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Romani, Vlax

A language of Romania

ISO 639-3rmy

Population  242,000 in Romania (2002 census). 6,000,000 to 11,000,000 Gypsies in the world (1987 Ian Hancock). Population total all countries: 885,970.
Region  Also in Albania, Argentina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation (Europe), Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States.
Alternate names   Danubian, Gypsy, Romanese, Tsigene, Vlax Romany
Dialects  Sedentary Romania, Kalderash (Kelderashícko, Coppersmith), Ukraine-Moldavia, Eastern, Churari (Churarícko, Sievemakers), Lovari (Lovarícko), Machvano (Machvanmcko), North Albanian, South Albanian, Serbo-Bosnian, Zagundzi, Sedentary Bulgaria, Ghagar, Grekurja (Greco). Kalderash, Ursari, Churari are occupational ethnonyms; Machvano is a geographical one. Other names are Argintari ‘silversmith’ and Lingurari ‘spoonmakers’. Machvano and Serbian Kalderash have south Slavic superstratum; Russian Kalderash influenced by east Slavic, mainly Russian; Lovari influenced by Hungarian [hun]; Grekurja is probably Turkish [tur] influenced, distinct from Greek Romani dialect of Balkan Romani [rmn]. All 20 or more Vlax dialects are inherently intelligible; differences are mainly lexical and sociolinguistic (I. Hancock).
Classification  Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax
A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom] (Romania).
Language development  Grammar. NT: 1984–1995.
Writing system  Cyrillic script. Latin script.
Comments  Ethnic groups: Chache, Kalderari, Lovári. The people are called ‘Roma’. Christian.

Also spoken in:

Albania

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  60,000 in Albania (1991).
Dialects  Southern Vlax Romani.
Comments  Ethnic groups are Mechkaria, Kurtofia, Chergaria, and Kabuzia. Christian.
 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  400,000 in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2004).
Alternate names  Danubian, Gypsy, Tsigene, Vlax
Dialects  Serbo-Bosnian (Machwaya, Machvano), Kalderash, Southern Vlax.
Comments  Vlax and Kalderash are understood by the Lovari. Ethnic group: Gurbéti. Christian.
 

Bulgaria

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  500 in Bulgaria.
Comments  Christian.
 

Colombia

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  79,000 in Colombia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Several hundred thousand in Latin America (1984 I. Hancock).
Comments  Christian.
 

France

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  10,000 in France. 8,000 Kalderash, 2,000 Lovari.
Alternate names  Rom, Romenes, Tsigane, Vlax
Dialects  Kalderash, Lovari.
Comments  Christian.
 

Germany

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  5,750 in Germany. 2,500 Lovari, 2,500 to 4,000 Kalderash.
Dialects  Lovari, Kalderash.
Comments  Christian.
 

Greece

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  1,000 in Greece.
Alternate names  Romanés, Tsingani
Dialects  Lovari.
Language use  Settled Gypsies also use Greek [ell].
Comments  They call the nonsettled Gypsies ‘Yifti’. Distinct from Rumanovlach, a variety of Rumanian. Christian.
 

Italy

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  4,000 in Italy. 1,000 to 3,000 Kalderash, 1,000 Lovari.
Dialects  Kalderash, Lovari.
Comments  Christian.
 

Netherlands

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  1,000 in Netherlands. 500 Kalderash, 500 Lovari.
Dialects  Kalderash, Lovari.
Language use  Official language.
Comments  Christian.
 

Norway

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  500 in Norway (Johnstone 1993). 3,500 ethnicGypsies in Norway.
Dialects  Lovari.
Language development  Literacy rate in L1: 30%–60%. Literacy rate in L2: 75%–100%.
Comments  Christian.
 

Poland

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  5,000 in Poland.
Dialects  Lovari.
Comments  Christian.
 

Portugal

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  500 in Portugal.
Dialects  Kalderash.
Comments  Christian.
 

Russian Federation (Europe)

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  10,000 in Russian Federation. Ethnic population: 182,766.
Region  Odessa, Transcarpathia.
Alternate names  Kalderash
Dialects  Central Vlax Romani, Kalderash.
Comments  Vlax from the former USSR called ‘Rusurja’. Ethnic groups: Sárvi (left-bank Ukraine), Volóxuja (right-bank Ukraine), Chache (Moldavia), Kalderari (Moldavia, Ukraine, Odessa, Transcarpathia), Lovári (Ukraine). About 300,000 Gypsies from the former USSR speak a variety of Romani, Lomavren, or Domari as L1 or L2 (Gunnemark and Kenrick). Christian.
 

Slovakia

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  500 in Slovakia.
Dialects  Lovari, Kalderash (Kaldarári).
Comments  Vlax from Hungary and Slovakia are called ‘Romungre’. Christian.
 

Sweden

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  1,500 in Sweden. 500 Kalderash, 1,000 Lovari.
Alternate names  Zigenare
Dialects  Kalderash, Lovari.
Comments  Christian.
 

Ukraine

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Region  East and west, Odessa, Transcarpathia.
Dialects  Ukrainian Vlax Romani, Central Vlax Romani, Kalderash.
Comments  Vlax from the former USSR are called ‘Rusurja’. Ethnic groups: Sárvi (left-bank Ukraine), Volóxuja (right-bank Ukraine), Chache (Moldavia), Kalderari (Moldavia, Ukraine, Odessa, Transcarpathia), Lovári (Ukraine). Christian.
 

United Kingdom

Language name   Romani, Vlax
Population  4,100 in United Kingdom (2004).
Alternate names  Rom, Romenes, Tsigane
Dialects  Kalderash, Lovari.
Comments  Christian.