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Language Family Trees

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Austronesian  (1257)

Malayo-Polynesian (1237)

Celebic (64)

Eastern (33)

Saluan-Banggai (6)

Eastern (2)

Western (4)

Southeastern (27)

Bungku-Tolaki (15)

Muna-Buton (12)

Kaili-Pamona (16)

Northern (10)

Kaili (8)

Pamona (2)

Southern (6)

Badaic (3)

Rampi  [lje] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Sarudu  [sdu] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Uma  [ppk] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Tomini-Tolitoli (10)

Tolitoli (2)

Boano  [bzl] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Totoli  [txe] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Tomini (8)

Northern (3)

Southern (5)

Wotu-Wolio (5)

Kalao (2)

Kalao  [kly] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Laiyolo  [lji] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Wolio-Kamaru (2)

Kamaru  [kgx] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Wolio  [wlo] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Wotu  [wtw] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Central-Eastern (718)

Central Malayo-Polynesian (169)

Aru (14)

Barakai  [baj] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Batuley  [bay] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Dobel  [kvo] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Karey  [kyd] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Koba  [kpd] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Kola  [kvv] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Kompane  [kvp] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Lola  [lcd] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Lorang  [lrn] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Manombai  [woo] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Mariri  [mqi] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Tarangan, East  [tre] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Tarangan, West  [txn] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Ujir  [udj] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Babar (11)

North (3)

South (8)

Bima-Sumba (27)

Ende-Lio (4)

Anakalangu  [akg] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Bima  [bhp] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Dhao  [nfa] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Kambera  [xbr] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Kepo’  [kuk] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Kodi  [kod] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Komodo  [kvh] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Lamboya  [lmy] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Laura  [lur] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Mamboru  [mvd] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Manggarai  [mqy] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Ngad’a  [nxg] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Ngad’a, Eastern  [nea] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Palu’e  [ple] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Rajong  [rjg] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Rembong  [reb] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Riung  [riu] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Rongga  [ror] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Sabu  [hvn] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

So’a  [ssq] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Wae Rana  [wrx] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Wanukaka  [wnk] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Wejewa  [wew] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Central Maluku (55)

Ambelau (1)

Buru (4)

East (46)

Sula (4)

North Bomberai (4)

Arguni  [agf] (Indonesia (Papua))

Onin  [oni] (Indonesia (Papua))

Sekar  [skz] (Indonesia (Papua))

Uruangnirin  [urn] (Indonesia (Papua))

South Bomberai (1)

Kowiai  [kwh] (Indonesia (Papua))

Southeast Maluku (5)

Kei-Tanimbar (3)

Southern (2)

Teor-Kur (2)

Kur  [kuv] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Teor  [tev] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Timor (49)

Extra-Ramelaic (30)

Flores-Lembata (13)

Ramelaic (6)

West Damar (1)

Damar, West  [drn] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (547)

Oceanic (506)

Admiralty Islands (31)

Central-Eastern Oceanic (227)

St. Matthias (2)

Temotu (9)

Western Oceanic (236)

Yapese (1)

South Halmahera-West New Guinea (41)

South Halmahera (7)

West New Guinea (34)

Hukumina (1)

Hukumina  [huw] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Unclassified (1)

Kuri  [nbn] (Indonesia (Papua))

Chamorro (1)

Chamorro  [cha] (Guam)

Enggano (1)

Enggano  [eno] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Greater Barito (33)

Barito-Mahakam (2)

Ampanang  [apg] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Tunjung  [tjg] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

East (18)

Central-South (5)

Central (1)

South (4)

Malagasy (11)

Bushi  [buc] (Mayotte)

Malagasy, Antankarana  [xmv] (Madagascar)

Malagasy, Bara  [bhr] (Madagascar)

Malagasy, Masikoro  [msh] (Madagascar)

Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka  [bmm] (Madagascar)

Malagasy, Plateau  [plt] (Madagascar)

Malagasy, Sakalava  [skg] (Madagascar)

Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka  [bjq] (Madagascar)

Malagasy, Tandroy-Mahafaly  [tdx] (Madagascar)

Malagasy, Tanosy  [txy] (Madagascar)

Malagasy, Tsimihety  [xmw] (Madagascar)

North (2)

Lawangan  [lbx] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Tawoyan  [twy] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Sama-Bajaw (8)

Abaknon (1)

Inabaknon  [abx] (Philippines)

Sulu-Borneo (7)

Borneo Coast Bajaw (3)

Inner Sulu Sama (3)

