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Kulung

A language of Nepal

ISO 639-3kle

Population  18,700 in Nepal (2001 census).
Region  Sagarmatha zone, Solu Khumbu District, east hills, Hongu Valley, Mahakulung region, Hongu Khola area, Bumng (Bung), Pilmu, Cheskam Sadhi, Gudel, and Namlu villages; Koshi zone, Sankhuwasawa District, Baliyamnang, Phedi Khola, Wasepla, Mangtewa, Yaphu, Chayeng, Walung, and Sheduwa villages; Terhathum, Panchthar, Ilam districts. Mainly found in drainages of Sangkhuwa and Siswa rivers, which flow into Arun River. Also in some Terai areas. Also in India.
Language map  Eastern Nepal, reference number 52
Alternate names   Kholung, Khulung, Khulunge Rai, Kulu Ring
Dialects  Sotang (Sotaring, Sottaring), Mahakulung, Tamachhang, Pidisoi, Chhapkoa, Pelmung, Namlung, Khambu. 100% intelligibility between Kulung and Sota Ring because only some words are pronounced differently. Related to Sampang [rav] and Nachering [ncd].
Classification  Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Mahakiranti, Kiranti, Eastern
Language use  Most also use some Nepali [nep].
Language development  Literacy rate in L2: 10%–50% adults, 10% women. High motivation for literacy. Dictionary. Grammar.
Writing system  Devanagari script.
Comments  Exogamous clan marriage. The high number of Kulung reflect the tendency of smaller groups to consider themselves Kulung, but they are by origin not Kulung. The Kulung possibly absorb smaller groups. Case, ergative. Agriculturalists: millet, maize; hunters; fishermen. Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist.

Also spoken in:

India

Language name   Kulung
Region  Sikkim; West Bengal, Jalpaiguri District; Uttarakhand, Dehradun; Assam.
Alternate names  Kholung, Khulung, Khulunge Rai, Kulu Ring