A language of Spain

Alternate Names
Català, Catalán, Catalan-Valencian-Balear, Catalonian, Valencian

3,750,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 4,079,420. L2 users: 5,150,000 in Spain (European Commission 2012).


Catalonia, Valenciana,Balearic Islands, and Aragon autonomous communities; Carche region, Murcia autonomous community.

Language Status

2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Valencia Autonomous Community (1982, Autonomy Act, No. 9, 1982, Article 7), Valencian in local laws. Statutory provincial language in Aragon Autonomous Community (1982, Autonomy Act, No. 8, 1982, Article 7), LAPAO (Eastern Aragonese) in local laws. Statutory provincial language in Catalonia Autonomous Community (1979, Autonomy Act, No. 4, 1979, Article 3(2,5)).


Algherese, Balearic (Balear, Eivissenc, Insular Catalan, Mallorqui, Menorqui, Menorquin), Catalan-Rousillonese (Northern Catalan), Central Catalan, Northwestern Catalan (Aiguavivan, Eastern Aragonese, Lleidatà, Pallarese, Ribagorçan), Valencian (Valencià, Valenciano). Standardized variety is a literary composite of several dialects and written form is most similar to Barcelona speech. Pallarese and Ribogorçan dialects less similar to standard Catalan. Benasquese and Aiguavivan people live in isolated valleys and have distinct phonology from their neighbors. Tortosin may be more similar to Valencian. Central Catalan has 90% to 95% inherent intelligibility for speakers of Valencian (1989 R. Hall, Jr.). Lexical similarity: 87% with Italian [ita], 85% with Portuguese [por] and Spanish [spa], 76% with Ladin [lld], 75% with Sardinian [src], 73% with Romanian [ron].

Language Use

All domains. All ages. Also use Logudorese Sardinian [src]. Also use French [fra], Italian [ita], Occitan [oci], Spanish [spa]. Used as L2 by Aranese Gascon [oci].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 60%. Literacy rate in L2: 96%. High literacy in Catalan (60%) is recent. Pallarese and Ribogorçan speakers have less education, less contact with the standard, and live in high valleys of the Pyrenees. Some Valencian desire separate literature. Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1478–1993.

Latin script [Latn].

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