Alternate Names
“Gupallao” (pej.), Saipan Carolinian, Southern Carolinian

2,420 in Northern Mariana Islands (2000 census). Population total all countries: 2,610. 0 monolinguals.


Saipan and Agrihan islands.

Language Status

4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1978, Constitution, Article 22(3)), co-official with English [eng] and Chamorro [cha].


None known. Lexical similarity: 95% with Carolinian and Satawalese [stw], 88% with Woleaian [woe] and Puluwatese [puw], 81% with Mortlockese [mrl], 78% with Chuukese [chk], and 74% with Ulithian [uli].

Language Use

All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. All on Saipan also use Chamorro [cha]. Many speakers over age 50 speak it with a high level of proficiency. 100% also use English [eng].

Language Development
L1 taught, but English is language of instruction. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Newspapers. Videos. Dictionary.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

1 of 3 official languages in Northern mariana Islands (with English [eng] and Chamorro [cha]). Ethnic autonym: Refalúwasch, people of our islands. Christian (Roman Catholic).