan

[oka] 110 in United States (2000 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 204 (2000 census). Colville Reservation, Washington. Alternate names: Okanagan-Colville, Okanagon, Okanogan.  Dialects: Southern Okanogan, Sanpoil, Colville, Lake.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern 
More information.

Omaha-Ponca

[oma] 85 (1986 SIL). 60 Omaha speakers (1993 V. Zeps): 25 fluent speakers over 60; a few semifluent speakers of Ponca. Omaha Journal Star (Aug 25, 2004) reported 70. Ethnic population: 365 Omaha and 163 Ponca (2000 US census). East Nebraska (Omaha), Omaha Reservation, north central Oklahoma (Ponca). Alternate names: Mahairi, Ponka, Ppankka, Umanhan.  Dialects: Omaha, Ponca. Ponca and Omaha [oma] are completely mutually inherently intelligible, Similar to Osage [osa], Quapaw [qua], and Kansa [ksk].  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dhegiha 
More information.

Oneida

[one] 50 in United States (1991 M. Kincade). 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 609 (2000 US census). Central New York, east Wisconsin. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Mohawk-Oneida 
More information.

Onondaga

[ono] 15 in United States (1993 V. Zeps). Ethnic population: 1,000 in USA (1993 V. Zeps); 45 (2000 US census). Central New York south of Syracuse. Alternate names: Onandaga.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Onondaga 
More information.

Osage

[osa] 5 (1992 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 15,000 (1997 C. Quintero); 249 (2000 US census). North central Oklahoma. Alternate names: Wazhazhe.  Dialects: Similar to Omaha [oma], Ponca [oma], Quapaw [qua], and Kansa [ksk].  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dhegiha  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Ottawa

[otw] 10 monolinguals. 330 Ottawa, 5,065 Ojibwa in USA (1990 census). Ethnic population: 20,000 (Ottawa and Chippewa) in USA (1991 M. Kincade); Census (2000) lists 8,350 Ojibwa, 559 Ottawa. Lower Michigan, upper Michigan near Sault Ste. Marie. Alternate names: Chippewa, Eastern Ojibwa, Odawa, Ojibwe.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
More information.

Paiute, Northern

[pao] 1,630 (1999 SIL), decreasing. US Census (2000) lists 25 Northern Paiute, 1,430 Paiute. Ethnic population: 6,000 (1999 SIL). North Nevada and adjacent areas of Oregon, California, and Idaho. On about twenty reservations spread over 1610 square km. Alternate names: Paviotso.  Dialects: Bannock, North Northern Paiute (Mcdermitt), South Northern Paiute (Yerington-Schurz). Related to Mono [mnr]. Most reservations have their own dialect. Dialects inherently intelligible.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Western 
More information.

Pangasinan

[pag] 2,040 in United States (2000 census). California, Hawaii, Ohio, Washington. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran 
More information.

Pawnee

[paw] 20 (1997 J. Parks). Ethnic population: 2,500 (1997 J. Parks); 79 (2000 census). North central Oklahoma. Dialects: South Band, Skiri (Skidi). Similar to Arikara [ari], but not inherently intelligible with it. Kitsai [kii] is between Pawnee [oma] and Wichita [wic], but more similar to Pawnee.  Classification: Caddoan, Northern, Pawnee-Kitsai, Pawnee  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Piro

[pie] Extinct. Socorro, left bank of Rio Grande, USA, and Senecu, right bank, Mexico. Alternate names: Tompiro.  Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Tewa-Tiwa, Tiwa 
More information.

Piscataway

[psy] Extinct. Maryland. Alternate names: Conoy.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian 
More information.

Plains Indian Sign Language

[psd]  Great Plains, USA. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Plains Sign Language.  Dialects: Some variation by ethnic group and region.  Classification: Deaf Sign language 
More information.

