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Malay

A language of Malaysia (Peninsular)

ISO 639-3zlm

Population  8,880,000 in Malaysia. 10 million in Peninsular Malaysia, 505,800 in Sarawak, and 30,000 in Labuan. Population total all countries: 10,296,000.
Region  Widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, parts of Sarawak. Also in Canada, Indonesia (Sumatra), Myanmar, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United States.
Language maps  Malaysia - Peninsular, reference number 18
Alternate names   Colloquial Malay, Local Malay, Malayu
Dialects  Coastal Terengganu, Inland Terengganu, Kelantan, Pahang, Southeast Island, Orang Hulu, Orang Kuala, Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor, Sarawak (Sarawak Malay), Tamiang, Deli, Riau Mainland, Lubu, Akit, Sakai, Riau islands, coastal Jambi, Belitung, Northwestern Kalimantan, Upstream Western Kalimantan, Southwestern Coastal Kalimantan. Kedah Malay [meo], Negeri Sembilan Malay [zmi], Jakun [jak], Duano [dup], Orang Kanaq [orn], Orang Seletar [ors], Temuan [tmw], Sabah Malay [msi], and Burnei [kxd], are so closely related that they may one day be included as dialects of Malay [zlm].
Classification  Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay
A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa] (Malaysia).
Language use  3,000,000 L2 speakers. Also use Standard Malay [zsm], English.
Language development  Radio programs. TV. Bible: 1733–1996.
Writing system  Arabic script. Latin script.
Comments  This language entry refers to a loose collection of ‘local’ or ‘vernacular’ Malay varieties not well differentiated from each other, and other varieties for which further research is needed to clarify differentiation from mainstream dialects. Distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Indonesian [ind] or Standard Malay [zsm] by sociolinguistic status as vernaculars, and other linguistic features. SVO. Agriculturalists: wet and dry rice, rubber, fruits, vegetables; fishermen. Muslim (Sunni).

Also spoken in:

Indonesia (Sumatra)

Language name   Malay
Population  905,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 3,965,000 in Sumatra (100,000 in Belitung, 1,825,000 in Riau, 2,000,000 Deli, Asahan etc. in North Sumatra and 40,000 Tamiang in Aceh), and 940,000 in Kalimantan (primarily Pontianak, Sambas and Ketapang).
Region  Primarily coastal regions of central and north Sumatra and western Kalimantan.
Language maps  Indonesia, Sumatra, reference number 26
Indonesia, Sumatra, reference number 26
Alternate names  Malayu, Bahasa Melayu, Bahasa Daerah
Dialects  Tamiang, Riau mainland, Deli, Belitung, Akit, Sakai, Riau islands, coastal Jambi, Sambas, Landak, Pontianak, Sukadana, Ketapang, Sanggau, Sintang, Sekadau, Kapuas Hulu, Sintang.
Comments  This language entry refers to a loose collection of numerous ‘local’ or ‘vernacular’ Malay varieties not well differentiated from each other, as well as varieties for which further research is required to clarify differentiation from more mainstream dialects. Distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Indonesian [ind] or Standard Malay [zsm] by sociolinguistic status as vernaculars, as well as by various linguistic features. Muslim (Sunni).
 

Singapore

Language name   Malay
Population  396,000 in Singapore (1985).
Alternate names  Colloquial Malay, Local Malay, Malayu
Dialects  Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor.
Language use  Ethnic groups who speak Malay: Malay 339,000, 85%; Javanese 21,000, 5%; Indians 14,000, 3.5%; Bawean Madurese 14,000, 3.5%; Arabs 2,500, Below 1%; Bugis 500, Below 1%. English used at home by 7%. Also use Standard Malay [zsm], English.
Comments  Local Malay [zlm] in Singapore is distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Malay [zsm] by its sociolinguistic status as a vernacular, as well as by various linguistic features. Muslim (Sunni), Christian.