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Languages of Viet Nam

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Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam. 85,029,000. 54 official ethnic communities. 56,849,370 or 94% speakers of Austro-Asiatic languages, 2,255,450 or 3.7% of Daic languages, 679,000 or 1.1% of Miao-Yao languages, 492,000 or below 1% of Austronesian languages, 40,000 of Tibeto-Burman languages (1991 J. Matisoff). National or official language: Vietnamese. Literacy rate: 78%–88%. Immigrant languages: Mandarin Chinese, Northern Dong. Information mainly from M. Barker 1966; J. Edmondson and D. Solnit 1997; F. Lebar, G. Hickey, J. Musgrave 1964; C. Miller 1964, 1966; K. Smith 1968, 1972; D. Thomas 1969, 1976, 1980; D. Thomas and R. Headley, Jr. 1970. Blind population: 200,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 1. The number of individual languages listed for Viet Nam is 107. Of those, 106 are living languages and 1 has no known speakers.
Akha

[ahk] 1,260 in Viet Nam (1995 Institute for Southeast Asian Studies, Hanoi). Quang Binh, Quang Tri provinces, both sides of Viet Nam-Laos border, northeast of Phuc Trach. Alternate names: Ahka, Aini, Ak’a, Aka, Ekaw, Ikaw, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Ikor, Ko, Yani.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Southern 
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Arem

[aem] 20 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Population total all countries: 40. Ethnic population: 100 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Quang Binh Province, Bo Trach District, Tan Trach, 1 or 2 families of Thuong Trach. Also in Laos. Alternate names: A-Rem, Chombrau, Chomrau, Umo.  Dialects: Other dialects or ethnic names: Tu-vang, Pa-leng, Xo-lang, To-hung, Chà-cu, Tac-cui, Nhà Chút.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut  Nearly extinct.
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Bahnar

[bdq] 158,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen provinces, central highlands. Also in United States. Alternate names: Bana.  Dialects: Tolo, Golar, Alakong (A-La Cong), Jolong (Gio-Lang, Y-Lang), Bahnar Bonom (Bomam), Kontum, Krem. Other dialects or ethnic names: Roh, Kpang Cong. Most similar to Alak 1, Tampuan, and Lamam.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric 
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Brao

[brb] 310 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Kon Tum Province, Cambodia-Laos border area. Alternate names: Braou, Brau, Brou, Lave, Laveh, Love, Proue, Rawe.  Dialects: Palau.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet 
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Bru, Eastern

[bru] 55,600 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Dac Lac provinces. Alternate names: Brou, Bru, Quang Tri Bru, Van Kieu.  Dialects: Mangkong, Tri.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Cao Lan

[mlc] 147,000 (1999 census). San Chay mainly in Tuyen Quang, Bac Can, and Thai Nguyen provinces; also scattered in Yen Bai, Vinh Phuc, Phu Tho, Bac Giang, Quang Ninh provinces. Alternate names: Cao, Caolan, Lan-Sán Chi, “Man Cao-Lan” , “Mán” , San Chay, San Chi, Sán-Chi.  Dialects: Maintain some features from Northern Tai [nod].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
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Cham, Eastern

[cjm] 72,900 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 73,820. Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan, Dong Nai provinces; Ho Chi Minh City. Also in United States. Alternate names: Bhamam, Chiem, Chiem Thành, Tjam.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Chamic, Coastal, Cham 
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Cham, Western

[cja] 25,000 in Viet Nam. 4,000 in Saigon. An Giang, Tay Ninh provinces; Ho Chi Minh City. Alternate names: Cambodian Cham, Cham, Chiem, New Cham, Tjam.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Chamic, Coastal, Cham 
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Chinese, Yue

[yue] 862,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Soc Trang, Can Tho, Vinh Long, Tra Vinh, Dong Nai, Kieng Giang provinces; Ho Chi Minh, Hanoi, and Haiphong cities; north Viet Nam-China border regions. Alternate names: Chinese Nung, Ha Xa Phang, Hai Nam, Han, Hoa, Kién, Liem Chau, Lowland Nung, Minh Huong, Nung, Phúc, Quang Dong, Samg Phang, Suòng Phóng, Trièu Chau.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chrau

[crw] 22,600 (1999 census), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Dòng Nai Province. Tamun in Tayninh and Binhlong provinces. Alternate names: Chauro, Choro, Ro, Tamun.  Dialects: Jro, Dor (Doro), Prang, Mro, Voqtwaq, Vajieng, Chalah, Chalun, Tamun.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau 
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Chru