Plautdietsch

[pdt] 12,000 in United States (2000). Hillsboro, Kansas; Reedley, California; and Corn, Oklahoma. Alternate names: Low German, Mennonite German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
More information.

Pomo, Central

[poo] 4 (1997 M. Mithun). Ethnic population: 4,766 (1997 M. Mithun); 255 (2000 census). Clear Lake area, northern California. Alternate names: Ballo-Kai-Pomo, Cabanapo, H’hana, Habenapo, Kábinapek, Khabenapo, Khana, Kulanapan, Kulanapo, Venaambakaia, Venambakaiia, Yokaia.  Dialects: Point Arena, Hopland, Ukiah.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Russian River, Southern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Pomo, Eastern

[peb] Extinct. Formerly California, Clear Lake area. Alternate names: Clear Lake Pomo.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Eastern 
More information.

Pomo, Northeastern

[pef] Extinct. California, Coast Range Valley of Story Creek; a tributary of Sacramento River. Alternate names: Salt Pomo.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Russian River, Northeastern 
More information.

Pomo, Northern

[pej] Extinct. California, Sherwood Valley area. Dialects: Guidiville, Sherwood Valley.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Russian River, Northern 
More information.

Pomo, Southeastern

[pom] 5 (1994 L. Hinton). California, eastern shores of Clear Lake. Alternate names: Lower Lake Pomo.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Southeastern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Pomo, Southern

[peq] 1 (1994 L. Hinton). California. Alternate names: Gallinoméro.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Russian River, Southern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Potawatomi

[pot] 50 in United States (1995 Potawatomi Language Institute). Population total all countries: 1,300. Ethnic population: 25,000 (1997 L. Buszard-Welcher); 844 (2000 census). Southwest and north Michigan, north Wisconsin and northeast Kansas. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Pottawotomi.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
More information.

Powhatan

[pim] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1977 SIL). Eastern Virginia; New Jersey, Powhatan Renape Nation, Rankokus Indian Reservation, Rancocas. Alternate names: Virginia Algonkian, Virginia Algonquian.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
More information.

Purepecha

[tsz] 850 in United States (2000 census). California, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee. Classification: Tarascan 
More information.

Purisimeño

[puy] Extinct. Southern California, near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Was not intelligible with other Chumash varieties.  Classification: Chumash 
More information.

Quapaw

[qua] 34 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 159 (2000 census). Northeast corner of Oklahoma. Alternate names: Alkansea, Arkansas, Capa, Ogaxpa.  Dialects: Similar to Kansa [ksk], Omaha [oma], Osage [osa], Ponca [oma], all called ‘Dhegiha’.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dhegiha  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Quechan

[yum] 150 (1994 L. Hinton). 360 Delta River Yuman and 400 Yuma (2000 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Ft. Yuma Reservation, southeast corner of California. Alternate names: Kechan, Quecl, Yuma.  Dialects: Similar to Maricopa [mrc], Mohave [mov].  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, River Yuman 
More information.

Quileute

[qui] 10 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 300 (1977 SIL). Pacific side of Olympic Peninsula in Washington. Dialects: Quileute, Hoh.  Classification: Chimakuan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Quinault

[qun] No known speakers. US Census (2000) lists 40. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1977 SIL). Pacific side of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington. Dialects: Lower Chehalis.  Classification: Salishan, Tsamosan, Maritime 
More information.

Russian

[rus] 706,000 in United States (2000 census).  Alternate names: Russki.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East 
More information.

Salinan

[sln] No known speakers. Ethnic population: Hundreds (1997 K. Turner). California, central coast. Dialects: Formerly 2 dialects. A few linguists have posited a relationship to Hokan.  Classification: Language isolate 
More information.

Salish, Southern Puget Sound

[slh] 110 (1990 census). 5 monolinguals. US Census (2000) does not distinguish between Southern Puget Sound [slh] and Straits [str]. Ethnic population: 1,315 (2000 US census). South end of Puget Sound, Washington. Dialects: Duwamish, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, Puyallup, Snoqualmie, Suquh.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Twana 
More information.

