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A language of Myanmar

ISO 639-3kac

Population  900,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 940,060.
Region  Kachin state. Also in China, United States.
Alternate names   Chingp’o, Chingpaw, Jinghpaw, Kachin
Dialects  Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Hkauri, Gauri), Dzili (Jili), Dulong. Dzili may be a separate language. Hkaku and Kauri are only slightly different than Jingpho. Lexical similarity: 50% with Singhpo [sgp] of India.
Classification  Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho
Language use  Lingua franca for Zaiwa [atb], Lashi [lsi], and Lhao Vo [mhx].
Language development  Literacy rate in L1: 60%–100%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. Newspapers. Radio programs. Films. Dictionary. Bible: 1927.
Writing system  Latin script, Pinyin-based, used in China.
Comments  ‘Kachin’ refers to the cultural rather than the linguistic group. Called ‘Aphu’ or ‘Phu’ by the Rawang people. SOV; adjectives and numbers follow nouns; singular, dual, plural pronouns; tense-lax vowel distinction; tonal, 4 tones with relatively complex sandhi phenomena. Pastoralists; agriculturalists. Polytheist, Buddhist, Christian.

Also spoken in:


Language name   Jingpho
Population  40,000 in China (1999 X. Xu). 50% monolingual. Ethnic population: 132,143 in China (2000 census).
Region  West Yunnan, Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yingjiang, Longchuan, and Ruili counties; Baoshan Prefecture,Tengchong County.
Language map  Southwestern China
Alternate names  Chingp’o, Chingpaw, Dashanhua, Jinghpaw, Jingpo, Kachin, Marip
Dialects  Enkun (Nkhumka, Nkhum), Shidan (Satanka, Xidan), Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Hkauri, Gauri, Kauri, Khauri, Kauzhika), Mengzhi, Dzili (Jili), Dulong.
Language use  Vigorous. Other speakers in the area speak Jingpho as L2. Taught at Kunming Institute. All domains. Positive attitude. Also use Zaiwa [atb], Lashi [lsi], Maru [mhx], or Chinese [cmn]. Chinese used in some secondary schools.
Language development  Literacy rate in L2: 84%.
Comments  In China, classified as Jingpo nationality, which also includes Zaiwa [atb], Maru [mhx], and Lashi [lsi] speakers. Pastoralists; agriculturalists. Polytheist, Buddhist, Christian.

United States

Language name   Jingpho
Population  60 in United States (2000 census). Identified as Kachin by US Census.
Comments  Speakers in USA are classified in the Jingpo nationality, which also includes speakers of Zaiwa [atb], Maru [mhx] and Lashi [lsi].