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A language of France

ISO 639-3oci

Population  1,940,000 in France. Population total all countries: 2,048,310.
Region  Auvergne, Gascogne, Languedoc, Limousin, and Provence provinces. Also in Italy, Monaco, Spain.
Language map  Andorra and France
Alternate names   Occitani
Dialects  Auvergnat (Auverne, Auvernhas), Gascon, Languedocien (Langadoc, Languedoc, Lengadoucian), Limousin (Lemosin), Provençal (Mistralien, Provençal, Prouvençau). Highly fragmented dialect situation, with limited intelligibility between some varieties.
Classification  Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc
Language use  Home, (rural) community. All ages. Positive attitude. Also use French.
Language development  Literacy rate in L2: 99%. Poetry. Newspapers. Bible portions: 1583–1983.
Writing system  Latin script.

Also spoken in:


Language name   Occitan
Population  100,000 in Italy (1990 P. Blanchet).
Region  Italian Piedmont upper valleys (Val Mairo, Val Varacho, Val d’Esturo, Entraigas, Limoun, Vinai, Pignerol, Sestriero); Calabria, Guardia Piemontese.
Alternate names  Provençal, Provenzale
Dialects  Provençal.
Language use  All ages. Also use Piemontese [pms] or Italian.


Language name   Occitan
Population  4,500 in Monaco (1988).
Dialects  Provencal.
Comments  Come from Nice and Cannes.


Language name   Gascon, Aranese
Population  3,810 in Spain (1991 census). Ethnic population: 5,552 (1991).
Region  Pyrenees Mountains, Catalonia Autonomous region, Aran Valley, northwest corner, Garona River headwaters.
Language map  Portugal and Spain
Alternate names  Aranés, Aranese, Aranese Occitán, Arnais, Gascón
Dialects  Baish Aranés, Mijaranés Aranés, Naut Aranés.
Language use  Officially recognized. The Center of Linguistic Normalization is dedicated to promotion of its use. Official language within the valley. Spelling standardized. 60% of the valley’s inhabitants always or usually speak Aranese; over 10% speak it as L2; 1,283 understand but do not speak it. Vigorous. Most domains. All ages. Also use French, Spanish, Catalan [cat], or Occitan [oci].
Language development  Literacy rate in L1: 51% read Aranese; 18.6% write it (1991). Literacy rate in L2: Nearly 100% in Spanish, 50% in Catalan. Taught regularly in school since 1984.
Comments  Called ‘Aranese’ in France; influenced by Catalan and Spanish more than French.
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