[cje] 15,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lam Dong, Binh Thuan provinces. Also in France, United States. Alternate names: Cadoe Loang, Choru, Chrau Hma, Chu, Chu Ru, Churu, Cru, Kru, Seyu.  Dialects: Rai, Noang (La-Dang). Similar to Cham.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern 
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Chut

[scb] 3,830 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 4,280. Quang Binh Province, Thuong Hoa, Hoa Son, Dan Hoa communes, near the Laos border at the same latitude as Mu Gia Pass. Also in Laos. Alternate names: May, Ruc, Sach, Salang.  Dialects: Sach, May, Ruc ( Kha Mu Gia, Tac Cui).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut 
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Côông

[cnc] 2,000 (2002 J. Edmondson). Lai Chau Province, Muong Te District, east of Sila, south of Mang. 4 villages at Ban Nam Luong in Xa Can Ho, Bo Lech in Xa Can Ho, Nam Kha Co area at Ban Bo, Muong Tong at Nam Ke near the Lao border. Alternate names: Khoong, “Xa Coong” , “Xa Xam” , “Xa Xeng”.  Dialects: Quite different from Akha [ahk], Lahu [lhu], and Sila [slt] of this location. North and south varieties in Viet Nam are different, but mutually inherently intelligible. Bisu [bzi], Pyen [pyy], and Mpi [mpz] are closely related.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
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Cua

[cua] 27,800 (1999 census). Quang Ngai, Quang Nam provinces. Alternate names: Bòng Mieu, Bong Miew.  Dialects: Kol (Kor, Cor, Co, Col, Dot, Yot), Traw (Tràu, Dong).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Cua-Kayong 
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En

[enc] 200 (1998 J. Edmondson). Cao Bang Province, Noi Thon village, about 20 kms. directly east on foot from Ho Quang City, Ho Quang District. Alternate names: Nung Ven.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: less than 50% with Laha [lha], Qabiao [laq] (Laqua), Lachi [lbt], Gelao [giq], Hlai [lic].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Yang-Biao 
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Gelao, Green

[giq] 300 (2002 J. Edmondson). Yen Minh District, Pho La and Dong Van. Alternate names: Cape Draping Gelao, Hoki Gelao, Klau, Qau.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi 
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Gelao, Red

[gir] 20. Yen Minh District. Alternate names: Vandu Gelao, Voa Dê.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi  Nearly extinct.
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Gelao, White

[giw] 20 (2002 J. Edmondson). Yen Minh District, Pho La and Dong Van. Alternate names: Southwestern Gelao, Telue, Tú Du.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi  Nearly extinct.
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Giáy

[pcc] 49,100 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lao Cai, Hà Giang, Lai Chau provinces. Alternate names: Bo-I, Bo-Y, Bouyei, Buyi, Chang Chá, Chung Cha, Cùi Chu, Dang, Dioi, Giai, Giang, Nhaang, Niang, Nyang, Pau Thin, Pú Nà, Pu-I, Pu-Nam, Pui, Puyi, Sa, Trong Ggia, Tu-Dìn, Xa Chung Chá, Yai, Yay.  Dialects: Tu-Dí, Nhang, Pú Nà.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern 
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Haiphong Sign Language

[haf]  Haiphong. Dialects: Related to sign languages in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Halang

[hal] 13,500 in Viet Nam (2000). Population total all countries: 17,500. Kon Tum Province. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Koyong, Salang.  Dialects: Similar to Jeh [jeh]. Salang [scb] in Laos may be a different but related language.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang 
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Halang Doan

[hld] 2,000 in Viet Nam (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Population total all countries: 4,350. Kon Tum Province, between the Sedang [sed] and the Cua [cua]. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Doan, Duan, Halang Duan.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Takua [tkz], Kayong [kxy], Halang Daksut [hal], Rengao [ren].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan 
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Hani

[hni] 17,500 in Viet Nam (1999 census). North, Lai Chau and Lao Cai provinces. One variety is east, one west of Muong Te City. Alternate names: Hànhì, Haw, U Ní, Uni, Xá U Ní, Xauni.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Southern 
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Hanoi Sign Language

[hab]  Hanoi. Dialects: Related to sign languages in Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Haroi

[hro] 35,000 (1998). Binh Dinh, Phu Yen provinces. Alternate names: Aroi, Bahnar Cham, Hoi, Hroi, Hroy, Hrway.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Chamic, Coastal 
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Hmong Daw

