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Chinese, Hakka

A language of China

ISO 639-3hak

Population  25,700,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 30,032,520.
Region  Widespread with other dialects. Eastern and northeastern Guangdong greatest concentration; also in Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, and Sichuan. Also in Brunei, Canada, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Indonesia (Java and Bali), Malaysia (Peninsular), Mauritius, New Zealand, Panama, Singapore, South Africa, Suriname, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States.
Language map  Southern China
Alternate names   Hakka, Hokka, Ke, Kechia, Kejia, Majiahua, Tu Guangdonghua, Xinminhua
Dialects  Yue-Tai (Meixian, Raoping, Taiwan Kejia), Yuezhong (Central Guangdong), Huizhou, Yuebei (Northern Guangdong), Tingzhou (Min-Ke), Ning-Long (Longnan), Yugui, Tonggu. Yue-Tai is standard dialect.
Classification  Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho] (China).
Language development  Literacy rate in L2: 91%. Bible: 1916.
Writing system  Latin script, used in Taiwan.
Comments  Majority classified as Han nationality in China.

Also spoken in:

Brunei

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  5,650 in Brunei (2006).
Alternate names  Hakka
 

Canada

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  5,900 in Canada (2001 census).
Alternate names  Hakka
 

French Guiana

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  5,000 in French Guiana.
Language use  Use is being maintained.
 

French Polynesia

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  19,200 in French Polynesia (1987).
Alternate names  Hakka
Comments  Shifting to Tahitian [tah]. Buddhist, Christian, Chinese traditional religion.
 

Indonesia (Java and Bali)

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  640,000 in Indonesia (1982).
 

Malaysia (Peninsular)

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  1,090,000 in Malaysia (2000).
 

Panama

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  6,000 in Panama (1981 MARC). Ethnic population: 30,000 to 60,000 including Cantonese (1981 MARC).
Region  Panama City, Col√≥n, larger towns of interior.
Language use  Also use Spanish.
Comments  Merchants.
 

Singapore

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  69,000 in Singapore (1980). Ethnic population: 151,000 in Singapore (1993).
Alternate names  Hokka, Ke, Kechia, Kehia, Kek, Khek
 

Suriname

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  7,010 in Suriname (2000). Ethnic population: 12,000 Chinese, including Yue (1971).
 

Taiwan

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  2,370,000 in Taiwan (1993).
Region  Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Miaoli, Pingtung counties. Shi Xien in north and south; Hi-Lu in central, north central.
Language map  Taiwan
Dialects  Hailu (Hoiluk, Hoilluk, Hi-Lu), Sanhsien (Shigen, Shixien, Shi Xien).
Comments  Settled in Taiwan for 200 years. Sanhsien closely resembles Yuetai of Mainland China. Hailu closely resembles Yong-Ting or Yuqui of Mainland China.
 

Thailand

Language name   Chinese, Hakka
Population  58,800 in Thailand (1984).
Region  Cities.
Alternate names  Hakka
Comments  Commerce class.