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Panjabi, Eastern

A language of India

ISO 639-3pan

Population  27,100,000 in India. 26,975,000 Panjabi, 134,000 Bhatneri (1991). Population total all countries: 28,163,600.
Region  Punjab, Majhi in Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts, South Firozpur District, Bhatyiana; Rajasthan, north Ganganagar District, Bhatyiana; Haryana; Delhi; Jammu and Kashmir. Also in Bangladesh, Canada, Fiji, Kenya, Libya, Malaysia (Peninsular), Mauritius, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States.
Alternate names   Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi, Punjabi
Dialects  Panjabi Proper, Majhi, Doab, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Powadhi, Malwa, Bathi. Western Panjabi [pnb] is distinct from Eastern Panjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu) [urd]. Bhatyiana dialect considered a mixture of Panjabi and Marwari [mve].
Classification  Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Panjabi
Language use  Official language.
Language development  Radio programs. Grammar. Bible: 1959–2002.
Writing system  Devanagari script. Gurmukhi script.
Comments  Associated with Sikhs. Different from Majhi [mjz] in India and Nepal. Sikh, Muslim (Bhatneri). Sikh, Muslim (Bhatneri).

Also spoken in:


Language name   Panjabi, Eastern
Population  10,000 in Kenya (1995 SIL), increasing.
Region  Nairobi.
Alternate names  Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi, Punjabi
Dialects  Panjabi Proper.
Language use  Closed community. GIDS 5. Home, social gatherings. All ages. Positive attitude. Also use Kiswahili [swh] or English for business.
Comments  Most came to Kenya with the building of the railroad at the turn of the 20th century. Sikh, Hindu, Muslim.


Language name   Panjabi, Eastern
Population  9,500 in Singapore (1987). Ethnic population: 14,000 (1993).
Comments  Sikh.