[mww] All Hmong in Viet Nam: 787,604 (1999 census). North; others resettled in Dac Lac Province in the south. Alternate names: Bai Miao, Mán Tráng, Meo Kao, White Lum, White Meo.  Dialects: Hmong Xi (Meo Do).  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Hmong Dô

[hmv]  Ha Giang Province, Dong Van and Meo Vae districts; Lao Cai Province, Bac Ha District. Dialects: Largely intelligible with Hmong Daw [mww]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Hmong Daw.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Hmong Don

[hmf]  Ha Giang Province, Hua Binh, YenBai, Nghia Lo. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Hmong Njua

[hnj]   Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Ho Chi Minh City Sign Language

[hos]  Ho Chi Minh City. Dialects: Related to sign languages in Hanoi, Haiphong, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Hre

[hre] 113,000 (1999 census). Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh provinces. Alternate names: Cham-Re, Chom, Davach, Davak, Moi, Moi Da Vach, Moi Luy, Tachom.  Dialects: Rabah (Tava), Creq (Kare, Kre), Hre. Most similar to Sedang [sed].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Sedang 
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Hung

[hnu] 700 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Pong in Nghe An Province, Tuong Duong District, Tam Thai commune; Dan Lai and Ly Ha in Con Cuong District, Mon Son and Luc Da communes. Alternate names: Cuói, K’katiam-Pong-Houk.  Dialects: Pong (Poong, Phong, Tay Pong, Toum Phong, Khong Kheng, Xa La Vang, Pong 1, Pong 2), Dan Lai, Ly Ha.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi 
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Iu Mien

[ium] 350,000 in Viet Nam (1999 H. Purnell). Widespread in north highland regions; south, Dac Lak Province. Alternate names: Dao Do, Dao Thanh Phan, Dìu, “Dong” , Highland Yao, Kim Mien, “Mán” , Mien, Myen, Red Dao, “Trai” , “Xá” , Yao, Yao Kimmien, Yao Ogang, Yu Mien.  Dialects: Dao Do, Deo Tien, Dao Lan Tien, Dao Lo Gang, Cham, Quan Chet, Quan Trang.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
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Jarai

[jra] 318,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 338,200. Gia Lai and Kon Tum provinces; some in Dac Lac Province. Also in Cambodia, United States. Alternate names: Cho-Rai, Chor, Chrai, Djarai, Gia-Rai, Gio-Rai, Jorai, Mthur.  Dialects: Puan, Hodrung (Hdrung), Jhue, Aráp, Habau (Ho-Bau), To-Buan, Sesan, Chuty, Pleikly, Golar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Chamic, Highlands 
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Jeh

[jeh] 15,200 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 23,210. Kon Tum, Quang Nam provinces. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Die, Gie, Yeh.  Dialects: Jeh Bri La (Bri-La), Jeh Mang Ram. Related to Halang [hal].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang 
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Katu, Eastern

[ktv] 50,500 (1999 census). Quang Nam, Thua Thien provinces. Alternate names: High Katu.  Dialects: A different language variety and orthography in Laos.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
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Katua

[kta] 3,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Gia Lai-Cong Tum Province, Mang Buk area, west of the Kayong [kxy]. Alternate names: Ca Tua.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric 
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Kayong

[kxy] 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Remote mountains of Cong Tum Province. Alternate names: Ca Giong, Kagiuong, Katang.  Dialects: Similar to Takua [tkz], Cua [cua].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Cua-Kayong 
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Kháng

[kjm] 3,920 (1985 F. Proschan). North, Son La and Lai Chau provinces. Alternate names: Bren, Hang, Khaang, Ksakautenh, Pouteng, Putenh, Quang Lam, Tay Hay, Tayhay, Teng, Theng, Xa, Xa Ai, Xa Bung, Xa Dang, Xa Don, Xa Hoc, Xá Khao, Xa Xua.  Dialects: Kháng Clau, Kháng Ai (Xa Khao, Xa Cau, Sakau). Related to Puoc [puo], Phong-Kniang [pnx] in Laos.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul 
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Khao

[xao] 10,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northwest, near Ma River, north of Pa Ma. Dialects: Related to Bit [bgk] in Laos and China.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao 
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Khmer, Central

[khm] 1,060,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Hau Giang, Tra Vinh, Vinh Long, Kien Giang, An Giang, Bac Lieu, Ca Mau, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Binh Phuoc, Tay Ninh provinces; Ho Chi Minh City. Alternate names: Cambodian, Cu Tho, Cur Cul, Kho Me, Khome, Krom, Viet Go Mien.  Dialects: Central Khmer, Southern Khmer.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer 
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Khmu

