||13,600,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 86,000 Bawean. Population total all countries: 13,600,900.
||North coastal area of east Java, Sapudi Islands, Madura Island. Also in Singapore.
Indonesia, Java and Bali
||Basa Mathura, Madhura, Madurese
||Bawean (Boyanese), Bangkalan (Bangkalon), Pamekesan (Pamekasan), Sampang, Sapudi, Sumenep. Dialect continuum. Reports differ about inherent intelligibility among dialects: some Sumenep and Sampang report they cannot understand Pamekasan or Sumenep. Difficult intelligibility with Kangean [kkv]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kangean.
||Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, Madurese
||All domains. East Madurese, especially Sumenep, is considered high, or standard Madurese. Sumenep is isolated culturally and geographically. Bangkalon, spoken in Surabaya, is important economically because that city has most outside contact and commerce. It is highly urbanized and affected by Bahasa Indonesia. Also use Indonesian [ind].
||Literacy rate in L2: 40%. Literacy higher among Bangkalon. Grammar. Bible: 1994.
||Mainly rural. Muslim, Christian.