Western Sulu Sama (1)

West (5)

North (3)

Kohin  [kkx] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Ot Danum  [otd] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Siang  [sya] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

South (2)

Bakumpai  [bkr] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Ngaju  [nij] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Javanese (5)

Javanese  [jav] (Indonesia (Java and Bali))

Javanese, Caribbean  [jvn] (Suriname)

Javanese, New Caledonian  [jas] (New Caledonia)

Osing  [osi] (Indonesia (Java and Bali))

Tengger  [tes] (Indonesia (Java and Bali))

Lampung (3)

Komering  [kge] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Lampung Api  [ljp] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Lampung Nyo  [abl] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Land Dayak (13)

Bakati’ (3)

Bakati’  [bei] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Bakati’, Rara  [lra] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Bakati’, Sara  [sre] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Bidayuh (4)

Core (3)

Central (1)

Sembaan (1)

Western (1)

Eastern (1)

Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong  [sdo] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Southern (4)

Jangkang  [djo] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Kembayan  [xem] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Ribun  [rir] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Semandang  [sdm] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Benyadu’  [byd] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Sanggau  [scg] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Malayo-Sumbawan (71)

Madurese (2)

Kangean  [kkv] (Indonesia (Java and Bali))

Madura  [mad] (Indonesia (Java and Bali))

North and East (67)

Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa (3)

Sasak-Sumbawa (2)

Bali  [ban] (Indonesia (Java and Bali))

Chamic (11)

Achenese (1)

Coastal (3)

Highlands (7)

Malayic (53)

Ibanic (6)

Kendayan (2)

Malay (45)

Sundanese (2)

Badui  [bac] (Indonesia (Java and Bali))

Sunda  [sun] (Indonesia (Java and Bali))

Moklen (2)

Moken  [mwt] (Myanmar)

Moklen  [mkm] (Thailand)

North Borneo (99)

Melanau-Kajang (11)

Kajang (6)

Bukitan  [bkn] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Kajaman  [kag] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Lahanan  [lhn] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Sekapan  [skp] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Sian  [spg] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Ukit  [umi] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Melanau (5)

Melanau, Central  [mel] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Melanau, Daro-Matu  [dro] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Melanau, Kanowit-Tanjong  [kxn] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Melanau, Sibu  [sdx] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Seru  [szd] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

North Sarawakan (53)

Berawan-Lower Baram (8)

Berawan (3)

Lower Baram (5)

Bintulu (1)

Bintulu  [bny] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Dayic (18)

Kelabitic (6)

Murutic (12)

Kayan-Kenyah (25)

Kayanic (17)

Kenyah (6)

Penan (2)

Punan Tubu (1)

Punan Tubu  [puj] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Rejang-Sajau (5)

Basap  [bdb] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Burusu  [bqr] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Penan, Bah-Biau  [pna] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Punan Merap  [puc] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Sajau Basap  [sjb] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Sabahan (29)

Dusunic (22)

Bisaya (4)

Dusun (17)

Unclassified (1)

Ida’an (1)

Ida’an  [dbj] (Malaysia (Sabah))

Paitanic (6)

Upper Kinabatangan (3)

Abai Sungai  [abf] (Malaysia (Sabah))

Tombonuo  [txa] (Malaysia (Sabah))

Yakan  [yka] (Philippines)

Punan Batu 1  [pnm] (Malaysia (Sarawak))

Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands (12)

Batak (7)

Northern (3)

Batak Alas-Kluet  [btz] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Batak Dairi  [btd] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Batak Karo  [btx] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Simalungan (1)

Batak Simalungun  [bts] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Southern (3)

Batak Angkola  [akb] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Batak Mandailing  [btm] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Batak Toba  [bbc] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Nias (2)

Nias  [nia] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Sikule  [skh] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Gayo  [gay] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Mentawai  [mwv] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Simeulue  [smr] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

Palauan (1)

Palauan  [pau] (Palau)

Philippine (179)

Bashiic (3)

Ivatan (2)

Ibatan  [ivb] (Philippines)

Ivatan  [ivv] (Philippines)

Yami (1)

Yami  [tao] (Taiwan)

Bilic (5)

Blaan (2)

Blaan, Koronadal  [bpr] (Philippines)

Blaan, Sarangani  [bps] (Philippines)

Tboli (1)

Tboli  [tbl] (Philippines)

Giangan  [bgi] (Philippines)

Tiruray  [tiy] (Philippines)

Central Luzon (10)

Pampangan (1)

Pampangan  [pam] (Philippines)