[kjg] 56,500 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Son La, Lai Chau, Nghe An, Yen Bai provinces. Alternate names: Cam Mu, Kha Cau, Khamu, Khomu, Kmhmu, Mun Xen, Xa Cau.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ 
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Khua

[xhv] 3,000 in Viet Nam (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Population total all countries: 5,000. West central; southeast of Giap Tam. Also in Laos. Dialects: Related to Bru [bru], Bamukumbit [bqt].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Kim Mun

[mji] 170,000 in Viet Nam (1999 J. Edmondson).  Alternate names: Coc Mun, Dao Ao Dai, Dao Lam Dinh, Dao Quan Trang, Dao Thanh Y, Great Tunic Yao, Jinmen, Lan Ten, Lanten, Lantin, Lowland Yao, “Man Lan-Tien” , Mun, Red Trouser Yao.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
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Koho

[kpm] 129,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lam Dòng, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan Khanh Hoa provinces. Also in United States. Alternate names: Caho, Coho, Kohor.  Dialects: Chil (Kil), Tring (Trinh), Sre, Kalop, Sop, Laya, Rion, Nop (Xre Nop, Tu-Lop), Tala (To La), Kodu (Co-Don), Pru, Lac (Lat, Lach).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Sre 
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Kucong

[lkc] 6,870 in Viet Nam (2007). Population total all countries: 46,870. Lai Chau Province, Muang Te District. Also in China. Alternate names: Cosung, Lahlu.  Dialects: Most similar to Lahu [lhu].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Central 
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Lachi

[lbt] 7,860 in Viet Nam (1990 census). 3,990 women, in 1,450 households (Liang Min 1990), including Black Lachi 2,500 in 550 households, Long-Haired Lachi 4,500 in 900 households. 10,765 for all La Chi in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 9,016. Ethnic population: 9,600 (2000 D. Bradley). Population total all countries: 7,920. Ethnic population: 9,600 (2000 D. Bradley). Hà Giang Province, west of Hà Giang in upper Clear River valley (Riviere Claire) on the China border. Black Lachi in Manyou, Long-Haired Lachi in Manpeng. Also in China. Alternate names: Cù Te, Cu-Tê, La Chi, Lachí, Laji, Lati, Lipulio, Mia, Tai Lati, Y, Y Pí, Y Póng, Y To.  Dialects: Liputiõ (Black Lachi), Lipupi (Long-Haired Lachi). Related to Gelao. Long-Haired Lachi of Viet Nam (4,806 speakers) has 80% lexical similarity with Flowery Lachi [lbt] of China; White Lachi [lwh] of Viet Nam (1,602) has 30%–40% similarity with the others, and should be considered a separate language. Lexical similarity 36% with Gelao, 33% with Qabiao [laq], 22% with Dong [doc], 23% with Laka, 25% with Hlai [lic].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi 
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Lachi, White

[lwh] 1,602 (Min Liang 1990). 300 households. North, south of Maguan in China, Hà Giang Province, Manbang and Manmei. Alternate names: Lipupõ, White Lachi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 30%–40% with other Lachi.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi 
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Laghuu

[lgh] 300 (2002 J. Edmondson). Northwest; Lao Cai Province, Sa Pa District, Nam Sa village; 15 kms. south and east of Sa Pa City, in the valley below the highest mountain in Viet Nam, Phan Si Pan (3,198 meters). Alternate names: Laopa, Xá Phó.  Dialects: Relationship to Laopang [lbg] (Laopa) of Myanmar, also in the Lolo group, is unknown.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi 
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Laha

[lha] 5,690 (1999 census). Lao Cai and Son La provinces, along Red and Black rivers. Alternate names: Khlá, Khlá Don, Khlá Dung, Khlá Phlao, Klá Dong, La Ha, La Ha Ung, Liik, Xá Chien, Xá Khao, Xá Lay.  Dialects: Similar to Qabiao [laq].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Yang-Biao 
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Lahu

[lhu] 6,874 all Lahu (Yellow, Black, White) in Viet Nam (1999 census). Northwest border with Laos. Black Lahu north of Muong Te City near the China border, at Ban Kiem Tra, Phu Nam Ma, Phu Nam Cau, Phu Nam Ha; White Lahu in Muong Te, east of Nha Ca, 1 village. Alternate names: Kaixien, Lahuna, Laku, Launa, Lohei, Mooso, Muhso, Mussar, Musso, Mussuh, Namen.  Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Khucong, Musser Dam), Nyi (Red Lahu, Musseh Daeng), Shehleh, Lahu Phung (White Lahu).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Central 
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[khb] 4,960 in Viet Nam (1999 census). North, Lai Chau Province, Binh Lu area. Alternate names: Duon, Lue, Nhuon, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I, Tai Lu.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Maa

