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Greek

A language of Greece

ISO 639-3ell

Population  10,700,000 in Greece (2002 census). Population total all countries: 13,084,490.
Region  Widespread, especially in Greek Macedonia. Also in Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bulgaria, Canada, Congo, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Libya, Macedonia, Malawi, Mozambique, Paraguay, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation (Europe), Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey (Europe), Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States.
Language map  Greece and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Alternate names   Ellinika, Graecae, Grec, Greco, Neo-Hellenic, Romaic
Dialects  Katharevousa, Dimotiki, Saracatsan. Katharevousa is an archaic literary dialect, Dimotiki is the spoken literary dialect and now the official dialect. The Saracatsan are nomadic shepherds of northern Greece. The Greek of Italy and that of Corsica are probably separate languages (1992 R. Zamponi). In Cyprus, the dialect is reportedly more similar to Classical Greek [grc] in some vocabulary and grammar than that spoken in Greece, and to have many Arabic and Turkish [tur] loanwords. Lexical similarity: 84%–93% with Greek in Cyprus.
Classification  Indo-European, Greek, Attic
Language use  Official language.
Language development  Fully developed. Bible: 1840–1994.
Writing system  Cyrillic script, used in Ukraine. Greek script.
Comments  Greeks in the Russian Federation and Ukraine speak either Greek or Turkish and are called ‘Urums’. The Karamanli were Orthodox Christian Turks who came from central Turkey. SVO.

Also spoken in:

Albania

Language name   Greek
Population  60,000 in Albania (1989).
Region  South.
 

Cyprus

Language name   Greek
Population  689,000 in Cyprus (2002 census).
Region  Nearly all in south Cyprus.
Language map  Cyprus
Dialects  Cypriot Greek.
Language use  National language.
Comments  Christian.
 

Egypt

Language name   Greek
Population  42,000 in Egypt (2004).
Region  Alexandria.
Language map  Egypt and Libya
 

France

Language name   Greek
Region  Cargese, Corsica.
Dialects  Cargese.
Language use  Shifted to French.
 

Italy

Language name   Greek
Population  20,000 in Italy (Vincent 1987).
Region  South, east of Reggio; Salento (Colimera, Sternatía, Zollino) and Aspromonte (Bova, Condofuri, Palizzi, Roccoforte, Roghudi).
Alternate names  Greco
Dialects  Salento, Aspromonte.
Language use  Mostly older adults.
 

Romania

Language name   Greek
Population  4,150 in Romania (2002 census).
Language use  The Karakatchan are Romanian nomadic shepherds who speak Greek.
 

Turkey (Europe)

Language name   Greek
Population  4,000 in Turkey (1993).
Region  Istanbul City.
Comments  Nearly all Greeks emigrated from Turkey. There were 1,500,000 in Turkey in 1900.
 

Ukraine

Language name   Greek
Population  7,210 in Ukraine (1970 census). Ethnic population: 106,909.
Region  Donetsk Oblast, Mariupol town. 18 villages.
Language map  Ukraine
Dialects  Mariupol Greek (Tavro-Rumeic, Crimeo-Rumeic).
Language use  Most ethnic Greeks speak Russian as L1. Some speak Urum [uum] (Podolsky 1985).