Salish, Straits

[str]  Southeast Vancouver Island, British Columbia and adjoining portions of Washington, islands in between. Alternate names: Straits.  Dialects: Saanich, Lummi, Samish, Ts’ooke, Songish, Semiahmoo.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Straits  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Sea Island Creole English

[gul] 250,000 (2000). 7,000 to 10,000 monolinguals. 10,000 in New York City (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 250,000. Coastal region from Jacksonville, North Carolina to Jacksonville, Florida; Sea Islands off Georgia coast; New York City, Detroit. Alternate names: Geechee, Gullah.  Dialects: Intelligibility with other English-based creoles is undetermined. Similar to Bahamas Creole English [bah] and Afro-Seminole [afs]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Afro-Seminole [afs].  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern 
More information.

Seneca

[see] 150 in United States (1997 W. Chafe). Population total all countries: 175. Ethnic population: 6,241 (1997 W. Chafe): 914 (2000 census). West New York, Tonawanda, Cattaraugus, and Allegheny reservations; northeast Oklahoma intermingled with Cayuga [cay]. Also in Canada. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Seneca-Cayuga 
More information.

Serrano

[ser] 1 (1994 C. Coker). Southern California, San Bernardino and San Gorgonio Pass area. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Serrano-Gabrielino  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Shasta

[sht] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 12 (1990 census). Northern California. Alternate names: Sastean, Shastan.  Dialects: Formerly 4 dialects.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Karok-Shasta, Shasta-Palaihnihan, Shastan 
More information.

Shawnee

[sjw] 200 (2002 B. Pearson), decreasing. Ethnic population: 490 (2000 census). Central and northeast Oklahoma. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
More information.

Shoshoni

[shh] 2,910 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 7,000 (1977 SIL). Central to northeastern Nevada; Idaho, Fort Hall Reservation. Northern Shoshoni in Wind River Reservation, Wyoming; Goshute in west Utah. Alternate names: Shoshone.  Dialects: Gosiute (Goshute), Western Shoshoni, Northern Shoshoni. Wind River Shoshoni is a subdialect of Northern Shoshoni, spoken at Wind River Reservation. Similar to Comanche [com] and Timbisha [par], which are not inherently intelligible with Shoshoni.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central 
More information.

Siuslaw

[sis] Extinct. South Oregon coast. Classification: Penutian, Oregon Penutian, Coast Oregon, Siuslawan 
More information.

Skagit

[ska] 100 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL). East side of Puget Sound, Washington. Alternate names: Swinomish.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Twana 
More information.

Snohomish

[sno] 10 (1998 J. Brooke). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). Northwest Washington, Tulalip Reservation. Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Twana  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Spanish

[spa] 28,100,000 in United States (2000 census). Widespread. San Antonio, Texas to Los Angeles; Denver; New Orleans, Miami, Florida area; New York City; Illinois. Alternate names: Castellano, Español.  Dialects: Chicano (Caló), Isleno (Isleño, Islenyo).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
More information.

Spokane

[spo] 50 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Northeast Washington. Alternate names: Spokan.  Dialects: Similar to Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille [fla].  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Takelma

[tkm] Extinct. Rogue River middle course, Oregon. Alternate names: Lowland Takelma, Takilma.  Dialects: May be in a Takelma-Kalapuyan subgroup, but not conclusive.  Classification: Penutian, Oregon Penutian, Takelma 
More information.