[cma] 33,300 (1999 census). Lam Dong, Dong Nai provinces, widely scattered. Alternate names: Chauma, Che Ma, Ma, Ma Krung, Ma Ngan, Ma To, Ma Xop, Maa’, Maaq.  Dialects: Sometimes considered a Koho [kpm] dialect.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Sre 
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Maleng

[pkt] 200 in Viet Nam (Ferlus 1996). Ha Tinh Province, Huong Khe District, Huong Lien commune; 2 or 3 villages bordering Laos, another southeast. Malieng in Tuyen Hoa District, Thanh Hoa and Lam Hoa communes; Dan Hoa in north Quang Binh Province, Minh Hoa District. Alternate names: Malang, Malieng.  Dialects: Malieng (Pa Leng), Kha Phong (Maleng Kari, Maleng Bro, Kha Nam Om), Dan Hoa.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut 
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Mang

[zng] 2,660 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 3,165. Ethnic population: 4,500 (2000 D. Bradley). Lai Chau Province, triangle-shaped area between Song Da (Black River) and the Nam Na: Nam Nghe, Nam Xung, Nam Ban, Ban Nam Voi, others. Also in China, Thailand. Alternate names: Ba’e, Chaman, Lá Vàng, Manbu, Mang U, Nieng Ó, Xá, Xá Mang, Xá Ó.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Mang 
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Mantsi

[nty] 1,100 (2002 J. Edmondson). Hà Giang Province, Meo Vac and Dong Van districts. Alternate names: Black Lolo, Flowery Lolo, Lolo, Red Mantsi.  Dialects: Called ‘Southeast Vernacular’ type of Yi. May be related to what is called Southeastern Yi or Guizhou Yi [yig] in China. Not intelligible with Sichuan Yi [iii] (Nosu).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi 
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Mnong, Central

[cmo] 32,500 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 52,500. Mainly Song Bé and west Dac Lac provinces, southwest of the Rade. Also in Cambodia. Alternate names: Budang, Budong, Phanong, Pnong.  Dialects: Préh (Pre), Biat (Bhiét), Bu Nar, Bu Rung, Dih Bri (Di-Pri), Bu Dang. Biat may be a separate language related to Eastern Mnong.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong 
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Mnong, Eastern

[mng] 30,000 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Southeast of the Rade in Dac Lac and Lam Dòng provinces. Also in United States. Dialects: Mnong Rolom (Rolom, Rolam, Rlam, Ralam), Mnong Gar (Gar), Mnong Kwanh, Chil. Biat may be more similar to Eastern Mnong than to Central Mnong [cmo].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Eastern Mnong 
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Mnong, Southern

[mnn] 30,000 (2002). Mostly Binh Phuoc Province, south of Central Mnong [cmo], north of Stieng [stt]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong 
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Monom

[moo] 5,000 (1973 SIL). East Gia Lai, Kon Tum provinces. Alternate names: Bonom, Menam, Monam.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Todrah-Monom 
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Muong

[mtq] 1,140,000 (1999 census). Mostly north central mountains, Hoa Bình, Thanh Hóa, Vinh Phú, Yen Bai, Son La, Ninh Binh provinces. Dialects: Thang, Wang, Mol, Mual, Moi 1, Boi Bi (Moi Bi), Ao Tá (Au Tá). Related to Chut [scb], May [scb], Ruc [scb], Arem [aem], Aheu [thm], Bukitan [bkn].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong 
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Ná-Meo

[neo] 1,200 (2002). Northwest Lang Son Province, Trang Dinh District, Cao Minh and Khuoi Phu Dao villages, Khanh Long Hamlet; Thach An District, Ca Liec village. Classification: Unclassified 
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Nguôn

[nuo] 20,000 (Nguyen 1997). 11 villages: Kwi-dat, An Duk, Ba nuong, Than long, Tan kieu; Ko liem, Bok tho (An tho), Kim bang, Tan li, An lak. Alternate names: Ngouan.  Dialects: Diffloth (1992) groups Nguôn as a separate language similar to Vietnamese [vie], but Doi (1996) and Ferlus (1996) group it with Muong [mtq].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong 
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Nung

