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Mongolian, Peripheral

A language of China

ISO 639-3mvf

Population  3,380,000 in China (1982). 2,500,000 are monolingual. Population includes 299,000 Chakhar, 317,000 Bairin, 1,347,000 Khorain, 593,00 Karachin, 123,000 Ordos, 34,000 Ejine.
Region  Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, Urumchi to Hailar. Also in Mongolia.
Language map  China
Alternate names   Inner Mongolian, Menggu, Monggol, Mongol, Southern-Eastern Mongolian
Dialects  Chahar (Chaha’er, Chakhar, Qahar), Ordos (E’erduosite), Tumut (Tumet), Shilingol (Ujumchin), Ulanchab (Urat, Mingan), Jo-Uda (Bairin, Balin, Naiman, Keshikten), Jostu (Ke’erqin, Kharchin, Kharachin, Kharchin-Tumut, Eastern Tumut), Jirim (Kalaqin, Khorchin, Jalait, Gorlos), Ejine. Largely intelligible with Halh Mongolian [khk], but there are phonological and important loanword differences.
Classification  Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper
A member of macrolanguage Mongolian [mon] (Mongolia).
Language use  Official regional language. Language of wider communication. Vigorous. Chinese living in the area can also speak it. All domains. All ages. Positive attitude. Also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. About 70,000 can also speak Uyghur [uig] or Kazakh [kaz]. Written Chinese is in use.
Language development  Literacy rate in L2: 71%. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Magazines. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Grammar. Bible: 2003.
Writing system  Mongolian script. Phags-pa script, no longer in use.
Comments  In China classified as Mongolian nationality. The government includes China Buriat [bxu], Tuva [tyv], Kalmyk-Oirat [xal], and other varieties as Mongolian official nationality. In Xinjiang, Torgut, Oold, Korbet, and Hoshut peoples are known as the ‘Four tribes of Oirat’. SOV. Agriculturalists; pastoralists; animal husbandry. Buddhist (Lamaist), Shamanist.

Also spoken in:


Language name   Mongolian, Peripheral
Alternate names  Southern-Eastern Mongolian
Dialects  Ujumchin (Uzemchin, Ujumuchin), Jostu (Kharchin, Kharachin), Tumut (Tumet), Jirim (Khorchin), Urat, Ordos.
Language use  Also use Halh Mongolian [khk].
Language development  Literacy rate in L2: In Halh Mongolian. Literacy is in Halh [khk].
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