||3,000 (1999 L. Jinfang). 500 monolinguals. Qau 2000, A’ou 1500, Hagei 1700, Duoluo 1200, Tu’lu 1500. Ethnic population: 579,357 (2000 census).
||Guizhou Province, Zunyi, Daozhen Gelao and Miao, Wuchuan Gelao and Miao autonomous counties; southwest Guizhou Province, Anshun, and Bijie prefectures; southeast Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous District Prefecture, Maguan and Malipo counties, and those near Vietnam border; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Baise Prefecture, Longlin PanMultiple-Nationalities Autonomous County; Hunan Province.
||Chilao, Gelo, Ilao, Kehlao, Kelao, Keleo, Khi, Klau, Klo, Lao
||Qau (Gao, Aqao), A’ou (A’uo), Hagei (Hakei, Hakhi), Duoluo (Toluo). Dialects probably not mutually intelligible. Tu’lu is a speech form of uncertain status spoken by Baigelao (White Gelao) people in Yunnan, Wenshan Prefecture, Malipo County. Lexical similarity: 45% with Lu [khb], 40% with Dong [doc], 36% with Lachi [lbt], 32% with Qabiao [laq], 24% with Dong [doc], 22% with Lakkia [lbc], 27%–40% with Hlai [lic], 10%–15% with Hmong Djua [hnj], 5%–15% with Iu Mien [ium].
||Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Yang
||Most domains by older adults. Most are older adults, used about half time by adults, young people use more Chinese; children may not speak it. Positive attitude. About 2,500 also use Hmong Djua, Chinese [cmn], or Vietnamese [vie].
||Literacy rate in L2: 82%.
||Classified as Gelao nationality. SVO; adjectives follow noun head; negative follows predicate but other adverbials precede predicate; only final consonants are alveolar and velar nasals; nasal-stop and some obstruent-lateral onset clusters; tonal, 6 tones. Agriculturalists. Polytheist, traditional religion.