[nut] 856,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Mainly Cao Bang, Lang Son provinces; also now in Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, Lam Dong, and Dac Lac. Also in Australia, Canada, Laos, United States. Alternate names: Bu-Nong, Highland Nung, Nong, Tai Nung, Tay, Tày Nùng.  Dialects: Xuòng, Giang, Nùng An, Nùng Phan Slình (Nùng Fan Slihng), Nùng Cháo, Nùng Lòi, Nùng Qúy Rin (Guiren), Khen Lài, Nùng Inh. Similar to Tày [tyc].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
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O’du

[tyh] 300 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 490. North, Nghe Tinh Province. Also in Laos. Alternate names: ’Iduh, Haat, Hat, Iduh, “Tay Hat”.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ 
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Pa Di

[pdi] 300 in Viet Nam. Lao Cai Province, Muong Khuong District. Alternate names: Padi.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
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Pacoh

[pac] 16,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 29,200. Quang Tri Province. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Bo River Van Kieu, Paco, Pokoh.  Dialects: Pahi (Ba-Hi). Related to Phuong [phg]. ‘Koh’ in Pacoh means ‘mountain’.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
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Pa-Hng

[pha] 5,570 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Tuyên Quang, Hà Giang provinces. Alternate names: Baheng, Bahengmai, Pa Hng, Pà Hung, Pà Then, Paheng.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Pa-hng 
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Phu Thai

[pht] 209,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Northern. Alternate names: Phutai, Putai, Puthai, Puthay.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Phula

[phh] 9,050 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 14,050. Ethnic population: 13,246. Lao Cai Province, near Lao Cai City; Hà Giang Province, Xin Mun District, 1 village; Lai Chau and Son La provinces. Also in China. Alternate names: Fu Khla, Phu Kha, Phu Khla, Phu La.  Dialects: Related to Laghuu [lgh].  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic, Ngwi, Southeastern 
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Phuong

[phg] 15,100 (2000). Quang Nam-Da Nang, Gia Lai-Cong Tum provinces, southeast of the Pacoh [pac]. Alternate names: Phuang, Phuong Catang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
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Puoc

[puo] 18,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 20,160. North, Lai Chau, Son La provinces, Laos border area. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Kha Puhoc, Ksing Mul, Mun, Pua, Puhoc, Puok, Sing, Xin Mul, Xinh Mul, Xinh-Mun.  Dialects: Related to Kháng [kjm], Phong-Kniang [pnx].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul 
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Qabiao

[laq] 307 in Viet Nam (2002 J. Edmondson). Population total all countries: 310. Hà Giang Province, Viet Nam-Yunnan-Kwangsi border, upper Clear River valley, Dunshi, Pugao, Pula, Pubang, Manong; Yên Minh and Mèo Vac districts; Dông Van District, Phô Là and Sung Chang villages. Also in China. Alternate names: Bendi Lolo, Ka Bao, Ka Biao, Laqua, Lolo, Pen Ti, Pu Péo, Pubiao, Pupeo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 38% with Gelao, 33% with Lachi [lbt], 30% with Northern Zhuang [ccx], 29% with Dong [doh], 23% with Laka, 26% with Hlai, 10% with Hmong, 7% with Iu Mien [ium].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Yang-Biao 
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Rade

[rad] 270,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Dac Lac, part of Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa provinces, Banmethuot area. Possibly in Cambodia. Also in United States. Alternate names: De, E-De, Edeh, Raday, Rde, Rhade.  Dialects: Bih, Ndhur (Mdhur), Adham (A-Dham), Blo, Kodrao (Kdrao), Krung 1, Rde Kpa (Kpa). Bih (1,000) may be a separate language. Krung 1 dialect is different from the Bahnaric language Kru’ng 2 [krr], in Cambodia. Other dialect or ethnic group names are: Ktul, Dlie, Rue, E-pan, Dong Kay, Arul, Kah.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Chamic, Highlands 
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Rengao

[ren] 16,000 (2002). Kon Tum Province, northwest of Dak To to southeast of Kontum City between Sedang and Bahnar. Alternate names: Ro-Ngao.  Dialects: Western Rengao, Sedang-Rengao, Bahnar-Rengao.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Rengao 
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Roglai, Cacgia

[roc] 3,000 (2002). Ninh Thuan Province, northeast of Phan Rang on the coast. Alternate names: Ra-Glai.  Dialects: Considerably different from other Roglai varieties.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham 
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Roglai, Northern

[rog] 52,900 (2002). Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Khanh Hoa, Lam Dong provinces, in the mountains west and south of Nhatrang; some near Dalat. Alternate names: Adlai, La-Oang, Noang, Ra-Glai, Radlai, Rang Glai, Rayglay.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham 
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Roglai, Southern

