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Languages of Vanuatu

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Republic of Vanuatu, Ripablik Blong Vanuatu. Formerly New Hebrides. 215,000. 175,700 Melanesian. National or official languages: Bislama, English, French. Literacy rate: 61%–90%. 85%–90% of school age children attend school (1977 WA). Immigrant languages: Fijian (350), Kiribati (370), Tahitian, Tongan, Vietnamese (770), Wallisian (780). Also includes Chinese (300). Information mainly from J. Lynch and T. Crowley 2001; D. Tryon 1971, 1976, 1978, 1995; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981. The number of individual languages listed for Vanuatu is 110. Of those, 108 are living languages and 2 have no known speakers.
Akei

[tsr] 650 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Southwest Santo. Alternate names: Tasiriki.  Dialects: Similar to Fortsenal [frt]. Complex dialect chain.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Ambae, East

[omb] 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ambae (Leper’s) Island. Alternate names: Aoba, Northeast Ambae, Northeast Aoba, Oba, Omba, Walurigi.  Dialects: Lombaha (Lobaha), Longana, Lolokaro (Lolokara, Lolsiwoi). About 15 dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Ambae, West

[nnd] 8,700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). West Ambae (Aoba, Leper’s) Island. Alternate names: Duidui, Opa.  Dialects: Walaha, Nduindui (Duindui). Many dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Amblong

[alm] 300. South Santo. Dialects: Similar to Narango [nrg] and Morouas [mrp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Ambrym, North

[mmg] 5,250 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). North Ambrym Island. Dialects: Magam, Olal.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Ambrym, Southeast

[tvk] 3,700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Southeast Ambrym Island. Dialects: Taveak (Taviak), Endu, Toak, Penapo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Aneityum

[aty] 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Aneityum Island. Alternate names: Aneiteum, Aneiteumese, Anejom.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Aneityum 
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Aore

[aor] Extinct. Formerly East Santo. Dialects: Similar to Malo [mla] and Tutuba [tmi].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Apma

[app] 7,800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Central Pentecost (Raga). Alternate names: Central Raga.  Dialects: Bwatnapni, Loltong, Melsisi, Suru-Bo, Suru-Marani.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Araki

[akr] 8. Araki Island, south Santo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo  Nearly extinct.
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Aulua

[aul] 750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). East Malekula. Alternate names: Aulua Bay.  Dialects: Onesso, Boinelang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Axamb

[ahb] 750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). South Malekula. Alternate names: Ahamb.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Baetora

[btr] 1,330 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Maewo Island. Dialects: Nasawa, Talise, Narovorovo. Considerable dialect variation.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Baki

[bki] 350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). West Epi. Alternate names: Burumba, Paki.  Dialects: Slight dialect variation.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Baki-Bierebo 
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Bierebo

[bnk] 800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). West Epi, south of the Lamenu [lmu], north of the Baki [bki]. Alternate names: Bonkovia-Yevali.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Baki-Bierebo 
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Bieria

[brj] 25 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). South Epi, between the Maii [mmm] and Lewo [lmu]. Alternate names: Bieri, Vovo, Wowo.  Dialects: Bieria, Vovo (Wowo). Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat Bieria and Vovo as separate languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Bieria-Maii  Nearly extinct.
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Bislama

[bis] 5,000 in Vanuatu (Naito and Tryon 2001). Population total all countries: 6,200. Also in New Caledonia. Alternate names: Bichelamar.  Dialects: Unlike Tok Pisin [tpi] (Papua New Guinea) and Pijin [pis] (Solomon Islands), there are some French loanwords. Partially intelligible with Pijin [pis] and Tok Pisin [tpi].  Classification: Creole, English-based, Pacific 
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Burmbar

[vrt] 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Southeast Malekula. Alternate names: Banan Bay, Vartavo.  Dialects: Some dialect differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Butmas-Tur

[bnr] 520 (1983 SIL). East central Santo. Alternate names: Ati.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South 
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Dakaka

[bpa] 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). South Ambrym. Alternate names: Baiap, South Ambrym.  Dialects: Sesivi. Several other dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Dixon Reef

[dix] 50 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 60. Southwest Malekula. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas  Nearly extinct.
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Dorig

[wwo] 160 (2000). Banks Group, Gaua Island, Dorig, Kweteon villages. Alternate names: Wetamut.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Efate, North

[llp] 9,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). North Efate Island, Nguna, Tongoa, and several smaller islands, southeast Epi. Alternate names: Nakanamanga.  Dialects: Nguna (Guna, Tongoa, Ngunese), Buninga, Sesake, Emau, Paunangis, Livara.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu 
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Efate, South

[erk] 6,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Population includes Eton [etn]. Efate Island. Alternate names: Erakor, Fate, Southern Efate.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu 
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Emae