Tanacross

[tcb] 35 (1997 G. Holton). 3 in Healy Lake dialect, 32 in Mansfield-Ketchumstuck. Ethnic population: 120 (1997 G. Holton). East Alaska, near Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Healy Lake, Dot Lake, Tok. Dialects: Healy Lake, Mansfield-Ketchumstuck. Little dialect variation. Mansfield-Ketchumstuck is the most important politically and numerically. Most similar to Upper Tanana [tau], but they have different tone systems.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tanaina

[tfn] 75 (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 900 (Krauss 1997); 40 (2000 census). South Alaska around Cook Inlet and adjacent area. Alternate names: Dena’ina, Kinayskiy.  Dialects: Kenai Peninsula, Upper Inlet, Coastal-Inland, Stoney River.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanaina-Ahtna  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tanana, Lower

[taa] 30 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 380 (1995 M. Krauss). Central Alaska, Tanana River below Fairbanks, Nenana, and Minto. Alternate names: Tanana.  Dialects: Chena, Salcha-Goodpaster.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tanana, Upper

[tau] 14 in United States (2000 census). Population total all countries: 24. Ethnic population: 300 in the USA (1995). East central Alaska, upper Tanana River area. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Nabesna.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tenino

[tqn] 200 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Oregon, Warm Springs Reservation. Alternate names: Warm Springs.  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Sahaptin 
More information.

Tewa

[tew] 1,300 (2000 census), decreasing. 18 monolinguals (1990 US census). 50 Nambe, 25 Pojoaque, 349 San Ildefonso, 495 San Juan, 207 Santa Clara, 172 Tesuque (1980 US census). Ethnic population: 3,925 (2000 US census). New Mexico, North of Santa Fe; Arizona at Hano on Hopi Reservation. Dialects: Hano, San Juan, Nambe, Pojoaque, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, Tesuque.  Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Tewa-Tiwa, Tewa 
More information.

Tillamook

[til] Extinct. Northwest Oregon. Classification: Salishan, Tillamook 
More information.

Timbisha

[par] 20. Ethnic population: 100 (1998 J. McLaughlin). Southeast California, southern Owens Valley area around Owens Lake Coso Range, southwest of Darwin, and Little Lake area, southern Eureka Valley, southwest of Lida in Nevada, Saline Valley and eastern slopes of Inyo Mountains, Argus Range south of Darwin, northern Panamint Valley and Panamint Mountains north and central Death Valley, Grapevine Mountains and Funeral Range on California-Nevada border, west and southwest of Beatty, Nevada, Amargosa Desert, and area around Beatty. Alternate names: Coso, Koso, Koso Shoshone, Panamint, Panamint Shoshone, Tümpisa Shoshoni.  Dialects: Similar to Shoshoni [shh] and Comanche [com] but not inherently intelligible with them.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tiwa, Northern

[twf] 930 (1980 census), decreasing. 803 Taos speakers, 101 Picuris (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,166 (1980 census), including 1,042 Taos, 124 Picuris (1990 census). North central New Mexico. Dialects: Taos, Picuris.  Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Tewa-Tiwa, Tiwa 
More information.

Tiwa, Southern

[tix] 1,630 (1980 census), decreasing. 1,588 Isleta speakers (1980 US census). 43 Sandia (1990 US census) out of 220 population. US Census (2000) list 2,185 “Tiwa”. Ethnic population: 2,469 (1980 census) including 2,249 Isleta, 220 Sandia (1990 census). New Mexico, pueblos of Isleta and Sandia, north and south of Albuquerque. Dialects: Sandia, Isleta (Isleta Pueblo).  Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Tewa-Tiwa, Tiwa 
More information.

Tlingit

[tli] 1,200 in United States (2000 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 1,430. Ethnic population: 10,000 in the USA (1995 M. Krauss). Southeast Alaska, Yakutat south to the Canadian border at Portland Canal. Also in Canada. Alternate names: Thlinget, Tlinkit.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Tlingit 
More information.

Tohono O’odham

[ood] 9,600 in United States (2000 census), decreasing. 181 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1977 SIL). South central Arizona. 60 villages on 7 reservations. Also in Mexico. Alternate names: Nebome, Nevome, O’odham, O’othham, Papago-Pima, Upper Piman.  Dialects: Tohono O’odam (“Papago” ), Akimel O’odham (Pima).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman 
More information.