Sambalic (8)

Ayta, Abellen  [abp] (Philippines)

Ayta, Ambala  [abc] (Philippines)

Ayta, Bataan  [ayt] (Philippines)

Ayta, Mag-Anchi  [sgb] (Philippines)

Ayta, Mag-Indi  [blx] (Philippines)

Bolinao  [smk] (Philippines)

Sambal, Botolan  [sbl] (Philippines)

Sambal, Tinà  [xsb] (Philippines)

Sinauna (1)

Sinauna  [agv] (Philippines)

Greater Central Philippine (93)

Central Philippine (47)

Bikol (8)

Bisayan (21)

Mamanwa (1)

Mansakan (9)

Tagalog (2)

Ata  [atm] (Philippines)

Ayta, Sorsogon  [ays] (Philippines)

Ayta, Tayabas  [ayy] (Philippines)

Karolanos  [kyn] (Philippines)

Magahat  [mtw] (Philippines)

Sulod  [srg] (Philippines)

Danao (3)

Magindanao (1)

Maranao-Iranon (2)

Gorontalo-Mongondow (9)

Gorontalic (7)

Mongondowic (2)

Manobo (15)

Central (8)

North (4)

South (3)

Palawanic (7)

Batak  [bya] (Philippines)

Molbog  [pwm] (Philippines)

Palawano, Brooke’s Point  [plw] (Philippines)

Palawano, Central  [plc] (Philippines)

Palawano, Southwest  [plv] (Philippines)

Tagbanwa  [tbw] (Philippines)

Tagbanwa, Central  [tgt] (Philippines)

South Mangyan (4)

Buhid-Taubuid (3)

Hanunoo (1)

Subanon (5)

Eastern (5)

Umiray Dumaget (3)

Agta, Alabat Island  [dul] (Philippines)

Agta, Camarines Norte  [abd] (Philippines)

Agta, Umiray Dumaget  [due] (Philippines)

Kalamian (2)

Agutaynen  [agn] (Philippines)

Tagbanwa, Calamian  [tbk] (Philippines)

Minahasan (5)

North (4)

Northeast (3)

Tontemboan  [tnt] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Tonsawang  [tnw] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

North Mangyan (3)

Alangan  [alj] (Philippines)

Iraya  [iry] (Philippines)

Tadyawan  [tdy] (Philippines)

Northern Luzon (52)

Arta (1)

Arta  [atz] (Philippines)

Ilocano (1)

Ilocano  [ilo] (Philippines)

Meso-Cordilleran (34)

Alta (2)

South-Central Cordilleran (32)

Northern Cordilleran (16)

Cagayan Valley (11)

Northeastern Luzon (5)

Sangiric (5)

Northern (2)

Sangil  [snl] (Philippines)

Sangir  [sxn] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Southern (3)

Bantik  [bnq] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Ratahan  [rth] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Talaud  [tld] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Agta, Villa Viciosa  [dyg] (Philippines)

Rejang (1)

Rejang  [rej] (Indonesia (Sumatra))

South Sulawesi (31)

Bugis (4)

Tamanic (2)

Embaloh  [emb] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Taman  [tmn] (Indonesia (Kalimantan))

Bugis  [bug] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Campalagian  [cml] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Lemolang (1)

Lemolang  [ley] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Makassar (5)

Bentong  [bnu] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Konjo, Coastal  [kjc] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Konjo, Highland  [kjk] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Makasar  [mak] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Selayar  [sly] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Northern (17)

Mamuju (1)

Mamuju  [mqx] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Mandar (1)

Mandar  [mdr] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Masenrempulu (4)

Duri  [mvp] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Enrekang  [ptt] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Maiwa  [wmm] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Malimpung  [mli] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Pitu Ulunna Salu (5)

Aralle-Tabulahan  [atq] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Bambam  [ptu] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Dakka  [dkk] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Pannei  [pnc] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Ulumanda’  [ulm] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Toraja-Sa’dan (6)

Kalumpang  [kli] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Mamasa  [mqj] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Tae’  [rob] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Talondo’  [tln] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Toala’  [tlz] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Toraja-Sa’dan  [sda] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Seko (4)

Panasuan (2)

Budong-Budong  [bdx] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Panasuan  [psn] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Seko Padang  [skx] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Seko Tengah  [sko] (Indonesia (Sulawesi))

Unclassified (3)

Gorap  [goq] (Indonesia (Maluku))

Katabaga  [ktq] (Philippines)

Nasal  [nsy] (Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara))

Language Family Index