A language of India

Alternate Names
Abadi, Abohi, Ambodhi, Avadhi, Baiswari, Kojali, Kosali

2,530,000 in India (2001 census). Population total all countries: 3,032,000.


Uttar Pradesh state: Kheri, Sitapur, Lucknow, Unnao, Rae-Bareli, Bahraich, Bara-Banki, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur, Gonda, Faizabad, and Allahabad districts; Bihar; Madhya Pradesh state; Delhi.

Language Status

5 (Developing).


Gangapari, Mirzapuri, Pardesi, Uttari. Dialects are generally mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: with Bhojpuri [bho], Rana Tharu [thr], Maithili [mai], Nepali [npi], Hindi [hin]. Also Sanskrit [san] borrowings.


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; 2 genders; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person, number and genders of subject and object; no ergativity; tense and aspect; passives and voice; 30 consonant and 8 vowel phonemes; nontonal.

Language Use

Also use Hindi [hin].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 50%–75%. Education is in Hindi. Considerable epic literature. Hindu holy book, Ramcharitmanas, by Tulsi Das. Poetry. Magazines. Newspapers. New media. Radio programs. TV. Videos. Dictionary. Bible: 2000–2005.

Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

‘Kosali’ is a name used for the Eastern Hindi group. Hindu, Muslim.

Also spoken in:

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