Tolowa

[tol] 4 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Southwest Oregon. Alternate names: Smith River.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, Oregon, Tolowa-Galice  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tonkawa

[tqw] Extinct. North central Oklahoma. Classification: Coahuiltecan 
More information.

Tsimshian

[tsi] 180 in United States (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,300 in USA (1995 M. Krauss). Tip of Alaska panhandle, (New) Metlakatla on Annette Island, some in Ketchikan. Alternate names: Chimmezyan, Coast Tsimshian, Sm’algyax, Tsimshean, Zimshian.  Classification: Penutian, Tsimshian 
More information.

Tübatulabal

[tub] 6. Ethnic population: 900 (2000 A. Yamamoto). South central California. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Tubatulabal  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tunica

[tun] Extinct. Central Louisiana. Classification: Gulf 
More information.

Tuscarora

[tus] 4 in United States (1997 M. Mithun). Ethnic population: 1,200 in the USA (1997 M. Mithun). Tuscarora Reservation near Niagara Falls, New York, eastern North Carolina. Alternate names: Skarohreh.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tutelo

[tta] Extinct. Lower Mississippi Valley. Alternate names: Saponi.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Southeastern, Tutelo 
More information.

Tututni

[tuu] 10 (1962 W. Chafe). Southwest Oregon. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, Oregon, Tolowa-Galice  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Twana

[twa] No known speakers. USA Census (2000) lists 10 who use it at home. Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL). East of Puget Sound, Washington. Alternate names: Skokomish.  Dialects: Skokomish, Quilcene.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Twana 
More information.

Umatilla

[uma] 50 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 120 (1977 SIL). Oregon, Umatilla Reservation. Alternate names: Columbia River Sahaptin.  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Sahaptin  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Unami

[unm] No known speakers. US Census (2000) lists 308 who use it at home. Ethnic population: 13,500 (1997 J. Rementer). Northeast and west central Oklahoma, north New Jersey, and lower Delaware Valley. Alternate names: Delaware, Lenape, Lenni-Lenape, Tla Wilano.  Dialects: Related to Munsee [umu] in Ontario.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
More information.

Ute-Southern Paiute

[ute] 1,980 (2000 census). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). 3 Chemehuevi on Chemehuevi Reservation, 10 on Colorado River Reservation (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1977 SIL). Ute in southwest Colorado, southeast and northeast; Southern Paiute in southwest Utah, north Arizona, and south Nevada; Chemehuevi on lower Colorado River, California. Dialects: Southern Paiute, Ute, Chemehuevi.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern 
More information.

Ventureño

[veo] Extinct. Southern California, near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Had multiple dialects.  Classification: Chumash 
More information.

Wailaki

[wlk] Extinct. Round Valley Reservation, northern California. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, California, Mattole-Wailaki 
More information.

Walla Walla

[waa] 100 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 700 (1977 SIL). Oregon, Umatilla Reservation. Alternate names: Northeast Sahaptin.  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Sahaptin 
More information.

Wampanoag

[wam] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2006). Southeast Massachusetts. Alternate names: Massachusett, Massachusetts, Natick.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
More information.

Wappo

[wao] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (1977 SIL). California, north of the San Francisco Bay area. Classification: Yuki 
More information.

