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Madura

A language of Indonesia (Java and Bali)

ISO 639-3mad

Population  13,600,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 86,000 Bawean. Population total all countries: 13,600,900.
Region  North coastal area of east Java, Sapudi Islands, Madura Island. Also in Singapore.
Language map  Indonesia, Java and Bali
Alternate names   Basa Mathura, Madhura, Madurese
Dialects  Bawean (Boyanese), Bangkalan (Bangkalon), Pamekesan (Pamekasan), Sampang, Sapudi, Sumenep. Dialect continuum. Reports differ about inherent intelligibility among dialects: some Sumenep and Sampang report they cannot understand Pamekasan or Sumenep. Difficult intelligibility with Kangean [kkv]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kangean.
Classification  Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, Madurese
Language use  All domains. East Madurese, especially Sumenep, is considered high, or standard Madurese. Sumenep is isolated culturally and geographically. Bangkalon, spoken in Surabaya, is important economically because that city has most outside contact and commerce. It is highly urbanized and affected by Bahasa Indonesia. Also use Indonesian [ind].
Language development  Literacy rate in L2: 40%. Literacy higher among Bangkalon. Grammar. Bible: 1994.
Writing system  Latin script.
Comments  Mainly rural. Muslim, Christian.

Also spoken in:

Singapore

Language name   Madura
Population  900 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 14,292 (1985).
Alternate names  Madhura, Madurese
Dialects  Bawean (Boyanese).
Comments  Muslim.