[mmw] 400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Emae; Three Hills Island, Sesake Island. 2 villages. Alternate names: Emai, Emwae, Mae, Mai, Mwae.  Dialects: No dialect variation.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic 
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English

[eng] 1,900 in Vanuatu (1995).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Eton

[etn] 500 (1989 census). Southeast Efate Island, Eton, Pang Pang, surrounding villages. Alternate names: Eastern Efate, Epwau.  Dialects: Eton, Pang Pang. Formerly thought a dialect of South Efate [erk]. 88% inherent intelligibility with Lelepa [lpa], 64% with South Efate.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu 
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Fortsenal

[frt] 450 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Central Santo. Alternate names: Kiai.  Dialects: Similar to Akei [tsr].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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French

[fra] 6,300 in Vanuatu (1995).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Futuna-Aniwa

[fut] 1,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). (West) Futuna and Aniwa Islands, east of Tanna. Alternate names: Erronan, West Futuna-Aniwa.  Dialects: West Futuna (Fotuna), Aniwa (Anewa). Significant differences between West Futunan and Aniwan dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic 
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Hano

[lml] 6,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). North Pentecost (Raga, Whitsuntide Island) and south Maewo (Aurora) Island. Alternate names: Bwatvenua, Lamalanga, North Raga, Qatvenua, Raga, Vunmarama.  Dialects: Slight dialect differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Hiw

[hiw] 150 (2007 A. Francois). Hiw Island, Torres Islands. Alternate names: Hiu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Ifo

[iff] Extinct. Erromanga Island, southern Vanuatu. Alternate names: Utaha.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga 
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Katbol

[tmb] 700 (Crowley 2006). Central Malekula. Alternate names: Avava, Taremp, Tembimbe-Katbol, Tisvel, Vava.  Dialects: Bangasa, Nevaar, Nevat, Timbembe.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central 
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Koro

[krf] 160 (2003 A. Francois). Banks Islands, Gaua Island, Koro, Mekeon villages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Kwamera

[tnk] 3,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Southeast Tanna. Dialects: 2 main dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna 
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Labo

[mwi] 1,100 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Southwest Bay, Malekula. Alternate names: Meaun, Mewun, Nide, Ninde.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Labo 
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Lakon

[lkn] 700 (2003 A. Francois). Banks Group, Gaua Island. Alternate names: Gaua, Gog, Lakona, Qatareu, Toglatareu, Togla, Vure.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Lamenu

[lmu] 850 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Very few monolinguals. Shefa Province, Varmali region, Lamenu Island, Epi Island northwest tip; some in Sara village, Port Vila and Luganville. Alternate names: Lamen, Lewo, Varmali.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Lamenu-Lewo 
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Larevat

[lrv] 680 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Central Malekula. Alternate names: Laravat.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central 
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Lehali

[tql] 250 (2007 A. Francois). Ethnic population: 350. Banks Group, West coast of Ureparapara Island. Alternate names: Teqel.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Lelepa

[lpa] 400 (1989 census). Lelepa Island, west Efate Island, Mangaliliu and Napkoa. Alternate names: Havannah Harbour.  Dialects: Formerly thought a dialect of North Efate [llp]. Also related to South Efate [erk]. 84% inherent intelligibility with Eton [etn], 88% with South Efate.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu 
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Lenakel

[tnl] 11,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). West central Tanna. Dialects: Loanatit, Nerauya, Itonga, Ikyoo. Complex dialect chain; up to 10 dialects (Wurm and Hattori 1981).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna 
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Letemboi

[nms] 800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). South Malekula. Alternate names: Small Nambas.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas 
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Lewo

[lww] 2,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). East Epi Island, Varsu and Varmali regions. Alternate names: Varsu.  Dialects: Tasiko, Mate-Nul-Filakara.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Lamenu-Lewo 
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Lingarak

[lgk] 1,250 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Malekula. Alternate names: Bushman’s Bay, Nevwervwer.  Dialects: Mindu, Wuli.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central 
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Litzlitz

[lzl] 15 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Malekula. Alternate names: Lagalag, Litzlitz-Visele, Lolnarrong, Naman, Netensal.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central  Nearly extinct.
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Lonwolwol

[crc] 1,200 Moribund (Lynch and Crowley 2001). West Ambrym Island, Efate Island, Maat village. Alternate names: Craig Cove, Fali, Fanting, West Ambrym.  Dialects: 2 main dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Lorediakarkar

[lnn] 340 (2000). Ethnic population: 850. Santo Island, central east coast. Dialects: Similar to Shark Bay [ssv].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South 
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Löyöp

[urr] 250 (2007 A. Francois). Banks Group, Divers Bay area, Ureparapara Island. Alternate names: Lehalurup East Ureparapara, Divers Bay.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Mae