Wasco-Wishram

[wac] 69 (1990 census). 7 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 750 possibly (1977 SIL). North central Oregon, south central Washington. Alternate names: Upper Chinook.  Classification: Penutian, Chinookan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Washo

[was] 10 (1998 J. Brooke). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). California-Nevada border southeast of Lake Tahoe. Alternate names: Washoe.  Classification: Hokan, Washo  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Wichita

[wic] 1 (2008). Ethnic population: 1,400 (2000 D. Rood). West central Oklahoma. Dialects: Waco, Tawakoni. Similar to Kitsai [kii], Pawnee [paw].  Classification: Caddoan, Northern, Wichita  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Wintu

[wit] 5 (1997 A. Shepherd). 30 Nomlaki and 15 Wintun use it in the home(2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,244 (1997 A. Shepherd). California, Clear Lake and Colusa area and northward. Alternate names: Wintun.  Dialects: Wintu, Patwin, Nomlaki.  Classification: Penutian, California Penutian, Wintuan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Wiyot

[wiy] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 450 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Northwestern California. Classification: Algic, Wiyot 
More information.

Wyandot

[wya] 24. US Census (2000) counts those who use it in the home. Ethnic population: 3,200 (1997 B. Pearson). Northeast Oklahoma. Alternate names: Wendat, Wyandotte, Wyendat.  Dialects: Huron, Wyandot.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Huron  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Yakima

[yak] 3,000 (1977 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000 (1977 SIL). Yakima Valley, south central Washington. Dialects: Yakima, Klikitat.  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Sahaptin 
More information.

Yaqui

[yaq] 620 in United States (2000 census). 2 monolinguals. Arizona, Tucson and Phoenix area. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Cahita 
More information.

Yiddish, Eastern

[ydd] 179,000 in United States (2000 census).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish 
More information.

Yokuts

[yok] 25 (2000 census). US Census (2000) counts those who use the language in the home. All were Northern Foothill Yokuts speakers. Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). California, San Joaquin River and slopes of the Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley. Dialects: Northern Foothill Yokuts, Southern Foothill Yokuts, Valley Yokuts. Many subvarieties.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Yokuts  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Yuchi

[yuc] 50 (2000 census). US Census (2000) counts those who use the language in the home. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1977 SIL). East central Oklahoma among Creek people. Alternate names: Uchean.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Yuki

[yuk] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,200 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Northern California on Round Valley Reservation. Classification: Yuki 
More information.

Yupik, Central

[esu] 16,900 (2000 census). US Census (2000) counts those who use the language in the home. Ethnic population: 21,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Alaska, Nunivak Island, coast from Bristol Bay to Unalakleet on Norton Sound and inland along Nushagak, Kuskokwim, and Yukon rivers. Alternate names: Central Alaskan Yupik.  Dialects: Kuskokwim Yupik (Bethel Yupik). 3 quite distinct dialects.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Alaskan 
More information.

Yupik, Central Siberian

[ess] 830 in United States (2000 census). US Census (2000) counts those who use the language in the home. Population total all countries: 1,130. Ethnic population: 1,050 in USA (1995 Krauss). Alaska, St. Lawrence Island, Gambell and Savonga villages. Also in Russian Federation (Asia). Alternate names: Bering Strait Yupik, “St. Lawrence Island Eskimo”.  Dialects: Chaplino.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Siberian 
More information.

Yupik, Pacific Gulf

[ems] 76 (2000 census). US Census (2000) counts those who use the language in the home. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island (Koniag dialect), coast from Cook Inlet to Prince William Sound (Chugach dialect). 20 villages. Alternate names: Alutiiq, “Chugach Eskimo” , Koniag-Chugach, Pacific Yupik, “South Alaska Eskimo” , Sugcestun, “Sugpiak Eskimo” , “Sugpiaq Eskimo” , Suk.  Dialects: Chugach, Koniag.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Alaskan 
More information.

Yurok

[yur] 12. US Census (2000) lists 279 who use the language in the home. Ethnic population: 3,000 to 4,500 possibly (1982 SIL). Northwest California. Classification: Algic, Yurok  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Zuni

[zun] 9,650 (2000 SIL), increasing. US Census (2000) lists 7,005 who use the language in the home. Ethnic population: 9,651. New Mexico, south McKinley County Reservation, south of Gallup. Alternate names: Zuñi.  Classification: Language isolate 
More information.