[rgs] 41,000 (1999 census). South, Binh Thuan and Ninh Thuan provinces. Alternate names: Rai.  Dialects: Rai. Similar to Chru [cje], Northern Roglai [rog].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham 
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Romam

[rmx] 250 (1993 Dang Nghiem Van). Viet Nam-Cambodia border. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric 
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Sedang

[sed] 101,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 101,790. Kon Tum, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai provinces. Also in Laos. Alternate names: Cadong, Dang, Hadang, Hdang, Hotea, Hoteang, Kmrang, Rotea, Roteang, Tang, Xa, Xodang.  Dialects: Central Sedang, Greater Sedang, Dak Sut Sedang, Kotua Sedang, Kon Hring Sedang. Most similar to Hre [hre].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Sedang 
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Sila

[slt] 840 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lai Chau Province, Cú Dè Xù, Khá Pé. 3 villages: Ban Xeo Hai in Xa Can Ho, Xi Thao Chai of Pa Ha, Nam Xin of Muong Nhe. Alternate names: Sida.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani 
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Sinicized Miao

[hmz] 2,000 (Hattaway 2000). Ha Giang Province. 3 villages. Alternate names: Hmong Shua.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Stieng, Budeh

[stt]  Binh Phuoc and Tay Ninh provincesm south Stieng area. Alternate names: Lower Stieng, Southern Stieng.  Dialects: Different enough from Bulo Stieng [sti] that intelligibility is not functional.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric 
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Stieng, Bulo

[sti] Population total all countries: 6,060. Binh Phuoc, Lam Dong, Tay Ninh provinces. Also in Cambodia. Alternate names: Budíp, Northern Stieng, Rangah, Upper Stieng, Xa-Dieng, Xtieng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau 
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Sui

[swi] 120 in Viet Nam (2002 J. Edmondson). Tuyen Quang, Chiem Hoa. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
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Tai Daeng

[tyr] 140,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 165,000. North central, Thanh Hoa Province, south of Sam Nuea. Also in Laos, Thailand, United States. Alternate names: Daeng, Môc-Châu, Red Tai, Tai Deng, Tai Rouge, Táy-Môc-Châu, Thai Dang, Thai Do.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Dam

[blt] 699,000 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 763,950. North, along Red and Black rivers; now settled south in Tung Nghia (Lam Dam), Tho Thanh (Dac Lac), Pleiku (Gia Lai), elsewhere. Also in Australia, China, France, Laos, Thailand, United States. Alternate names: Black Tai, Tai Do, Tai Noir, Táy-Dam, Thái Den.  Dialects: Táy Mu’ò’i (Tai Mueai, Meuay). Similar to Thai Song [soa] and Tai Dón [twh], but not inherently intelligible with Tai Dón.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Do

[tyj] 300 (2002). North. Alternate names: Tay Muoi, Tay Quy Chau, Tay Yo, Tay-Jo.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai 
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Tai Dón

[twh] 280,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 490,000. Northern Vietnam, along the Red and Black rivers; south now settled mainly in Tung Nghia (Lam Dong Province). Also in China, France, Laos. Alternate names: Tai Blanc, Tai Kao, Tai Lai, Táy Khao, Thái Tráng, White Tai.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Tai Dam [blt]. Lao [lao] influenced the speech of some Tai Dón.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Hang Tong

[thc] 10,000 (2002). North. Alternate names: Hàng Tong, Tày Muòng.  Dialects: Part of Thái official ethnic community, related to White Thai, Tai Dam [blt], Pu Thay, Tay Thanh [tmm], and Tho Da Bac.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Thanh

[tmm] 20,000 (2002). North, Thanh Hoa and Nghe An provinces. Alternate names: Tai Man Thanh, Táy Thanh, Thanh.  Dialects: Part of Thái official ethnic community, related to White Thai, Tai Dam [blt], Tai Hang Tong [thc], Pu Thay, and Tho Da Bac.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
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Takua

[tkz] 12,800 (2000). Quang Nam, Da Nang provinces. Alternate names: Langya, Quang Tin Katu.  Dialects: Most similar to Cua [cua] and Kayong [kxy].  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Takua 
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Ta’oih, Upper

[tth] 19,000 in Viet Nam (2002). 70% monolingual. Thua Thien-Hue, Quang Tri provinces. Alternate names: Kantua, T-Oy, Ta Hoi, Tà-Oi, Tau Oi, Toi-Oi.  Dialects: Pasoom, Kamuan’, Palee’n, Leem, Ha’aang (Sa’ang).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih 
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Tày