[mme] 1,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). North Small Nambas. Malekula. Alternate names: Dirak.  Dialects: North Small Nambas.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Maewo, Central

[mwo] 1,400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Maewo (Aurora) Island. Alternate names: Maevo, Sunwadaga, Tanoriki.  Dialects: Lotora, Tanoriki, Peterara. Arata, Bangoro may be dialects or closely related dying languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Mafea

[mkv] 250 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). East Santo, Mafea Island. Alternate names: Mavea.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Maii

[mmm] 180 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Mafilau village, southwest Epi, north of the Bieria, south of the Baki. Alternate names: Mae-Morae, Mafilau, Mkir.  Dialects: No dialect variation.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Bieria-Maii 
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Malfaxal

[mlx] 600 (1983 SIL). South Malekula. Alternate names: Malvaxal-Toman Island, Taman, Tomman.  Dialects: Orierh (Na’ahai), Milip, Toman.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Malo

[mla] 4,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Malo Island, 3 adjacent small islands, south Tangoa. Alternate names: Tamabo.  Dialects: Avunatari (North Malo), Ataripoe (South Malo). Similar to Aore [aor] and Tutuba [tmi].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Malua Bay

[mll] 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Malekula, northwest coast. Alternate names: Espiegle Bay, Middle Nambas.  Dialects: Several dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Maragus

[mrs] 15 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Central north Malekula. Alternate names: Maragaus, Tape, Tobah.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central  Nearly extinct.
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Marino

[mrb] 1,400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). North Maewo. Alternate names: Naone, North Maewo, Sunwadia.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Maskelynes

[klv] 1,100 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). South Malekula, Maskelyne Islets. Alternate names: Kuliviu, Maskelyne Islands.  Dialects: Some dialect differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Mele-Fila

[mxe] 3,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Over 2,000 in Mele village on Efate; 1,000 on Ifara Island (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Alternate names: Fila-Mele, Ifara-Mele.  Dialects: Fila (Efira, Fira, Ifira), Mele. Significant differences between Mele and Fila.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic 
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Merei

[lmb] 400 (1997 J. Chung). Ethnic population: 570. Central Santo, north of Morouas, between Lape and Ora rivers. Alternate names: Lametin.  Dialects: Winiv.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Merlav

[mrm] 1,550 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Banks Group, Mere Lava and Merig Islands. Alternate names: Merelava, Merlav-Merig.  Dialects: Mwerig (Merig), West Mwerelawa, Matliwag.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Morouas

[mrp] 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 210. Central Santo. Alternate names: Moruas.  Dialects: Several dialects. Possible dialect subgrouping with Amblong [alm] and Narango [nrg].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Mosina

[msn] 1,050 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Banks Group, Vanua Lava. Alternate names: Mosin, Vurës.  Dialects: Vetumboso, Vures (Vuras, Vureas, Avreas). Lexical similarity: 88% between Mosina and Vures.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Mota

[mtt] 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Banks Group, Mota (Sugarloaf) Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Motlav

[mlv] 2,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Banks Group, Mota Lava (Saddle) Island. Alternate names: Motalava, Mwotlap.  Dialects: Volow (Valuva, Valuwa, Valuga).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Mpotovoro

[mvt] 430 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Malekula, north tip. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Namakura

[nmk] 3,750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). North Efate, Tongoa, Tongariki. Alternate names: Makura.  Dialects: Tongoa Island, Tongariki Island, Buninga, Makura (Emwae Island), Mataso.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu 
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Nambas, Big

[nmb] 3,350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Northwest Malekula. Alternate names: V’ënen Taut.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central 
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Narango

[nrg] 160 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 225. South Santo Island. Dialects: Several dialects. Similar to Amblong [alm] and Morouas [mrp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Nasarian

[nvh] 5 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Southwest coast of Malekula. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central  Nearly extinct.
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Navut

[nsw] 520 (1983 SIL). West central Santo. Dialects: Similar to Tiale [mnl].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Nokuku

[nkk] 160 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 400. Northwest Santo. Alternate names: Nogugu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Nume

[tgs] 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Gaua Island. Alternate names: Gaua, Tarasag.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Paama

[pma] 6,000 (1996 SIL). Paama, 1 village on east Epi (Lopevi), large group in Vila. Alternate names: Paama-Lopevi, Paamese, Pauma.  Dialects: North Paama, South Paama. Similar to Southeast Ambrym [tvk].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Piamatsina

[ptr] 150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 210. Northwest Santo Island. Dialects: Similar to Vunapu [vnp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Polonombauk

[plb] 220 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 550. Southeast Santo Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South 
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Port Sandwich

