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Turkmen

A language of Turkmenistan

ISO 639-3tuk

Population  3,430,000 in Turkmenistan (1995). Population total all countries: 6,562,810. Ethnic population: 3,465,000 (1995).
Region  Also in Afghanistan, Germany, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russian Federation (Asia), Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey (Asia), United States, Uzbekistan.
Language map  Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
Alternate names   Trukhmen, Trukhmeny, Turkmani, Turkmanian, Turkmenler, Turkomans
Dialects  Nokhurli, Anauli, Khasarli, Nerezim, Yomud, Teke (Tekke), Goklen, Salyr, Saryq, Esari, Cawdur.
Classification  Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian
Language use  National language. Also use Russian.
Language development  Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1880–1982.
Writing system  Arabic script, used in Afghanistan and Iran. Cyrillic script, used in Afghanistan. Latin script.
Comments  ‘Turkmen’ in Syria, and possibly Iraq and Jordan, actually speak an ancient form of Turkmen; so-called ‘Turkmen’ in Tibet may speak a different Turkic language. Agriculturalists: cotton; animal husbandry: sheep; carpet weavers; gas, oil workers. Muslim (Sunni).

Also spoken in:

Afghanistan

Language name   Turkmen
Population  500,000 in Afghanistan (1995).
Region  Turkmenistan border, Fariab and Badghis provinces; Herat City, Andkhoi town.
Language map  Afghanistan
Alternate names  Trukmen, Turkman, Turkoman
Dialects  Salor, Teke (Tekke, Chagatai, Jagatai), Ersari, Sariq, Yomut.
Language use  Also use Southern Pashto [pbt].
Language development  Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25%.
Comments  Refugee group in Kabul. Those called ‘Turkomen’ in Syria are Azerbaijani speakers. Sharp dialect differences. Probably mainly Ersari dialect in Afghanistan. Nomadic, cultivators, pastoralists; Persian lamb export, Persian rugs. Muslim (Hanafi Sunni), traditional religion.
 

Iran

Language name   Turkmen
Population  2,000,000 in Iran (1997).
Region  Northeast, Mazanderan Province, Turkmenistan border area, Gonbad-e Kavus and Pahlavi Dezh.
Alternate names  Torkomani
Dialects  Anauli, Khasarli, Nerezim, Nokhurli (Nohur), Chavdur, Esari (Esary), Goklen (Goklan), Salyr, Saryq, Teke (Tekke), Yomud (Yomut), Trukmen.
Language use  Most also use Western Farsi [pes].
Comments  Not a literary language in Iran. Many are seminomadic. Ethnic groups: Yomut, Goklan. Agriculturalists: cotton, wheat, barley; animal husbandry: cattle. Muslim (Hanafi Sunni and Shi’a).
 

Turkey (Asia)

Language name   Turkmen
Population  920 in Turkey (1982).
Region  Tokat Province.
Alternate names  Trukhmen
Comments  Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Muslim (Sunni).