[tyz] 1,480,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Central and northeast, near the China border, Cao Bàng, Lang Son, Hà Giang, Tuye Quang, Bác Thái, Quang Ninh, Hà Bac, Lam Dòng provinces; some settled south in Tung Nghia and Song Mao. Possibly also in Laos. Also in France, United States. Alternate names: Ngan, Phen, T’o, Tai Tho, “Thô” , Thu Lao.  Dialects: Central Tày, Eastern Tày, Southern Tày, Northern Tày, Tày Trung Khanh, Thu Lao, Tày Bao Lac. Similar to Nung [nut].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
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Tay Boi

[tas] Extinct. Used in the major ports of French Indo-China. Alternate names: Annamite French, Tay Boy, Vietnamese Pidgin French.  Classification: Pidgin, French based 
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Tày Sa Pa

[tys] 300 (2002 J. Edmondson). Lao Cai Province, Muong Khuong District. Alternate names: Tai Sa Pa.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
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Tày Tac

[tyt]  Northwest, east Son La Province, Muong Tâc District. Dialects: Related to Tai Dam [blt], Tai Dón [twh], Tai Daeng [tyr].  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tho

[tou] 68,400 (1999 census). North Nghe An Province, highland areas. Cuoi Cham in Tan Ky District, Tan Hop commune. Alternate names: Cuoi, Cuoi Cham, Ho Muong Meridional, Keo.  Dialects: Cuoi Cham (Uy Lo), Mon.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi 
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Thu Lao

[tyl] 200 (2002 J. Edmondson). Central and northeast, near the China border, Cao Bàng, Lang Son, Hà Giang, Tuye Quang, Bác Thái, Quang Ninh, Hà Bac, Lam Dòng provinces. Some settled south in Tung Nghia and Song Mao. Possibly also in Laos. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Todrah

[tdr] 9,140 (2000). Kon Tum Province, northeast of Kon Tum City, Kon Hring to Kon Braih. Alternate names: Didra, Didrah, Kodra, Modra, Podra, Todrá.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Todrah-Monom 
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Trieng

[stg] 15,000 (2002). Mainly Kon Tum and Quang Nam provinces. Alternate names: Dgiéh, Giang Ray, Gie-Trieng, Pin, Strieng, Ta-Rieng, Talieng, Tareh, Treng.  Dialects: May be related to Jeh [jeh] or Talieng [tdf] in Laos.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West 
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Ts’ün-Lao

[tsl] 10,000 (1993 Dang Nghiem Van). Northwest, Lai Chau Province. Alternate names: Lao.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
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Vietnamese

[vie] 65,800,000 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 68,634,000. Widespread. Also in Australia, Cambodia, Canada, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Laos, Martinique, Netherlands, New Caledonia, Norway, Philippines, Russian Federation (Asia), Senegal, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, Vanuatu. Alternate names: Annamese, Ching, Gin, Jing, Kinh, Viet.  Dialects: Northern Vietnamese (Tonkinese, Hanoi), Central Vietnamese (Hue), Southern Vietnamese. Numerous dialects.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese 
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Zhuang, Dai

[zhd] 200 in Viet Nam (2007). About 50% are monolingual. Lao Cai Province, Muong Khuong District. Alternate names: Thu Lao, Tu, Tuliao, Tuzu, Wen-Ma Southern Zhuang.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
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Zhuang, Yang

[zyg] About 50% are monolingual. North, Cao Bang Province, Ha Quang District. Alternate names: Thu Lao, Tu, Tuliao, Tuzu, Wen-Ma Southern Zhuang.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
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Zhuang, Yongnan

[zyn] 10,000 (2000 J. Edmondson). About 50% are monolingual. Ethnic population: There were over 850,000 Nung nationality people in Viet Nam in 2000. Cao Bang Province, Quang Ha District, Phuc Sen village; Doan Khon, Quoc Phong, Quoc Dan, Chi Thao, and Tu Do communes 37 km from Cao Bang City; Ha Quang District, Noi Thon Commune; Ba Be District, Cao Che Commune. Alternate names: Long An, Long’an, Southern Zhuang, The Yongnan Vernacular of the Southern Dialect of the Zhuang Language, Zhuangyu nanbu fangyan Yongnan tuyu.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
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Zhuang, Zuojiang

[zzj] 340,000 in Viet Nam (2000 census). About 50% monolingual. Ethnic population: There were over 850,000 Nung nationality people in Viet Nam in 2000. Lang Son Province. Alternate names: Nung Chao.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
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