[psw] 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Southeast Malekula Island. Alternate names: Lamap.  Dialects: Several dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Port Vato

[ptv] 1,300 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Southwest Ambrym Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Repanbitip

[rpn] 90 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 125. East Malekula Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas 
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Rerep

[pgk] 380 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 540. East Malekula Island. Alternate names: Pangkumu, Pangkumu Bay, Tisman.  Dialects: Tisman.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Roria

[rga] 75 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Central Santo Island. Alternate names: Mores.  Dialects: Some dialect differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Sa

[sax] 2,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). South Raga Island. Dialects: Ponorwal (South Raga), Lolatavola, Ninebulo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Sakao

[sku] 4,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Northeast Santo Island. Alternate names: Hog Harbour, Sakau, Santo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, North 
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Seke

[ske] 600 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Central Raga Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Shark Bay

[ssv] 450 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Litaro (Pilot) Island, East Santo, also Shark Bay coast. Dialects: Similar to Lorediakarkar [lnn].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South 
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Sie

[erg] 1,900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Southern Vanuatu, Erromanga Island. Alternate names: Eromanga, Erramanga, Erromanga, Sye.  Dialects: Yoku (Enyau), Potnariven, Sie (Sorung).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga 
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South West Bay

[sns] 600 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 355. Southwest Malekula Island. Alternate names: Lamangkau, Na’ahai, Nahapa, Seniang, Sinesip.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Sowa

[sww] 20 (Tryon 1971). Ethnic population: 30. Central Raga Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu  Nearly extinct.
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Tambotalo

[tls] 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 70. Southeast Santo, Tambotalo village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo  Nearly extinct.
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Tangoa

[tgp] 800 (2001 SIL). Tangoa Island, off south Santo. 4 villages. Alternate names: Santo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Tanna, North

[tnn] 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). North Tanna. Dialects: East Tanna, West Tanna, Imafin. 2 major dialects. There is a dialect chain. Similar to Whitesands [tnp].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna 
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Tanna, Southwest

[nwi] 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Southwest Tanna Island. Dialects: Nowai, Nvhal, Navava. A complex dialect chain (Wurm and Hattori 1981).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna 
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Tasmate

[tmt] 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 210. West Santo Island. Dialects: Some dialect differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Tiale

[mnl] 400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). North central Santo. Alternate names: Malmariv.  Dialects: Similar to Navut [nsw]; mutually intelligible with Merei [lmb].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Toga

[lht] 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Torres Islands. Alternate names: Lo, Loh-Toga, Torres, Vavatema.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Tolomako

[tlm] 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Big Bay, Santo Island. Alternate names: Big Bay, Marina, Tolomako-Jereviu.  Dialects: Slight dialect differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Tutuba

[tmi] 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Tutuba Island, south Santo. Dialects: Similar to Aore [aor] and Malo [mla].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Unua

[onu] 520. 50 in Bush Unua. East Malekula Island. Alternate names: Onua.  Dialects: Bush Unua. Several dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Ura

[uur] 6 (1998 T. Crowley). Southern Vanuatu, North Erromanga Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga  Nearly extinct.
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Uripiv-Wala-Rano-Atchin

[upv] 9,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). 1,375 Atchin, 3,450 Uripiv-Wala-Rano. Northeast Malekula and nearby islands. Alternate names: Northeast Malakula.  Dialects: Uripiv, Wala-Rano, Atchin (Nale). Dialect chain from Uripiv south to Atchin north. Lexical similarity: 85% at extremes of the dialect chain.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Valpei

[vlp] 300 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 425. Northwest Santo Island. Alternate names: Valpay, Valpei-Hukua.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Vao

[vao] 1,900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Vao Island, north Malekula. Dialects: Fooa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal 
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Vatrata

[vlr] 280 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Vanua Lava Island. Alternate names: Vanua Lava, Vera’a.  Dialects: Leon, Pak (Bek), Sasar (Lem).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu 
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Vinmavis

[vnm] 500 (Musgrave 2007). Ethnic population: 710. Central west Malekula Island. Alternate names: Banggor, Lambumbu, Neve’ei, Telag.  Dialects: Winiv.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central 
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Vunapu

[vnp] 380 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 540. Northwest Santo Island. Dialects: Similar to Piamatsina [ptr].  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Wailapa

[wlr] 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 140. Southwest Santo Island. Dialects: A dialect chain with Akei [tsr] and Penantsiro [ptr] at the extremes, but are not inherently intelligible.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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Whitesands

[tnp] 7,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Tanna Island, east coast. Alternate names: Napuanmen, Whitsands.  Dialects: Weasisi (Wassisi), Lometimeti.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna 
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Wusi

[wsi] 300 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). West Santo Island. Alternate names: Wusi-Kerepua.  Dialects: Some dialect differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo 
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